DRIVE SYSTEMS DRIVE SYSTEMS. Assoc. Prof. Dr. H. İbrahim OKUMUŞ. Karadeniz Technical University


 Oswin Harmon
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 DRIVE SYSTEMS Assoc. Prof. Dr. H. İbrahim OKUMUŞ Engineering Faculty Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department 1
2 Contents of the course : Drive systems Conventional electric drives Modern electric drives (With power electronic converters) Components in electric drives Components in electric drives Overview of AC and DC drives Classification of IM drives Elementary principles of mechanics Motor steady state torquespeed characteristic Load steady state torquespeed characteristic Thermal considerations Torquespeed quadrant of operation DC motor drives AC motor drives 2
3 References 1. Vas P., "Sensorless Vector and Direct Torque Control", 1998, Oxford University Press 2. Mohan N., Undeland T.M., Robbins W.P., " Power Electronics; Converters, Applications and Design", 1995, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 3. Wildi T., "Electrical Machines, Drives, and Power Systems", 1991, Sperika Enterprises Ltd. 4. Pillai S.K. "Fist Course on Electrical Drives", 1982, Wiley Eastern LTD 5. Hancock N.N, "Elektrik Power Utilization ", 1967, Si Isaac Pitman and Sons Ltd. 6. Bose B.K., "Power Electronics and AC Drives", 1986, Printice Hall 7. Dubley G.K., "Power Semiconductor Controlled Drives", 1989, Printice Hall 8. Subrahmanyam V., "Thyristor Control of Electric Drives", 1986, Tata McGrawHill 9. Murphy J.M., "Thyristor Control of AC Motors", 1973, Pergamon Press 10. Sen P.C., "Thyristor DC Drives", 1981, John Willey and Sons Ltd. 11. Gross H., "Electrical Drives for Machine Tools", 1983, Siemens 12. Halıcı Kemal, "Elektrik Motorlari ile Tahrik", 1969, Yildiz Universitesi 13. Unalan E., "Elektrikle Tahrik", 1967, ITU 14. Kaynak O., "Tahr'k Sistemleri", 1986, Bogazici Universitesi 15. Badur O., "Elektrik Kumanda Devreleri", 1978, MEB Yayini 16. Asik E., "Bantli Konveyorler", TMMOB Makine Muhendisleri Odasi Yayini (Yayin No:98) 17. Akpınar S., Sürücü Sistemleri Ders Notları 18. Okumuş H. İ., Sürücü Düzenekleri Ders Notları 19. Allahverdiyev Z., Elektrikte Tahrik Ders Notları 3
4 Course web page: notlar12
5 Electrical Drives Drives are systems employed for motion control Require prime movers Drives that employ electric motors as prime movers are known as Electrical Drives
6 Electrical Drives About 50% of electrical energy used for drives Can be either used for fixed speed or variable speed 75%  constant speed, 25% variable speed (expanding) MEP 1522 will be covering variable speed drives
7 Example on VSD application Constant speed Variable Speed Drives Supply motor valve pump Power In Power out Power loss Mainly in valve
8 Example on VSD application Constant speed Variable Speed Drives valve Supply motor pump Supply PEC motor pump Power In Power out Power In Power out Power loss Mainly in valve Power loss
9 Example on VSD application Constant speed Variable Speed Drives valve Supply motor pump Supply PEC motor pump Power In Power out Power In Power out Power loss Mainly in valve Power loss
10 Conventional electric drives (variable speed) Bulky Inefficient inflexible
11 Modern electric drives (With power electronic converters) Small Efficient Flexible
12 Modern electric drives Utility interface Renewable energy Machine design Speed sensorless Machine Theory Interdisciplinary Several research area Expanding Nonlinear control Realtime control DSP application PFC Speed sensorless Power electronic converters
13 Components in electric drives e.g. Single drive  sensorless vector control from Hitachi
14 Components in electric drives e.g. Multidrives system from ABB
15 Components in electric drives Motors DC motors  permanent magnet wound field AC motors induction, synchronous (IPMSM, SMPSM), brushless DC Applications, cost, environment Power sources DC batteries, fuel cell, photovoltaic  unregulated AC Single three phase utility, wind generator  unregulated Power processor To provide a regulated power supply Combination of power electronic converters More efficient Flexible Compact ACDC DCDC DCAC ACAC
16 Components in electric drives Control unit Complexity depends on performance requirement analog noisy, inflexible, ideally has infinite bandwidth. digital immune to noise, configurable, bandwidth is smaller than the analog controller s DSP/microprocessor flexible, lower bandwidth  DSPs perform faster operation than microprocessors (multiplication in single cycle), can perform complex estimations
17 Overview of AC and DC drives Extracted from Boldea & Nasar
18 Overview of AC and DC drives DC motors: Regular maintenance, heavy, expensive, speed limit Easy control, decouple control of torque and flux AC motors: Less maintenance, light, less expensive, high speed Coupling between torque and flux variable spatial angle between rotor and stator flux
19 Overview of AC and DC drives Before semiconductor devices were introduced (<1950) AC motors for fixed speed applications DC motors for variable speed applications After semiconductor devices were introduced (1950s) Variable frequency sources available AC motors in variable speed applications Coupling between flux and torque control Application limited to medium performance applications fans, blowers, compressors scalar control High performance applications dominated by DC motors tractions, elevators, servos, etc
20 Overview of AC and DC drives After vector control drives were introduced (1980s) AC motors used in high performance applications elevators, tractions, servos AC motors favorable than DC motors however control is complex hence expensive Cost of microprocessor/semiconductors decreasing predicted 30 years ago AC motors would take over DC motors
21 Classification of IM drives (Buja, Kamierkowski, Direct torque control of PWM inverterfed AC motors  a survey, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2004.
22 Elementary principles of mechanics v x Newton s law F m M F f F m F f d Mv dt Linear motion, constant M v 2 d d x Fm Ff M M 2 dt dt Ma First order differential equation for speed Second order differential equation for displacement
23 Elementary principles of mechanics Rotational motion T e, m T l J  Normally is the case for electrical drives T e T l d J dt m With constant J, T e T l J d dt m J d 2 dt 2 First order differential equation for angular frequency (or velocity) Second order differential equation for angle (or position)
24 torque (Nm) DRIVE SYSTEMS speed (rad/s) Elementary principles of mechanics For constant J, d J dt d dt m m T e d Tl J dt Torque dynamic present during speed transient Angular acceleration (speed) m The larger the net torque, the faster the acceleration is Doç.Dr. H. İbrahim OKUMUŞ Drive 0.22 Systems Web: 10 5
25 Elementary principles of mechanics Combination of rotational and translational motions r F l M F e r T e, T l v F e F l dv M dt T e = r(f e ), T l = r(f l ), v =r T e T l r 2 d M dt r 2 M  Equivalent moment inertia of the linearly moving mass
26 Elementary principles of mechanics effect of gearing Motors designed for high speed are smaller in size and volume Low speed applications use gear to utilize high speed motors Motor T e m Load 1, T l1 m1 n 1 J 2 J 1 n 2 m2 Load 2, T l2
27 Elementary principles of mechanics effect of gearing Motor T e m Load 1, T l1 m1 n 1 J 2 m2 J 1 n 2 Load 2, T l2 Motor T e m Equivalent Load, T lequ J equ J 1 a 2 2 J T lequ = T l1 + a 2 T l2 2 J equ a 2 = n 1 /n 2
28 SPEED Motor steady state torquespeed characteristic Synchronous mch Induction mch Separately / shunt DC mch Series DC TORQUE By using power electronic converters, the motor characteristic can be change at will
29 Load steady state torquespeed characteristic Frictional torque (passive load) SPEED T~ 2 T~ C T~ Exist in all motorload drive system simultaneously In most cases, only one or two are dominating Exists when there is motion TORQUE Coulomb friction Viscous friction Friction due to turbulent flow
30 Load steady state torquespeed characteristic Constant torque, e.g. gravitational torque (active load) SPEED Gravitational torque Vehicle drive TORQUE T e T L gm F L T L = rf L = r g M sin
31 Load steady state torquespeed characteristic Hoist drive Speed Torque Gravitational torque
32 Load and motor steady state torque At constant speed, T e = T l Steady state speed is at point of intersection between T e and T l of the steady state torque characteristics Torque T e T l Steady state speed r3 r1 r r2 Speed
33 Torque and speed profile speed (rad/s) 100 Speed profile t (ms) The system is described by: T e T load = J(d/dt) + B J = 0.01 kgm2, B = 0.01 Nm/rads1 and T load = 5 Nm. What is the torque profile (torque needed to be produced)?
34 Torque and speed profile speed (rad/s) 100 T d J dt B e T l t (ms) 0 < t <10 ms Te = 0.01(0) (0) + 5 Nm = 5 Nm 10ms < t <25 ms Te = 0.01(100/0.015) +0.01( t) + 5 = ( t) Nm 25ms < t< 45ms Te = 0.01(0) (100) + 5 = 6 Nm 45ms < t < 60ms Te = 0.01(100/0.015) ( t) + 5 = t
35 Torque and speed profile speed (rad/s) 100 Speed profile Torque (Nm) t (ms) torque profile t (ms)
36 Torque and speed profile Torque (Nm) 70 J = kgm2, B = 0.1 Nm/rads1 and T load = 5 Nm t (ms) 65 For the same system and with the motor torque profile given above, what would be the speed profile?
37 Thermal considerations Unavoidable power losses causes temperature increase Insulation used in the windings are classified based on the temperature it can withstand. Motors must be operated within the allowable maximum temperature Sources of power losses (hence temperature increase):  Conductor heat losses (i 2 R)  Core losses hysteresis and eddy current  Friction losses bearings, brush windage
38 Thermal considerations Electrical machines can be overloaded as long their temperature does not exceed the temperature limit Accurate prediction of temperature distribution in machines is complex hetrogeneous materials, complex geometrical shapes Simplified assuming machine as homogeneous body Ambient temperature, T o p 1 Input heat power (losses) Thermal capacity, C (Ws/ o C) Surface A, (m 2 ) Surface temperature, T ( o C) p 2 Emitted heat power (convection)
39 Thermal considerations Power balance: dt C dt p 1 p 2 Heat transfer by convection: p2 A(T T o ), where is the coefficient of heat transfer Which gives: d 1 T dt A T C p C With T(0) = 0 and p 1 = p h = constant, T ph A 1 e t /, where C A
40 Thermal considerations T p h A ph T A 1 e t / Heating transient T(0) T t T T(0) e t / Cooling transient t
41 Thermal considerations The duration of overloading depends on the modes of operation: Continuous duty Load torque is constant Continuous over extended duty period multiple Steady state temperature Short reached time intermittent duty Periodic intermittent duty Nominal output power chosen equals or exceeds continuous load T p 1n p 1n A Losses due to continuous load t
42 Thermal considerations Short time intermittent duty Operation considerably less than time constant, Motor allowed to cool before next cycle Motor can be overloaded until maximum temperature reached
43 Thermal considerations Short time intermittent duty p 1s p 1 p1n T p 1s A T max p 1n A t 1 t
44 Thermal considerations Short time intermittent duty T p p 1s 1n 1 p A1 e p1 n p1s t1/ t 1 / 1n p1s 1 1e e t / A 1 t 1 T max p 1n A T p A 1s t / 1 e t 1 t
45 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty Load cycles are repeated periodically Motors are not allowed to completely cooled Fluctuations in temperature until steady state temperature is reached
46 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty p1 heating coolling heating coolling heating coolling t
47 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty Example of a simple case p 1 rectangular periodic pattern p p n = 100kW, nominal power M = 800kg = 0.92, nominal efficiency T = 50 o C, steady state temperature rise due to p n 1 p o pn 1 9kW Also, A 180 W / C T 50 1 If we assume motor is solid iron of specific heat c FE =0.48 kws/kg o C, thermal capacity C is given by C = c FE M = 0.48 (800) = 384 kws/ o C Finally, thermal time constant = /180 = 35 minutes
48 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty Example of a simple case p 1 rectangular periodic pattern For a duty cycle of 30% (period of 20 mins), heat losses of twice the nominal, x 10 4
49 Torquespeed quadrant of operation 2 T ve +ve P m ve T +ve 1 +ve P m +ve T 3 4 T ve ve P m +ve T +ve ve P m ve
50 4quadrant operation m T e m T e Direction of positive (forward) speed is arbitrary chosen Direction of positive torque will produce positive (forward) speed Quadrant 2 Forward braking Quadrant 3 Reverse motoring Quadrant 1 Forward motoring Quadrant 4 Reverse braking T e T m T e m
51 Ratings of converters and motors Torque Transient torque limit Power limit for transient torque Continuous torque limit Power limit for continuous torque Maximum speed limit Speed
52 Steadystate stability
53 DC MOTOR DRIVES
54 Contents Introduction Trends in DC drives Principles of DC motor drives Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phasecontrolled Rectifier DCDC converter (Switchmode) Modeling of DC motor Closedloop speed control Cascade Control Structure Closedloop speed control  an example Torque loop Speed loop Summary
55 INTRODUCTION DC DRIVES: Electric drives that use DC motors as the prime movers DC motor: industry workhorse for decades Dominates variable speed applications before PE converters were introduced Will AC drive replaces DC drive? Predicted 30 years ago DC strong presence easy control huge numbers AC will eventually replace DC at a slow rate
56 Introduction DC Motors Advantage: Precise torque and speed control without sophisticated electronics Several limitations: Regular Maintenance Heavy Sparking Expensive Speed limitations
57 Introduction DC Motors  2 pole Rotor Stator
58 Introduction DC Motors  2 pole X X Armature reaction Armature mmf produces flux which distorts main flux produce by field X X X Mechanical commutator to maintain armature current direction
59 Introduction Armature reaction Flux at one side of the pole may saturate Zero flux region shifted Flux saturation, effective flux per pole decreases Armature mmf distorts field flux Large machine employs compensation windings and interpoles
60 Introduction R a L a L f R f + i a + i f + V t _ e a _ V f _ v t R a i a L di a dt e a v f R f i f L di f dt Te k t i a Electric torque e a k E Armature back e.m.f.
61 Introduction Armature circuit: V t R a i a L di a dt e a In steady state, V t R a I a E a Therefore steady state speed is given by, k V T t k 2 Three possible methods of speed control: R a T T Field flux Armature voltage V t Armature resistance Ra e
62 Introduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Vt k T T L Varying V t V t Requires variable DC supply T e
63 Introduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Vt k T T L Varying V t V t Requires variable DC supply T e
64 Introduction V t (k T ) RaTe k T Varying V t T L Constant T L Requires variable DC supply T e
65 Introduction V t V t V t (k T (k ) T ) I RaTe k a T R a Varying V t V t,rated Constant T L I a R a base
66 Introduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Varying R a Vt k T T L R a Simple control Losses in external resistor T e
67 Introduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Varying Vt k T T L Not possible for PM motor Maximum torque capability reduces T e
68 Introduction Armature voltage control : retain maximum torque capability Field flux control (i.e. flux reduced) : reduce maximum torque capability For wide range of speed control 0 to base armature voltage, above base field flux reduction Armature voltage control Field flux control T e Maximum Torque capability base
69 Introduction T e Maximum Torque capability base
70 Introduction P T e Constant torque Constant power P max base 0 to base armature voltage, above base field flux reduction P = E a I a,max = k a I a,max P max = E a I a,max = k a base I a,max 1/
71 MODELING OF CONVERTERS AND DC MOTOR POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS Used to obtain variable armature voltage Efficient Ideal : lossless Phasecontrolled rectifiers (AC DC) DCDC switchmode converters(dc DC)
72 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phasecontrolled rectifier (AC DC) 3phase supply + V t i a Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 T
73 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phasecontrolled rectifier 3 phase supply + V t 3phase supply Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T
74 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phasecontrolled rectifier F1 R1 3phase supply R2 + V a  F2 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T
75 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phasecontrolled rectifier (continuous current) Firing circuit firing angle control Establish relation between v c and V t i ref +  current controller v c firing circuit controlled rectifier + V t
76 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phasecontrolled rectifier (continuous current) Firing angle control linear firing angle control v t 180 v c v v c t 180 V a 2V m v c cos 180 v t Cosinewave crossing control v c v cos s V a 2V m v v c s
77 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phasecontrolled rectifier (continuous current) Steady state: linear gain amplifier Cosine wave crossing method Transient: sampler with zero order hold converter T G H (s) T 10 ms for 1phase 50 Hz system 3.33 ms for 3phase 50 Hz system
78 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phasecontrolled rectifier (continuous current) T d Output voltage Control signal Cosinewave crossing T d Delay in average output voltage generation 0 10 ms for 50 Hz single phase system
79 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phasecontrolled rectifier (continuous current) Model simplified to linear gain if bandwidth (e.g. current loop) much lower than sampling frequency Low bandwidth limited applications Low frequency voltage ripple high current ripple undesirable
80 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters T1 + V t  Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T
81 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters T1 T2 D1 D2 + V t  Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 Q1 T1 and D2 T Q2 D1 and T2
82 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters T1 D1 + V t  D3 T3 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T T4 D4 D2 T2
83 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters Switching at high frequency Reduces current ripple Increases control bandwidth Suitable for high performance applications
84 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters  modeling + V dc V dc v tri v c q 1 q 0 when v c > v tri, upper switch ON when v c < v tri, lower switch ON
85 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters averaged model T tri v c q d d 1 T tri t T t tri qdt t T on tri V dc V t V t 1 T tri dt 0 tri V dc dt dv dc
86 V tri,p Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters averaged model d V tri,p v c d 0.5 v 2V c tri,p V t 0.5V dc V 2V dc tri,p v c
87 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters small signal model V t (s) V 2V dc tri,p v c (s) 2quadrant converter V t (s) V V dc tri,p v c (s) 4quadrant converter
88 Modeling of Converters and DC motor DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet v t i a R a L a di a dt e a T e T l J d dt m T e = k t i a e e = k t Extract the dc and ac components by introducing small perturbations in V t, i a, e a, T e, T L and m ac components ~ ~ di v~ dt ~ T ~ k ( i ) a t ia R ~ a L a e a e~ e e k E E a ( ~ ) dc components V t I a R T k e a E I E a E e k E a T ~ e T ~ L B ~ d( ~ ) J dt B( ) T e T L
89 Modeling of Converters and DC motor DC motor small signal model Perform Laplace Transformation on ac components ~ ~ di v~ dt a t ia R ~ a L a e a V t (s) = I a (s)r a + L a sia + E a (s) T ~ e k E ~ ( i a ) T e (s) = k E I a (s) e~ e k E ( ~ ) E a (s) = k E (s) T ~ e T ~ L B ~ d( ~ ) J dt T e (s) = T L (s) + B(s) + sj(s)
90 Modeling of Converters and DC motor DC motor small signal model T l (s) (s) Va R a sl a  I a (s) T e (s) k 1 (s ) T + B sj k E
91 Cascade control structure CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL position speed controller controller + + * * T* torque controller converter Motor tacho k T The control variable of inner loop (e.g. torque) can be limited by limiting its reference value It is flexible outer loop can be readily added or removed depending on the control requirements 1/s
92 CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL Design procedure in cascade control structure Inner loop (current or torque loop) the fastest largest bandwidth The outer most loop (position loop) the slowest smallest bandwidth Design starts from torque loop proceed towards outer loops
93 CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL Closedloop speed control an example OBJECTIVES: Fast response large bandwidth Minimum overshoot good phase margin (>65 o ) Zero steady state error very large DC gain BODE PLOTS METHOD Obtain linear small signal model Design controllers based on linear small signal model Perform large signal simulation for controllers verification
94 CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL Closedloop speed control an example Permanent magnet motor s parameters Ra = 2 B = 1 x10 4 kg.m 2 /sec k e = 0.1 V/(rad/s) V d = 60 V La = 5.2 mh J = 152 x 10 6 kg.m 2 k t = 0.1 Nm/A V tri = 5 V f s = 33 khz PI controllers Switching signals from comparison of v c and triangular waveform
95 CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL Torque controller design v tri q T c + Torque controller + V dc q k t DC motor T e (s) +  Torque controller Converter V V dc tri,peak V a (s) R a sl a T l (s) I a (s) T (s) k e  1 (s ) T B sj + k E
96 Phase (deg) DRIVE SYSTEMS Magnitude (db) CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL Torque controller design Openloop gain 150 Bode Diagram From: Input Point To: Output Point compensated k pt = 90 k it = compensated Frequency (rad/sec)
97 CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL Speed controller design Assume torque loop unity gain for speed bandwidth << Torque bandwidth * + Speed T* 1 T 1 controller B sj Torque loop
98 Phase (deg) DRIVE SYSTEMS Magnitude (db) CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL Speed controller Openloop gain 150 Bode Diagram From: Input Point To: Output Point 100 k ps = compensated k is = compensated Frequency (Hz)
99 CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL Large Signal Simulation results Speed Torque
100 CLOSEDLOOP SPEED CONTROL DESIGN EXAMPLE SUMMARY Speed control by: armature voltage (0 b ) and field flux ( b ) Power electronics converters to obtain variable armature voltage Phase controlled rectifier small bandwidth large ripple Switchmode DCDC converter large bandwidth small ripple Controller design based on linear small signal model Power converters  averaged model DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet Closedloop speed control design based on Bode plots Verify with large signal simulation
ELECTRİC DRİVE SYSTEMS AND MATLAB APPLICATIONS
EECTRİC DRİVE SYSTEMS AND MATAB Assist. Pof. D. H. İbahim OKUMUŞ Engineeing Faculty Electical & Electonics Engineeing Depatment (D. Nik Rumzi Nik Idis in des notlaından alınmıştı) 1 Contents 1. Intoduction
More informationBALDOR ELECTRIC COMPANY SERVO CONTROL FACTS A HANDBOOK EXPLAINING THE BASICS OF MOTION
BALDOR ELECTRIC COMPANY SERVO CONTROL FACTS A HANDBOOK EXPLAINING THE BASICS OF MOTION MN1205 TABLE OF CONTENTS TYPES OF MOTORS.............. 3 OPEN LOOP/CLOSED LOOP..... 9 WHAT IS A SERVO..............
More informationOverview of Missile Flight Control Systems
Overview of Missile Flight Control Systems Paul B. Jackson he flight control system is a key element that allows the missile to meet its system performance requirements. The objective of the flight control
More informationDirect Back EMF Detection Method for Sensorless Brushless DC. (BLDC) Motor Drives. Jianwen Shao. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the
Direct Back EMF Detection Method for Sensorless Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drives by Jianwen Shao Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and the State University in partial
More informationPower Control with Thyristors and Triacs
CHAPTER 6 Power Control with Thyristors and Triacs 6.1 Using Thyristors and Triacs 6.2 Thyristor and Triac Applications 6.3 HiCom Triacs 485 Using Thyristors and Triacs 487 6.1.1 Introduction to Thyristors
More informationPOWER LOSS RIDETHROUGH IN A VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE SYSTEM
POWER LOSS RIDETHROUGH IN A VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE SYSTEM Copyright Material PCIC Europe Paper No. PCIC Europe AM7 Tino Wymann ABB MV Drives Austrasse, 53 Turgi Switzerland Abstract  Voltage dips or power
More informationHALL EFFECT SENSING AND APPLICATION
HALL EFFECT SENSING AND APPLICATION MICRO SWITCH Sensing and Control 7DEOHRI&RQWHQWV Chapter 1 Hall Effect Sensing Introduction... 1 Hall Effect Sensors... 1 Why use the Hall Effect... 2 Using this Manual...
More informationPower Transmission and Distribution. High Voltage Direct Current Transmission Proven Technology for Power Exchange
Power Transmission and Distribution High Voltage Direct Current Transmission Proven Technology for Power Exchange 2 Contents Chapter Theme Page Contents 3 1 Why High Voltage Direct Current? 4 2 Main Types
More informationSolidstate soft start motor controller and starter
Supersedes February 2005 Solidstate soft start motor Contents Description Page Description Page Introduction.... 2 About this guide.... 2 Basic motor and soft start theory.... 2 Introduction.... 2 AC
More informationAutomatic Gain Control (AGC) in Receivers
Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in Receivers Iulian Rosu, YO3DAC / VA3IUL http://www.qsl.net/va3iul/ AGC was implemented in first radios for the reason of fading propagation (defined as slow variations in
More informationSliding Mode Control Applied To UPS Inverter Using Norm of the State Error
Sliding Mode Control Applied To UPS Inverter Using Norm of the State Error Hamza A. M. Makhamreh Submitted to the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
More informationSensing and Control. A Process Control Primer
Sensing and Control A Process Control Primer Copyright, Notices, and Trademarks Printed in U.S.A. Copyright 2000 by Honeywell Revision 1 July 2000 While this information is presented in good faith and
More informationACADEMIC TEXTBOOK FLUID POWER CONTROL SYSTEMS. The lecture: 15 hours. Kielce University of Technology Faculty of Mechatronics and Machine Design
ACADEMIC TEXTBOOK FLUID POWER CONTROL SYSTEMS The lecture: 15 hours Kielce University of Technology Faculty of Mechatronics and Machine Design Author: Ryszard Dindorf Kielce, 2011/2012 1. Fluid power basic
More informationApplication Note AN1077
PFC Converter Design with R50 One Cycle Control C By R. Brown, M. Soldano, nternational Rectifier Table of Contents Page ntroduction... One Cycle Control for PFC Applications... R50 Detailed Description...3
More informationMagnetron Theory of Operation
Magnetron Theory of Operation Theory of Operation A magnetron is a high power microwave oscillator in which the potential energy of an electron cloud near the cathode is converted into r.f. energy in a
More informationThe Effect Of Repair/Rewinding On Motor Efficiency
The Effect Of Repair/Rewinding On Motor Efficiency EASA/AEMT Rewind Study and Good Practice Guide To Maintain Motor Efficiency AEMT Electrical Apparatus Service Association, Inc. 1331 Baur Boulevard St.
More informationThe What, Where and Why of RealTime Simulation
37 The What, Where and Why of Real Simulation J. Bélanger, Member, IEEE, P. Venne, Student Member, IEEE, and J.N. Paquin, Member, IEEE Abstract Simulation tools have been widely used for the design
More informationPID Control. 6.1 Introduction
6 PID Control 6. Introduction The PID controller is the most common form of feedback. It was an essential element of early governors and it became the standard tool when process control emerged in the
More informationDOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 4 of 4
DOEHDBK1011/492 JUNE 1992 DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 4 of 4 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 FSC6910 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release;
More informationCONDITION MONITORING AND FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING MOTOR CURRENT SIGNATURE ANALYSIS
CONDITION MONITORING AND FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING MOTOR CURRENT SIGNATURE ANALYSIS A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY BY NEELAM MEHALA (REGISTRATION NO.
More informationCurrent Loop Tuning Procedure. Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) General Procedure AN015
Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) The standard tuning values used in ADVANCED Motion Controls drives are conservative and work well in over 90%
More informationSelecting Current Transformers Part 1 By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E.
By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E. Introduction: As engineers, we are aware that electrical power systems have grown. How much have they grown? When was the last time you specified a 2400volt system, a 4160volt
More information13. Electrical network design methodology and application example
873 13. Electrical network design methodology and application example 874 13. ELECTRICAL NETWORK DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATION EXAMPLE The profitability of an industrial installation is directly linked
More informationW08 Sensors and Measurement (2/2) Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören
W08 Sensors and Measurement (2/2) Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören ELK 2018  Contents W01 Basic Concepts in Electronics W02 AC to DC Conversion W03 Analysis of DC Circuits (self and condenser) W04 Transistors
More informationDESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A SINGLESIDED AXIAL FLUX PERMANENT MAGENT INWHEEL MOTOR WITH NON OVERLAP CONCENTRATED WINDING
DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A SINGLESIDED AXIAL FLUX PERMANENT MAGENT INWHEEL MOTOR WITH NON OVERLAP CONCENTRATED WINDING H Kierstead, RJ Wang and M J Kamper University of Stellenbosch, Department of Electrical
More informationHighSpeed Digital System Design A Handbook of Interconnect Theory and Design Practices
HighSpeed Digital System Design A Handbook of Interconnect Theory and Design Practices Stephen H. Hall Garrett W. Hall James A. McCall A WileyInterscience Publication JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. New York
More informationThe Most Frequently Asked Questions About Thermoelectric Cooling
2006,Tellurex Corporation 1462 International Drive Traverse City, Michigan 49684 2319470110 www.tellurex.com The Most Frequently Asked Questions About Thermoelectric Cooling 1. How does this technology
More informationA Power Converter for Photovoltaic Applications
A Power Converter for Photovoltaic Applications Björn Lindgren Department of Electric Power Engineering CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Göteborg, Sweden 000 i A Power Converter for Photovoltaic Applications
More informationSELECTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS & WIRE SIZING IN SUBSTATIONS. Sethuraman Ganesan ABB Inc. Allentown, PA
SELECTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS & WIRE SIZING IN SUBSTATIONS Sethuraman Ganesan ABB Inc. Allentown, PA ABSTRACT More and more substations are retrofitted with numerical relays, meters and monitoring
More informationUser Guide. Programming instructions for Models EZHR17EN, EZHR23ENHC, and EZ4AXIS
User Guide Programming instructions for Models EZHR17EN, EZHR23ENHC, and EZ4AXIS Command Set document A50 Manual revision 1.0 May 2, 2011 Important Notices Life and Safety Policy AllMotion, Inc. products
More information