DRIVE SYSTEMS DRIVE SYSTEMS. Assoc. Prof. Dr. H. İbrahim OKUMUŞ. Karadeniz Technical University

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1 DRIVE SYSTEMS Assoc. Prof. Dr. H. İbrahim OKUMUŞ Engineering Faculty Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department 1

2 Contents of the course : Drive systems Conventional electric drives Modern electric drives (With power electronic converters) Components in electric drives Components in electric drives Overview of AC and DC drives Classification of IM drives Elementary principles of mechanics Motor steady state torque-speed characteristic Load steady state torque-speed characteristic Thermal considerations Torque-speed quadrant of operation DC motor drives AC motor drives 2

3 References 1. Vas P., "Sensorless Vector and Direct Torque Control", 1998, Oxford University Press 2. Mohan N., Undeland T.M., Robbins W.P., " Power Electronics; Converters, Applications and Design", 1995, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 3. Wildi T., "Electrical Machines, Drives, and Power Systems", 1991, Sperika Enterprises Ltd. 4. Pillai S.K. "Fist Course on Electrical Drives", 1982, Wiley Eastern LTD 5. Hancock N.N, "Elektrik Power Utilization ", 1967, Si Isaac Pitman and Sons Ltd. 6. Bose B.K., "Power Electronics and AC Drives", 1986, Printice Hall 7. Dubley G.K., "Power Semiconductor Controlled Drives", 1989, Printice Hall 8. Subrahmanyam V., "Thyristor Control of Electric Drives", 1986, Tata McGrawHill 9. Murphy J.M., "Thyristor Control of AC Motors", 1973, Pergamon Press 10. Sen P.C., "Thyristor DC Drives", 1981, John Willey and Sons Ltd. 11. Gross H., "Electrical Drives for Machine Tools", 1983, Siemens 12. Halıcı Kemal, "Elektrik Motorlari ile Tahrik", 1969, Yildiz Universitesi 13. Unalan E., "Elektrikle Tahrik", 1967, ITU 14. Kaynak O., "Tahr'k Sistemleri", 1986, Bogazici Universitesi 15. Badur O., "Elektrik Kumanda Devreleri", 1978, MEB Yayini 16. Asik E., "Bantli Konveyorler", TMMOB Makine Muhendisleri Odasi Yayini (Yayin No:98) 17. Akpınar S., Sürücü Sistemleri Ders Notları 18. Okumuş H. İ., Sürücü Düzenekleri Ders Notları 19. Allahverdiyev Z., Elektrikte Tahrik Ders Notları 3

4 Course web page: notlar12

5 Electrical Drives Drives are systems employed for motion control Require prime movers Drives that employ electric motors as prime movers are known as Electrical Drives

6 Electrical Drives About 50% of electrical energy used for drives Can be either used for fixed speed or variable speed 75% - constant speed, 25% variable speed (expanding) MEP 1522 will be covering variable speed drives

7 Example on VSD application Constant speed Variable Speed Drives Supply motor valve pump Power In Power out Power loss Mainly in valve

8 Example on VSD application Constant speed Variable Speed Drives valve Supply motor pump Supply PEC motor pump Power In Power out Power In Power out Power loss Mainly in valve Power loss

9 Example on VSD application Constant speed Variable Speed Drives valve Supply motor pump Supply PEC motor pump Power In Power out Power In Power out Power loss Mainly in valve Power loss

10 Conventional electric drives (variable speed) Bulky Inefficient inflexible

11 Modern electric drives (With power electronic converters) Small Efficient Flexible

12 Modern electric drives Utility interface Renewable energy Machine design Speed sensorless Machine Theory Inter-disciplinary Several research area Expanding Non-linear control Real-time control DSP application PFC Speed sensorless Power electronic converters

13 Components in electric drives e.g. Single drive - sensorless vector control from Hitachi

14 Components in electric drives e.g. Multidrives system from ABB

15 Components in electric drives Motors DC motors - permanent magnet wound field AC motors induction, synchronous (IPMSM, SMPSM), brushless DC Applications, cost, environment Power sources DC batteries, fuel cell, photovoltaic - unregulated AC Single- three- phase utility, wind generator - unregulated Power processor To provide a regulated power supply Combination of power electronic converters More efficient Flexible Compact AC-DC DC-DC DC-AC AC-AC

16 Components in electric drives Control unit Complexity depends on performance requirement analog- noisy, inflexible, ideally has infinite bandwidth. digital immune to noise, configurable, bandwidth is smaller than the analog controller s DSP/microprocessor flexible, lower bandwidth - DSPs perform faster operation than microprocessors (multiplication in single cycle), can perform complex estimations

17 Overview of AC and DC drives Extracted from Boldea & Nasar

18 Overview of AC and DC drives DC motors: Regular maintenance, heavy, expensive, speed limit Easy control, decouple control of torque and flux AC motors: Less maintenance, light, less expensive, high speed Coupling between torque and flux variable spatial angle between rotor and stator flux

19 Overview of AC and DC drives Before semiconductor devices were introduced (<1950) AC motors for fixed speed applications DC motors for variable speed applications After semiconductor devices were introduced (1950s) Variable frequency sources available AC motors in variable speed applications Coupling between flux and torque control Application limited to medium performance applications fans, blowers, compressors scalar control High performance applications dominated by DC motors tractions, elevators, servos, etc

20 Overview of AC and DC drives After vector control drives were introduced (1980s) AC motors used in high performance applications elevators, tractions, servos AC motors favorable than DC motors however control is complex hence expensive Cost of microprocessor/semiconductors decreasing predicted 30 years ago AC motors would take over DC motors

21 Classification of IM drives (Buja, Kamierkowski, Direct torque control of PWM inverter-fed AC motors - a survey, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2004.

22 Elementary principles of mechanics v x Newton s law F m M F f F m F f d Mv dt Linear motion, constant M v 2 d d x Fm Ff M M 2 dt dt Ma First order differential equation for speed Second order differential equation for displacement

23 Elementary principles of mechanics Rotational motion T e, m T l J - Normally is the case for electrical drives T e T l d J dt m With constant J, T e T l J d dt m J d 2 dt 2 First order differential equation for angular frequency (or velocity) Second order differential equation for angle (or position)

24 torque (Nm) DRIVE SYSTEMS speed (rad/s) Elementary principles of mechanics For constant J, d J dt d dt m m T e d Tl J dt Torque dynamic present during speed transient Angular acceleration (speed) m The larger the net torque, the faster the acceleration is Doç.Dr. H. İbrahim OKUMUŞ Drive 0.22 Systems Web: 10 5

25 Elementary principles of mechanics Combination of rotational and translational motions r F l M F e r T e, T l v F e F l dv M dt T e = r(f e ), T l = r(f l ), v =r T e T l r 2 d M dt r 2 M - Equivalent moment inertia of the linearly moving mass

26 Elementary principles of mechanics effect of gearing Motors designed for high speed are smaller in size and volume Low speed applications use gear to utilize high speed motors Motor T e m Load 1, T l1 m1 n 1 J 2 J 1 n 2 m2 Load 2, T l2

27 Elementary principles of mechanics effect of gearing Motor T e m Load 1, T l1 m1 n 1 J 2 m2 J 1 n 2 Load 2, T l2 Motor T e m Equivalent Load, T lequ J equ J 1 a 2 2 J T lequ = T l1 + a 2 T l2 2 J equ a 2 = n 1 /n 2

28 SPEED Motor steady state torque-speed characteristic Synchronous mch Induction mch Separately / shunt DC mch Series DC TORQUE By using power electronic converters, the motor characteristic can be change at will

29 Load steady state torque-speed characteristic Frictional torque (passive load) SPEED T~ 2 T~ C T~ Exist in all motor-load drive system simultaneously In most cases, only one or two are dominating Exists when there is motion TORQUE Coulomb friction Viscous friction Friction due to turbulent flow

30 Load steady state torque-speed characteristic Constant torque, e.g. gravitational torque (active load) SPEED Gravitational torque Vehicle drive TORQUE T e T L gm F L T L = rf L = r g M sin

31 Load steady state torque-speed characteristic Hoist drive Speed Torque Gravitational torque

32 Load and motor steady state torque At constant speed, T e = T l Steady state speed is at point of intersection between T e and T l of the steady state torque characteristics Torque T e T l Steady state speed r3 r1 r r2 Speed

33 Torque and speed profile speed (rad/s) 100 Speed profile t (ms) The system is described by: T e T load = J(d/dt) + B J = 0.01 kg-m2, B = 0.01 Nm/rads-1 and T load = 5 Nm. What is the torque profile (torque needed to be produced)?

34 Torque and speed profile speed (rad/s) 100 T d J dt B e T l t (ms) 0 < t <10 ms Te = 0.01(0) (0) + 5 Nm = 5 Nm 10ms < t <25 ms Te = 0.01(100/0.015) +0.01( t) + 5 = ( t) Nm 25ms < t< 45ms Te = 0.01(0) (100) + 5 = 6 Nm 45ms < t < 60ms Te = 0.01(-100/0.015) ( t) + 5 = t

35 Torque and speed profile speed (rad/s) 100 Speed profile Torque (Nm) t (ms) torque profile t (ms)

36 Torque and speed profile Torque (Nm) 70 J = kg-m2, B = 0.1 Nm/rads-1 and T load = 5 Nm t (ms) -65 For the same system and with the motor torque profile given above, what would be the speed profile?

37 Thermal considerations Unavoidable power losses causes temperature increase Insulation used in the windings are classified based on the temperature it can withstand. Motors must be operated within the allowable maximum temperature Sources of power losses (hence temperature increase): - Conductor heat losses (i 2 R) - Core losses hysteresis and eddy current - Friction losses bearings, brush windage

38 Thermal considerations Electrical machines can be overloaded as long their temperature does not exceed the temperature limit Accurate prediction of temperature distribution in machines is complex hetrogeneous materials, complex geometrical shapes Simplified assuming machine as homogeneous body Ambient temperature, T o p 1 Input heat power (losses) Thermal capacity, C (Ws/ o C) Surface A, (m 2 ) Surface temperature, T ( o C) p 2 Emitted heat power (convection)

39 Thermal considerations Power balance: dt C dt p 1 p 2 Heat transfer by convection: p2 A(T T o ), where is the coefficient of heat transfer Which gives: d 1 T dt A T C p C With T(0) = 0 and p 1 = p h = constant, T ph A 1 e t /, where C A

40 Thermal considerations T p h A ph T A 1 e t / Heating transient T(0) T t T T(0) e t / Cooling transient t

41 Thermal considerations The duration of overloading depends on the modes of operation: Continuous duty Load torque is constant Continuous over extended duty period multiple Steady state temperature Short reached time intermittent duty Periodic intermittent duty Nominal output power chosen equals or exceeds continuous load T p 1n p 1n A Losses due to continuous load t

42 Thermal considerations Short time intermittent duty Operation considerably less than time constant, Motor allowed to cool before next cycle Motor can be overloaded until maximum temperature reached

43 Thermal considerations Short time intermittent duty p 1s p 1 p1n T p 1s A T max p 1n A t 1 t

44 Thermal considerations Short time intermittent duty T p p 1s 1n 1 p A1 e p1 n p1s t1/ t 1 / 1n p1s 1 1e e t / A 1 t 1 T max p 1n A T p A 1s t / 1 e t 1 t

45 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty Load cycles are repeated periodically Motors are not allowed to completely cooled Fluctuations in temperature until steady state temperature is reached

46 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty p1 heating coolling heating coolling heating coolling t

47 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty Example of a simple case p 1 rectangular periodic pattern p p n = 100kW, nominal power M = 800kg = 0.92, nominal efficiency T = 50 o C, steady state temperature rise due to p n 1 p o pn 1 9kW Also, A 180 W / C T 50 1 If we assume motor is solid iron of specific heat c FE =0.48 kws/kg o C, thermal capacity C is given by C = c FE M = 0.48 (800) = 384 kws/ o C Finally, thermal time constant = /180 = 35 minutes

48 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty Example of a simple case p 1 rectangular periodic pattern For a duty cycle of 30% (period of 20 mins), heat losses of twice the nominal, x 10 4

49 Torque-speed quadrant of operation 2 T -ve +ve P m -ve T +ve 1 +ve P m +ve T 3 4 T -ve -ve P m +ve T +ve -ve P m -ve

50 4-quadrant operation m T e m T e Direction of positive (forward) speed is arbitrary chosen Direction of positive torque will produce positive (forward) speed Quadrant 2 Forward braking Quadrant 3 Reverse motoring Quadrant 1 Forward motoring Quadrant 4 Reverse braking T e T m T e m

51 Ratings of converters and motors Torque Transient torque limit Power limit for transient torque Continuous torque limit Power limit for continuous torque Maximum speed limit Speed

52 Steady-state stability

53 DC MOTOR DRIVES

54 Contents Introduction Trends in DC drives Principles of DC motor drives Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phase-controlled Rectifier DC-DC converter (Switch-mode) Modeling of DC motor Closed-loop speed control Cascade Control Structure Closed-loop speed control - an example Torque loop Speed loop Summary

55 INTRODUCTION DC DRIVES: Electric drives that use DC motors as the prime movers DC motor: industry workhorse for decades Dominates variable speed applications before PE converters were introduced Will AC drive replaces DC drive? Predicted 30 years ago DC strong presence easy control huge numbers AC will eventually replace DC at a slow rate

56 Introduction DC Motors Advantage: Precise torque and speed control without sophisticated electronics Several limitations: Regular Maintenance Heavy Sparking Expensive Speed limitations

57 Introduction DC Motors - 2 pole Rotor Stator

58 Introduction DC Motors - 2 pole X X Armature reaction Armature mmf produces flux which distorts main flux produce by field X X X Mechanical commutator to maintain armature current direction

59 Introduction Armature reaction Flux at one side of the pole may saturate Zero flux region shifted Flux saturation, effective flux per pole decreases Armature mmf distorts field flux Large machine employs compensation windings and interpoles

60 Introduction R a L a L f R f + i a + i f + V t _ e a _ V f _ v t R a i a L di a dt e a v f R f i f L di f dt Te k t i a Electric torque e a k E Armature back e.m.f.

61 Introduction Armature circuit: V t R a i a L di a dt e a In steady state, V t R a I a E a Therefore steady state speed is given by, k V T t k 2 Three possible methods of speed control: R a T T Field flux Armature voltage V t Armature resistance Ra e

62 Introduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Vt k T T L Varying V t V t Requires variable DC supply T e

63 Introduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Vt k T T L Varying V t V t Requires variable DC supply T e

64 Introduction V t (k T ) RaTe k T Varying V t T L Constant T L Requires variable DC supply T e

65 Introduction V t V t V t (k T (k ) T ) I RaTe k a T R a Varying V t V t,rated Constant T L I a R a base

66 Introduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Varying R a Vt k T T L R a Simple control Losses in external resistor T e

67 Introduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Varying Vt k T T L Not possible for PM motor Maximum torque capability reduces T e

68 Introduction Armature voltage control : retain maximum torque capability Field flux control (i.e. flux reduced) : reduce maximum torque capability For wide range of speed control 0 to base armature voltage, above base field flux reduction Armature voltage control Field flux control T e Maximum Torque capability base

69 Introduction T e Maximum Torque capability base

70 Introduction P T e Constant torque Constant power P max base 0 to base armature voltage, above base field flux reduction P = E a I a,max = k a I a,max P max = E a I a,max = k a base I a,max 1/

71 MODELING OF CONVERTERS AND DC MOTOR POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS Used to obtain variable armature voltage Efficient Ideal : lossless Phase-controlled rectifiers (AC DC) DC-DC switch-mode converters(dc DC)

72 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phase-controlled rectifier (AC DC) 3-phase supply + V t i a Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 T

73 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phase-controlled rectifier 3- phase supply + V t 3-phase supply Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T

74 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phase-controlled rectifier F1 R1 3-phase supply R2 + V a - F2 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T

75 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current) Firing circuit firing angle control Establish relation between v c and V t i ref + - current controller v c firing circuit controlled rectifier + V t

76 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current) Firing angle control linear firing angle control v t 180 v c v v c t 180 V a 2V m v c cos 180 v t Cosine-wave crossing control v c v cos s V a 2V m v v c s

77 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current) Steady state: linear gain amplifier Cosine wave crossing method Transient: sampler with zero order hold converter T G H (s) T 10 ms for 1-phase 50 Hz system 3.33 ms for 3-phase 50 Hz system

78 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current) T d Output voltage Control signal Cosine-wave crossing T d Delay in average output voltage generation 0 10 ms for 50 Hz single phase system

79 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Phase-controlled rectifier (continuous current) Model simplified to linear gain if bandwidth (e.g. current loop) much lower than sampling frequency Low bandwidth limited applications Low frequency voltage ripple high current ripple undesirable

80 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters T1 + V t - Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T

81 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters T1 T2 D1 D2 + V t - Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 Q1 T1 and D2 T Q2 D1 and T2

82 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters T1 D1 + V t - D3 T3 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T T4 D4 D2 T2

83 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters Switching at high frequency Reduces current ripple Increases control bandwidth Suitable for high performance applications

84 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters - modeling + V dc V dc v tri v c q 1 q 0 when v c > v tri, upper switch ON when v c < v tri, lower switch ON

85 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters averaged model T tri v c q d d 1 T tri t T t tri qdt t T on tri V dc V t V t 1 T tri dt 0 tri V dc dt dv dc

86 -V tri,p Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters averaged model d V tri,p v c d 0.5 v 2V c tri,p V t 0.5V dc V 2V dc tri,p v c

87 Modeling of Converters and DC motor Switch mode converters small signal model V t (s) V 2V dc tri,p v c (s) 2-quadrant converter V t (s) V V dc tri,p v c (s) 4-quadrant converter

88 Modeling of Converters and DC motor DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet v t i a R a L a di a dt e a T e T l J d dt m T e = k t i a e e = k t Extract the dc and ac components by introducing small perturbations in V t, i a, e a, T e, T L and m ac components ~ ~ di v~ dt ~ T ~ k ( i ) a t ia R ~ a L a e a e~ e e k E E a ( ~ ) dc components V t I a R T k e a E I E a E e k E a T ~ e T ~ L B ~ d( ~ ) J dt B( ) T e T L

89 Modeling of Converters and DC motor DC motor small signal model Perform Laplace Transformation on ac components ~ ~ di v~ dt a t ia R ~ a L a e a V t (s) = I a (s)r a + L a sia + E a (s) T ~ e k E ~ ( i a ) T e (s) = k E I a (s) e~ e k E ( ~ ) E a (s) = k E (s) T ~ e T ~ L B ~ d( ~ ) J dt T e (s) = T L (s) + B(s) + sj(s)

90 Modeling of Converters and DC motor DC motor small signal model T l (s) (s) Va R a sl a - I a (s) T e (s) k 1 (s ) T + B sj k E

91 Cascade control structure CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL position speed controller controller + + * * T* torque controller converter Motor tacho k T The control variable of inner loop (e.g. torque) can be limited by limiting its reference value It is flexible outer loop can be readily added or removed depending on the control requirements 1/s

92 CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL Design procedure in cascade control structure Inner loop (current or torque loop) the fastest largest bandwidth The outer most loop (position loop) the slowest smallest bandwidth Design starts from torque loop proceed towards outer loops

93 CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL Closed-loop speed control an example OBJECTIVES: Fast response large bandwidth Minimum overshoot good phase margin (>65 o ) Zero steady state error very large DC gain BODE PLOTS METHOD Obtain linear small signal model Design controllers based on linear small signal model Perform large signal simulation for controllers verification

94 CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL Closed-loop speed control an example Permanent magnet motor s parameters Ra = 2 B = 1 x10 4 kg.m 2 /sec k e = 0.1 V/(rad/s) V d = 60 V La = 5.2 mh J = 152 x 10 6 kg.m 2 k t = 0.1 Nm/A V tri = 5 V f s = 33 khz PI controllers Switching signals from comparison of v c and triangular waveform

95 CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL Torque controller design v tri q T c + Torque controller + V dc q k t DC motor T e (s) + - Torque controller Converter V V dc tri,peak V a (s) R a sl a T l (s) I a (s) T (s) k e - 1 (s ) T B sj + k E

96 Phase (deg) DRIVE SYSTEMS Magnitude (db) CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL Torque controller design Open-loop gain 150 Bode Diagram From: Input Point To: Output Point compensated k pt = 90 k it = compensated Frequency (rad/sec)

97 CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL Speed controller design Assume torque loop unity gain for speed bandwidth << Torque bandwidth * + Speed T* 1 T 1 controller B sj Torque loop

98 Phase (deg) DRIVE SYSTEMS Magnitude (db) CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL Speed controller Open-loop gain 150 Bode Diagram From: Input Point To: Output Point 100 k ps = compensated k is = compensated Frequency (Hz)

99 CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL Large Signal Simulation results Speed Torque

100 CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL DESIGN EXAMPLE SUMMARY Speed control by: armature voltage (0 b ) and field flux ( b ) Power electronics converters to obtain variable armature voltage Phase controlled rectifier small bandwidth large ripple Switch-mode DC-DC converter large bandwidth small ripple Controller design based on linear small signal model Power converters - averaged model DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet Closed-loop speed control design based on Bode plots Verify with large signal simulation

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