STEPPING UP: EDUCATING TEACHERS BUILDING A RESEARCH-BASED PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT MODEL

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1 STEPPING UP: EDUCATING TEACHERS BUILDING A RESEARCH-BASED PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT MODEL Billy J Hensley, Ph.D. National Endowment for Financial Education

2 Historical Background School-based financial education decreased post-world War II Rapid growth in number of available programs began in 1990s Lack of standards, guidelines, and coordination constrained overall effectiveness Limited research on personal finance and decision making Little government support or interest Limited shelf space in schools Assessments indicate declining financial knowledge among high school students 2

3 Increased Interest The recession triggered great national interest in financial literacy Significant increase in financial literacy research Strong government interest U.S. Department of the Treasury Office of Financial Education: 2002 Financial Literacy and Education Commission (FLEC; 20 federal agencies): 2003 President s Advisory Council on Financial Literacy I ( ) and II ( ) 3

4 Increased Interest Rapid growth in state mandates 46 today vs. 21 in 1998 Continued growth in number of financial education programs available (well over 100 from nonprofit and for-profit sources) School-based programs are growing: 313,000 NEFE High School Financial Planning Program student guides were requested in We sent over 700,000 student guides in

5 Background Way & Holden (2009) Lack of Knowledge and Confidence CEE (2011); Gutter, Copur, & Garrison (2010) Increasing state mandates Hira (2010); Schuchardt, Hanna, Hira, Lyons, Palmer, & Xiao (2009) Deeper examination needed 5

6 Research-Based Need K-12 Teacher Preparedness Study Teacher responses... students should study financial literacy (89%) do not feel competent to teach financial education (< 20%) feel unqualified to use financial literacy standards (63.8%) willing to get formal financial education training (> 70%) NEFE-Funded Study; University of Wisconsin-Madison,

7 Research-Based Need State Mandate Study Students from states with FL mandates in place were... less prone to compulsive buying more likely to accept average financial risk more likely to pay off credit cards each month more likely to save money NEFE-Funded Study; University of Florida,

8 Response Meeting at the U.S. Department of Education held March 2010 Representatives from: Council for Economic Education (CEE) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Family Economics and Financial Education (FEFE) (University of Arizona) Jump$tart Coalition Junior Achievement National Endowment for Financial Education (NEFE) U.S. Department of Education U.S. Department of the Treasury White House 8

9 Response Goal Develop a shared teacher training program focused on: Making it easy for teachers (Interviewed Teachers) Core financial knowledge Teacher needs Inclusive of all quality providers Alignment with emerging standards/core competencies Portability Inclusion of reinforcement/follow-up Common front door for teachers Disseminated through Jump$tart Coalition 9

10 Response Provide opportunity for educators to build financial literacy confidence Establish a model framework for teacher financial literacy programs across the country 10

11 Vision Create a shared teacher training program through Jump$tart Core Financial Knowledge/Skills Relevant Aligned Measureable Adaptable Scalable Easy Inclusive Quality Common 11

12 The Model As a result of this model, teachers will increase their own personal finance knowledge and skill to build confidence to teach personal finance in the classroom. 12

13 Model Description Locally-based Planning Teams Assistance & Guidance from Alliance Nonprofits Educators State agencies Businesses Financial planners University partners 13

14 Model Description Numerous Disciplines Locally Relevant Credential/Credit Timing Various strength of local J$ 14

15 Model Description Three-hour classes 1. Examine how economic trends impact personal financial situations; 2. Develop personal finance strategies; 3. Identify ways to build wealth through saving and investing; 4. Assess how career planning impacts earning power; 5. Compare and contrast financial services and products; 6. Specify strategies to protect from fraud; 7. Consider options when using credit and managing debt; 8. Devise plans to minimize financial risk; and 9. Explore personal finance resources. 15

16 Program Content Workshop Topics Econ 101 Spending and Planning Borrowing Saving and Investing Earning Capability Financial Services Fraud Insurance/Risk Management Methodology Targeted learning outcomes Applied learning Relevant and personalized Prep work / Post work Credible resources Expert facilitators Classroom application Assessment 16

17 Literature Review Effective teacher training can significantly build the capacity of teachers (Darling-Hammond, 1995) Most of the PD initiatives focus on approaches that seek to update teachers (how to teach new curricula) (Ball & Cohen, 1999; Fullan, 1995). Half or one-day workshops, to also deliver the information by worksheets, handouts, and lectures (Ball & Cohen, 1999; Garet, Porter, Desimone, Birman, & Yoon, 2001). 17

18 Literature Review Quality PD (which ideally takes place over extended periods of time) is costly, most school systems and professional development organizations opt for one time, one day, or one session trainings (Garet, et al., 2001). When teachers are positioned as learners, they are allowed to reconnect with learning by utilizing their own ways of knowing that can lead to meaningful knowledge gain (Duckworth, 2001). 18

19 Literature Review Professional development is most effective when teachers are also seen as learners (Duckworth, 2001; Kegan, 1994; Kegan & Lahey, 2001; Raider-Roth, Stieha, & Hensley, 2012). Adults work to make meaning of their daily lives (Mezirow, 1997; Taylor, 2008) Using adult learning models that allow for the individual to interact with the content (Raider-Roth & Holzer, 2009; Raider- Roth, Stieha, & Hensley, 2012) indicate the most promise for increasing confidence and prevalence of positive behaviors. 19

20 Participant Materials Learning plans Handouts Resources Pre-work Scenarios Action 20

21 Facilitator Materials Orientation with expectations Prescribed outcomes Facilitator guides Customizable presentations Supporting materials 21

22 Planning Toolkit Event planning guide (suggested timeline) Learning expectations/outcomes Materials for 7 topical seminars Presenter orientation guide Assessment template Budget template Collaboration strategies 22

23 Tested 5 pilots; over 700 K-12 educators ILLINOIS (Chicago Public Schools) COLORADO VERMONT ARIZONA SOUTH CAROLINA Varied formats Three-day, week-long, blended Assessment (pre and post) 23

24 Assessments Measuring Impact Attitude & Confidence Pre/Post Assessment Focus Groups Behavior Pre/Post Assessment Focus Groups Credential/Graduate Credit Locally relevant 24

25 Respondent Characteristics Just under half (47.8%) have been teaching ten years or less Most (61.7%) taught high school Over half (54.3%) had never had any training in personal finance Others had a course in high school (11.3%) Had taken a college course (17.8%) And/or attended a professional development hosted by an association or nonprofit organization (24.7%). This sample had a much lower percentage of teachers that had taken a college course that included financial education-related content than that of the Way & Holden (2009) sample (37%). 25

26 Respondent Characteristics Most of the participants (72.6%) have a master s degree and are female (68.6%) Those in attendance taught courses including, but not limited to, math (33.1%), social studies (60.7%), and/or business (22.8%). 26

27 Findings (73%) volunteered to participate in the surveys Practically all teachers (99.1%) in both 2011 and 2012 reported that they learned something new. This is encouraging considering several teachers had previously attended training or taken a class (56.4% of those from 2011 and 38.2% of those from 2012) 27

28 Findings Nearly all (99.1%) of participants indicated that they think other teachers would find a similar training opportunity helpful Had a positive impact on their own personal finances (93%) and also on their classroom instruction (94.7%). 28

29 Change in Behavior Participants demonstrated significant gains in mean pre/post behavior change scores. 28 percent 56 percent: Participants who calculated the amount of money they would like to have when they retire and are making contributions to a retirement account based upon attaining that amount. 39 percent 71 percent: Participants who took steps to improve their credit score. 50 percent 72 percent: Participants who had reviewed their credit report. 29

30 Change in Confidence Those with no previous training in financial education topics nearly closed the gap in measured confidence gained compared to those who had participated in some sort of previous training. 38 percent 80 percent: Participants who agreed they have the knowledge necessary to effectively teach their students about personal finance. 61 percent 90 percent: Participants who had integrated financial education into their classroom instruction. A low of 35% were teaching PFL in Colorado prior to the training A high of 100% were teaching PFL in Vermont 6-months after the training 30

31 Additional Results Key Findings: Demographics Female participants showed slightly more progress (65.8 to 75.28) than males (68.03 to 73.24). Grade level taught K-4: to : to : to

32 Additional Results Key Findings: Demographics Those with no previous training in PFL topics nearly closed the gap in measured confidence gain than those who had taken a previous PD or courses No Previous Training: to Previous Training: to Similar findings for measured behavior change No previous Training: to Previous Training: to

33 Conclusions & Implications If, by way of effective teacher training models, personal finance topics are presented in a way to increase teacher knowledge for personal use, it is demonstrated here that educators will become more comfortable with the subject area and begin to teach the topics more frequently and hopefully effectively. 33

34 Conclusions & Implications While this approach is not the single answer to address the gaps identified by Way & Holden (2009), it is an effective step forward. Building a research-based, replicable model of teacher professional development has the potential to touch individual lives (both teachers and students and even parents) at the state, district, community, and school-level. 34

35 Successes Collaborative planning Enthusiasm for financial literacy Educator incentives Applied and relevant learning Qualified presenters learn from the experts Prepared presenters 35

36 Use the Model Any organization/institution can conduct training based on the model Host organization utilizes local experts, local funders, partner marketing Host agrees to follow curriculum elements of the model and participate in assessment 36

37 Rules of Engagement Follow the model. Focus on specified learning outcomes. Facilitate at least 18 hours of learning. Conduct pre- and post-assessments; share results. Collaborate with local organizations. Host event within 12 months of securing permission. Credit the J$TTA Model. 37

38 Final Thoughts A teacher-participant said it best, This was one of the best conferences I've ever been to. I wish I had learned some of this 20 years ago when I was just starting my career. 38

39 References Ball, D. L., & Cohen, D. K. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional education. In L. Darling-Hammond & G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice. San Francisco: Josey-Bass. Baron-Donovan, C., Wiener, R. L., Gross, K., & Block-Lieb, S. (2005). Financial literacy teacher training: A multiplemeasure evaluation. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning 16(2), Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Changing conceptions of teaching and teacher development. Teacher Education Quarterly, 22(4), Davis, G. (2003). Using retrospective pre-post questionnaire to determine program impact. Journal of Extension, 41(4), Duckworth, E. (2001a). Teaching/learning research. In E. Duckworth (Ed.), "Tell me more": Listening to learners explain (pp ). New York: Teachers College Press. Fessler, R. (1995). Dynamics of teacher career stages. In T. R. Guskey & M. A. Huberman (Eds.), Professional development in education: New paradigms and practices (pp ). New York: Teachers College Press. Fullan, M. (1995). The limits of the potential of professional development. In T. R. Guskey & M. A. Huberman (Eds.), Professional development in education: New paradigms and practices (pp ). New York: Teachers College Press. Garet, M. S., Porter, A. C., Desimone, L., Birman, B. F., & Yoon, K. S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), Guskey, T. R. (2003). What makes professional development effective? Phi Delta Kappan, 84(10), 748. Gutter, M. S., Copur, Z., & Garrison, S. (2010). Financial capabilities of college students from states with varying financial education policies. Denver: National Endowment for Financial Education. 39

40 References Hira, T. K. (2010). The NEFE quarter century project: Implications for researchers, educators, and policy makers from a quarter century of financial education. Denver: National Endowment for Financial Education. Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: The mental demands of modern life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kegan, R., & Lahey, L. (2001). How the way we talk can change the way we work: Seven languages for transformation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative learning: Theory to practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, Rockwell, S. K., & Kohn, H. (1989). Post-then-pre evaluation: Measuring behavior change more accurately. Journal of Extension, 27, Schuchardt, J., Hanna, S, D., Hira, T. K., Lyons, A. C., Palmer, L., & Xiao, J. J. (2009). Financial literacy and education research priorities. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning (20)1, Survey of the states 2011: The state of economic and personal finance education in our nation s schools (2011). New York: Council for Economic Education. Accessed 5/15/2012 at: Taylor, E. (2008). Transformative learning theory. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, (119) Raider-Roth, M. B., & Holzer, E. (2009). Learning to be present: How hevruta learning can activate teachers' relationships to self, other and text. Journal of Jewish Education, 75(3), Raider-Roth, M. B., Stieha, V., & Hensley, B. (2012). Rupture and repair: Episodes of resistance and resilience in teachers learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(4), Way, W. L., & Holden, K. C. (2009). Teachers' background and capacity to teach personal finance: Results of a national study. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning (20)2,

41 For More Information 41

42 Billy J Hensley, Ph.D. Director of Education 42

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