1 The Present Perfect Tense The present perfect tense is a compound tense, which means that it requires an auxiliary, or helping, verb. This is true also in English, where the auxiliary is have or has, as in "I have spoken"; "She has studied." In Spanish, the auxiliary is formed from the auxiliary verb haber which means "to have." Do not confuse haber with tenet (which means "to have; to possess"). We often use the present l~erfect tense when speaking about something that was true in the past and is still true. The sentence, "I have lived here for ten years," means that ten years ago I lived here, I still live here, and I have lived here all the time in between. We also use this tense to indicate that an action was completed recendy: I can t go out to dinner because I have eaten. An important aspect of the present perfect tense is tfiat there is a scope of time, either stated or imp!jed, which includes the present, and that the action(s) referred to within this scope are not time specific (as they are in the preterite). In the sentence, "I ve gone to the club three times this year," the scope of time includes all of this year until now; we do not know when specifically (i.e., on which dates) the person visited the club. If you ask a person, "How have you been?" the implied scope is lately. Formation of the Present Perfect Tense 138 Because the present perfect tense is a compound tense, you will be working with two verbs, not one. To form verbs in this tense you first conjugate haber in the present tense: he has ha hemos hab6is hart The conjugated form of haber is then ~!lowed by the past participle of the desired verb. Most of the past participles in Spanish are regular, and we shai1 consider these first.
2 The Present Perfect Tense 139 Participles for regularly formed past participles are below: -at verbs: drop the -a*; and replace it with -ado -er verbs: drop the -g and replace it with -ido verbs: drop the -i~ and replace it with -ido hablar --* hablado comer -* comido vivir ~ vivido hablar comer vivir (! have spoken, etc.) (I have eaten, etc.) (I have lived, etc.) he hablado hemos hablado he comido hemos comido he vivido hemos vivido has hablado habfiis hablado has comido hab6is comido has vivldo hab~is vivido ha hablado hart bablado ha comido ban comido ha vivido hart vivido examptes: Yo he hablado con Roberto. I have spoken with Robert. Tti has estado aqul por diez minutos. You have been here for ten minutes. Tomfts ha sido mi amigo por nueve afios. Tom has been my friend for nine years. Note: Nos hemos acostado. We have gone to bed. ~Itab~is recibido los regalos? Have you received the presents? No lo hart visitado. They haven t visited him. 1. The conjugated verb haberand the past participle are not separated by any other words. 2. Object pronouns precede the conjugated verb hab~ Che& the things that you have done today: 1. He hablado por tel~fono. 2. He tornado car& 3. He comido una ensalada. 4. He comprado una camisa. 5. He almorzado. 6. Me he duchado. 7. He contado mi dinero. 8. He recibido un regalo. 9. He cometido on error. 10. He escuchado la radio.
3 140 Spanish Verb Tenses 11. Me he lavado el pelo. 12. He lavado el coche. 1. I have worked. 2. You have listened, 1I-5-1I 3. She has drunk the milk. 4. We have understood. 5. They have rgceived a present. 6. We have sold the house. 7. Have you watched television today? 8. Where have they lived? 9. I have showered. 10. He has been with me. 11. You (sing. form.) have learned a lot. 12. Have you brusked your teeth? 13. He has called me six times. 14. I ve run three miles. 15. She hasn t washed her hair. Irregular Past ParticipLes All conjugations in the present perfect begin with haher conjugated in the present tense, followed by a past participle. Most past participles are regular (see the previous section). Below is a list of verbs which have irregularly formed past participles. These verbs form two distinct groups. 1. Most -er and -irverbs in which a vowel immediately precedes the infinitive ~nding are formed regularly, but take an accent over the -i in -ido. (This does not include verbs ending with -uir; such verbs are regular; for example, the past participle of construiris construido.) atraer to attract atraldo caer to fall caldo creer to believe creido leer to read leldo off" to hear oldo
4 The Present Perfect Tense 141 poseer to possess sonrelr to smile.~ ~: traer to bring poseido sonreido traldo 2. Other irregular past participles have no pattern and thus must be learned individually: abrir to open abierto cubrir to cover cubierto decir to say, tell dicho describir to describe descrlto descubrir to discover descubierto devolver to return (something) devuelto disolver to dissolve disuelto envolver to wrap, wrap up envuelto escribir to write escrito frelr to fry frito hacer to make, do hecho morir to die muerto oponer to oppose opuesto poner to put, place puesto proveer to provide, furnish provisto pudrir to rot, languish podrido resolver to resolve resuelto romper to break, break roto through or up ver to see ~sto volver to return vuelto examples: He abierto la puerta. I have opened the door. ~No has escrito la carta? Haven t you written the letter? 1~1 me ha dicho una mentira. He has told me a lie. No hemos hecho nada. We haven t done anything. ~Hab6is visto la pellcula? Have you seen the movie? Los huevos se hart podrido. The eggs have rotted. ~Qu~ has becho es~a semana? Escribe una "X" delante de todo lo que has hecho. 1. He visto una pellcula. 2. He escrito una carta. 3. He resuelto todos mis problemas. 4. He lefdo un libro. 5. He abierto las ventanas de mi casa. 6. He dicho una mentira.
5 142 Spanish VerbTenses 7. He frito una hamburguesa. 8. He roto un plato. 9. He devuelto libros a la biblioteca. 10. He envuelto un regalo I have read twenty pages. 2. She has opened the book. 3. Where have you put the dishes? 4. The rabbit has died. 5. Have you told her the truth? 6. What have you seen? 7. The cook has fried all the eggs. 8. What have you done today? 9. The store has provided us with clothing. 10. She has broken another fingernail. 11. Has he resolved his problems? 12. We haven t said anything. 13. The politician has not told the truth. 14. Why haven t they returned? 15. What have you made for us? Advanced exercises: regular and irreffular past participles 1. I have had the money for more than twenty years.
6 The Present Perfect Tense She has opened the window, and I have closed the door. 3. My neighbor s dog has barked (ladrar) all night long, and i haven t been able to sleep. 4. Where have you put your suitcase? 5. How many times have you brushed your teeth today? 6. Vv2ay haven t you shaved today? 7. For how many years have you known Charles? 8. You ve been (arrived) late every day this week. 9. Have you (pl. form.) seen her? 10. The thieves have robbed our jewels and have broken all my records, 11. Have the newlyweds (los recign casados) returned from their honeymoon (la luna de mid)? 12. Your manners (los modales) have attracted me. 13. They have demonstrated their love for Beethoven s music. 14. If she is as rich as you say, then why has she robbed the bank? 15. The telephone has rung twenty times. Why haven t you answered it?
7 144 Spanish Verb Tenses I want to go shopping because I haven t left this house in more than a week. 1- need to pair of tennis shoes. I think I ve lost my other pair. I ve looked everywhere: under the bed the closet, in the basement, even in the trunk of my car, but I haven t been able to find then anywhere. My sister has borrowed them from time to time in the past, but she always returns things. Therefore, I ve come to the conclusion that I ve lost them forever and that if I want to play tennis again, I have to buy a new pair. (to) borrow (to) come to the conclusion even everywhere forever from time to time (to) go shopping nowhere; not anywhere (to) return (a thing) tennis shoes trunk pedir prestado llegar a la conclusi6n hasta en todas partes para siempre de vez en cuando ir de compras en ninguna parte ~ devolver los zapatos tenis el maletero (bafil)
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