Fair Trade in Europe 2001

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1 Fair Trade in Europe 2001 Facts and Figures on the Fair Trade sector in 18 European countries A survey prepared by Jean-Marie Krier on behalf of EFTA European Fair Trade Association

2 This survey is published by the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA), a network of twelve Fair Trade importing organisations in nine European countries. It is published as part of Promotion of the Principle and Practice of Fairer International Trade and Production between Europe and the South, a project co-financed by the European Commission, Directorate General for Development. For information and copyright: EFTA Secretariat Att. Marlike Kocken Boschstraat 45 NL 6211 JB Maastricht The Netherlands Tel: (+31) Fax: (+31) EFTA Campaigns and Advocacy Office C/o Maison Internationale 139, rue Haute B 1000 Brussels Belgium Tel: (+32) / 47 / 48 Fax: (+32) Author of the survey: Jean-Marie Krier Waldburgergasse 19 / 7 A 5026 Salzburg Austria Tel / Fax: (+43) Reproduction of parts of the text is permitted, provided that EFTA is cited as the source. EFTA, January 2001

3 PART ONE: OVERVIEW OF FAIR TRADE AND THIS SURVEY 1. Introduction What is Fair Trade? Definition and aims of Fair Trade Fair Trade organisations Fair Trade related organisations Methodological remarks Scope of the survey Gathering and processing the data A word of caution Fair Trade in Europe Cooperation in Europe Fair Trade from a European perspective The Structure of Fair Trade in Europe The Market for Fair Trade in Europe Overview : Fair Trade in Europe.. 16 PART TWO: REVIEW OF FAIR TRADE BY COUNTRY Austria.. 18 Belgium.. 20 Denmark.. 23 Finland.. 25 France.. 27 Germany.. 30 Greece.. 33 Ireland.. 34 Italy.. 36 Luxembourg.. 39 Malta.. 41 The Netherlands.. 42 Norway.. 45 Portugal.. 47 Spain.. 49 Sweden.. 52 Switzerland.. 55 United Kingdom.. 58 PART THREE: ANNEXES Annex 1: List of references addresses.. 62 Annex 2: Fair Trade websites.. 69 Annex 3: Summary table.. 71 Annex 4: Explanations relating to the summary tables.. 74 Annex 5: International membership list.. 77 Annex 6: Mapping Fair Trade in Europe.. 78

4 PART ONE: OVERVIEW OF FAIR TRADE AND THIS SURVEY EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

5 1. Introduction This survey was commissioned by EFTA, the European Fair Trade Association, a network of twelve Fair Trade importing organisations in nine European countries. Its objective is to provide a comprehensive up-to-date picture of Fair Trade activities in Europe. This survey covers 18 countries, (compared with 14 countries in 1995 and 16 in 1998). Countries included are all 15 EU member countries, plus Malta, Norway and Switzerland. Portugal and Malta appear for the first time. 2. What is Fair Trade? 2.1 Definition and aims of Fair Trade Fair Trade aims to alleviate poverty in the South by providing disadvantaged producers in Africa, Asia and Latin America with fair opportunities to access Northern markets. It aims to build sustainable direct relationships between these producers in the South and consumers in the rich parts of the world. Over the past forty years, Fair Trade in Europe has grown away from its grassroots origins to its current high level of European cooperation and integration. Because Fair Trade began as a decentralized movement, it is inevitable that there are a variety of definitions of Fair Trade. The following definition was adopted in April 1999 by FINE, an informal umbrella group of the four main international Fair Trade networks (see below 4.1). Definition of Fair Trade: Fair Trade is an alternative approach to conventional international trade. It is a trading partnership which aims for sustainable development of excluded and disadvantaged producers. It seeks to do this by providing better trading conditions, by awareness raising and by campaigning. The goals of Fair Trade are: 1. To improve the livelihoods and well being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organisations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. 2. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. 3. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they can exercise their purchasing power positively 4. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. 5. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

6 6. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practice and economic security. FINE, April 1999 This definition emphasises that Fair Trade is not just about trade, but also about development both at the producer and the consumer end of international trade. 2.2 Fair Trade organisations There are four types of Fair Trade organisations, which assume different roles along the trading chain leading from producers in the South to consumers in the North. Producer organisations cultivate or produce a wide variety of marketable products (food products like coffee, cocoa, tea, spices, etc. as well as a wide variety of handicrafts including basketry, glassware, jewellery, musical instruments, etc.) and export them to the market countries. The producers are at the very heart of Fair Trade. Fair Trade importing organisations buy products from producer organisations, paying them a fair price, i.e. one that enables them to live adequate lives. In their respective home countries the importing organisations act as wholesalers or retailers, (or sometimes as a combination of both). Importing organisations assist their producer partners in many different ways, giving them advice on product development, helping with skill and management training or offering additional support in difficult economic and social situations. In their home markets they sell most of the products through specialised shops (called world shops ) and local groups or representatives. Many of them also use other sales channels such as commercial stores, organic or wholefood shops, gift shops, supermarkets, and mail order catalogues. Some are active in the catering market. They initiate or participate in campaigns aimed at raising consumer awareness of North-South issues. They promote Fair Trade as an alternative to the unfair practices of international trade and lobby for change at a political level. For this lobbying activity they link up with a wide variety of organisations working in related fields - development NGOs, aid agencies, education centres, etc. World Shops are specialist shops for Fair Trade products. They sell the products to their customers and provide a variety of information and education oriented activities. They invite their customers to join campaigns on North-South issues and to lobby their local and/or national decision-makers. They are mostly run by locally based associations of dedicated people. Although they generally organise their activities in a business-like way, the world shops take pride in being not-for-profit organisations. In most world shops, volunteers do much of the work. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

7 In most countries the world shops have formed national associations to facilitate regular cooperation and information exchange. Many of the shops are supported in a variety of ways by local solidarity groups. Fair Trade labelling initiatives These are the newest arrivals on the Fair Trade scene, the first having been established in Their aim is to expand the market for fairly traded products by bringing them into mainstream sales outlets such as supermarkets. The labelling organisations offer potential commercial importers three things: 1. a register of monitored producer groups 2. a set of criteria as to how to do Fair Trade business 3. a label that clearly distinguishes fairly traded products from other ones. They are generally broad coalitions of concerned organisations (developmental or environmental NGOs, church organisations, unions, etc.) who commit themselves to actively promote the label, and thus to generate enough consumer demand to bring labelled products onto supermarket shelves and keep them there. 2.3 Fair Trade related organisations This growing group is made up of a variety of organisations, which have links with Fair Trade. It includes, among others: Organisations which aim to help producers to meet European market requirements through such things as product development, skills training, consultancy services, etc. They may be part of a traditional Fair Trade organisation (like Fair Trade Assistance for Fair Trade Organisatie in the Netherlands) or be a completely separate entity (like Fair Trade e.v. for gepa in Germany). Financial organisations like Shared Interest (through which money from ethical investors is channelled to Fair Trade organisations in the North and the South at better-than-market rates) or Oikocredit (formerly: EDCS, the Ecumenical Development Co-operative Society) which lends European church money in the form of credits to producer organisations in Southern countries NGOs, directing some of their awareness-raising activities towards responsible consumerism or a fairer exchange between North and South. Many of these organisations are so close to Fair Trade that they have chosen to become members of IFAT, the International Federation of Alternative Trade. As a complete listing is beyond the scope of this brochure, reference is made to the forthcoming Fair Trade Yearbook , due to be published by the European Fair Trade Association in Spring 2001, where more links to Fair Trade related organisations may be found. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

8 3. Methodological remarks 3.1 Scope of the survey The objective of the survey is to provide an overview of the extent and the impact of the Fair Trade movement in Europe including the effects of Fair Trade labelling initiatives on the European mainstream market. This report concentrates on two categories of products: Goods imported and sold by traditional Fair Trade organisations (mainly importing organisations and world shops) according to Fair Trade criteria, sourced mainly from small-scale producers. Goods imported and sold commercially with a Fair Trade label, indicating that the conditions of trade for these products have been approved by an independent organisation as meeting their criteria and standards. The research does not include wholesalers and retailers whose claim to trade fairly cannot be substantiated through a guarantee or independent monitoring. 3.2 Gathering and processing the data The organisations were identified and contacted via the membership lists of the four international European Fair Trade networks (see below 4.1), namely FLO International, IFAT, NEWS! and EFTA A separate questionnaire was then developed for each of the four different types of organisations: the importing organisations, the national world shops associations, the labelling organisations and the international networks themselves. The questionnaires were sent to a total of 76 organisations in July After several rounds of , fax, and telephone reminders, 59 questionnaires were returned (78%). The first questionnaire was returned two days after being sent (alternativa 3 from Spain). The last took more than three months to arrive! Organisations, which returned the questionnaire, are marked with a letter (Q) in Annex 1. The returned questionnaires represent 32 importing organisations, 10 world shop associations, 14 label organisations and 3 international networks. Information from the questionnaires was used to write the first draft of the different chapters, which were then revised against other available background information, (books and brochures, annual reports, product leaflets, etc.) The Internet was also a valuable source of information, since most of the organisations run extensive websites (see Annex 2 for the website address EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

9 list) and an abundance of material is available online. This contrasts sharply with the situation in 1998 when the previous edition of this survey was prepared. At that time, Fair Trade websites were the exception rather than the rule. Towards the end of the process, telephone interviews were conducted with key people in the different organisations to eliminate ambiguities and to fill any remaining gaps in the information. A first draft was then submitted for comments to the EFTA Campaigns and Advocacy Office in Brussels and redrafted in line with these comments. Warmest thanks are due to everyone who contributed to the compilation of data for this survey. 3.3 A word of caution As a result of the limited manpower available to many of the Fair Trade organisations which are the subjects of the survey, is not always easy to acquire up-to-date, precise, accurate, and comparative figures within the sector. There is, therefore, much scope for guesswork, and it is important that the resulting estimates should not be mistaken for facts. This is particularly true for some of the world shops associations, although the situation differs greatly from one country to another. Another source of uncertainty is that definitions and categories are not always used very consistently (for more details see also Annex 4). Bearing these factors in mind, we have done our best to ensure that the figures are as accurate as possible. In cases of doubt figures have been double-checked, and when figures from different sources varied a lot, the lower of the figures was always used (to obtain robust minimum estimates). A shortage of detailed data makes it difficult to compile precise aggregate Fair Trade turnover figures. Consequently, multiple counting of the same product cannot always be recognized and taken adequately into account. Multiple accounting occurs, for example, when national figures for the turnover of a product might include both wholesaler and retailer figures. It also happens when sales figures of different importers are summed, if they happen to sell to each other within their country or internationally. A degree of caution is therefore necessary, when it comes to evaluating aggregate turnover figures. Basic facts and figures are presented in a table in each of the country chapters. A condensed overview of this information is presented below in paragraph 4.4, and a more detailed summary table is available as Annex 3. The credibility of the whole Fair Trade movement would be enhanced if common definitions could be found for the central categories (like world shop, active action group) and if data were collected in a systematic and consistent manner by all organisations involved. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

10 4. Fair Trade in Europe 4.1 Cooperation in Europe The four following multi-national Fair Trade organisations are currently active in Europe: IFAT (International Federation for Alternative Trade) was established in 1989 as a global coalition of organisations involved in Fair Trade. It brings together producer groups from Africa, Asia and Latin America with importing organisations and Fair Trade support organisations from Europe, Japan and North America. IFAT supports its members in their efforts to expand the Fair Trade market. It does so by the collection and dissemination of market information, by acting as an information point, and by providing advice and guidance on such issues as monitoring. The federation provides its members with special networking opportunities through the organisation of a global conference every two years and of regional/continental meetings in the intervening years. EFTA (European Fair Trade Association), established in 1990, is an association of 12 importing organisations in 9 European countries. The organisation s members represent a turnover of over 100 million, most of which is achieved via the alternative channels, i.e. world shops and solidarity groups in Europe. EFTA facilitates the exchange of information and networking between its members through the circulation of documents and the organisation of meetings. It also supports members through projects, data collection, and its work on harmonisation processes. The work of its Advocacy and Campaigns Office in Brussels is aimed at the institutions of the European Union, and involves trying to influence commercial and political decision-makers in favour of Fair Trade related issues. It also provides background information and updates to help members with national campaigns. NEWS! (Network of European World Shops), established in 1994, is a network of national associations of world shops, representing more than 2,700 shops in 13 countries. NEWS! facilitates cooperation and networking between its members by providing information (NEWS!letter, website, workshops, etc.) and by organising a biannual European world shops conference. It develops and coordinates European-wide campaign activities (like the current Food for Thought campaign) and provides members with the materials needed to participate. FLO International (Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International), established in 1997 is a network of 17 national label initiatives, acting under different names like TransFair, Max Havelaar and Fairtrade Mark. Fair Trade labelling organisations exist in 14 European countries as well as in Canada, the United States and Japan. FLO International was established to coordinate the work of the international initiatives and to ensure that the two core ideas of the label concept, i.e. producer EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

11 registers and product-related trading rules (fixed minimum prices, regulations on advance payments, etc.) are harmonized and efficiently monitored all along the supply chain. Since 1996, cooperation between these four international networks has developed considerably. Under the acronym of FINE (standing for the first letters of FLO, IFAT, NEWS! and EFTA respectively) representatives hold regular meetings to coordinate their work. FINE is particularly involved in developing an integrated monitoring system for the whole Fair Trade movement and in advocacy work at international level. Table 1.1: International Fair Trade organisations in Europe FLO IFAT NEWS! EFTA Established Type of members National labelling initiatives Producer organisations, alternative trading organisations National world shops associations Importing organisations Members 17 in 148 in 15 in 12 in in countries 17 countries 48 countries 13 countries 9 countries Members 14 in 42 in all all in Europe 14 countries 13 countries Location Bonn, Oxford, United Utrecht, Maastricht, Germany Kingdom Netherlands Netherlands 4.2 Fair Trade from a European perspective Fair Trade has taken up the challenge of European integration, and is pushing ahead with further cooperation. Regular meetings at European level between and within the four international networks (see section 4.1) help Fair Trade people foster a European approach to their work and their commitment. Besides this motivational aspect, the European perspective has become vital for the political work of Fair Trade organisations. A perfect example of this growing cooperation is European World Shops Day. Since it began in 1996, European World Shops Day (celebrated on one of the first weekends in May) has become one of the main focus points of Fair Trade activity in Europe (and even outside Europe). Most of the world shops and many importing organisations, from Ireland to Austria, from Northern Sweden to Sicily, have joined in common activities that have attracted more and more public attention over the years. Between 1999 and 2001 these activities have been centred on the NEWS! Food for Thought campaign. This campaign aims to draw the attention of EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

12 political decision-makers to the question of the food sovereignty of the countries of the South. WTO regulations on agriculture are complex and difficult to grasp. A symbolic food box, a small carton with Fair Trade product samples, was used very effectively as a campaigning aid during European World Shops Day in Fair Trade organisations have learnt that, to be effective in the political field, they need to relate activities at national level to centralised activities at European level. In the last few years the EFTA Campaigns & Advocacy Office in Brussels has played a crucial role both in supporting national lobbying and advocacy activities and in making Fair Trade issues better known to the European institutions. Relationships between Fair Trade organisations and institutions of the European Union have thus grown more intense. Occasions, where the EU and Fair Trade come into close contact, include among others: resolutions on Fair Trade passed by the European Parliament, applications from Fair Trade organisations for co-financing of educational or development activities, campaigning directed at EU institutions (e.g. against the decision on the substitution of cocoa butter by vegetable fats), the Communication from the (European) Commission to the Council on fair trade from November 1999 (the text can be downloaded from ), the Fair Trade Days held on various occasions in the European Parliament, the inclusion of Fair Trade in the new Cotonou treaty. Despite this growing cooperation at European level, Fair Trade is still characterised by a wide diversity of style, organisational mode, activity, and focus of interest. The major challenge for Fair Trade in coming years will be to integrate the variety of national- or organisation-focused approaches into a unified strategy at an international level. To gain a true picture of Fair Trade in Europe, we need to examine the aggregate situation for organisations (see sections 4.3 and 4.4) as well as details at national level. These latter will be dealt with in the different country chapters in part The Structure of Fair Trade in Europe In the 18 countries dealt with in this survey more than 100 importing organisations contribute to the Fair Trade market. They range from very small organisations, sometimes run by just one or two dedicated people to the largest Fair Trade organisation in the world, gepa from Germany. Four of the largest importing organisations each have an annual turnover exceeding 10m. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

13 Table 1.2: The big four Fair Trade importers in Europe (latest year available) Organisation Country Turnover Gepa Germany 29.8m Fair Trade Organisatie Netherlands 15.9m Traidcraft United Kingdom 12.4m Oxfam Fair Trade United Kingdom 10.7m Most of the larger importing organisations are members of EFTA, the European Fair Trade Association. Fair Trade products reach the end consumer in many ways, the two most important being the 2,700 or so world shops and the supermarkets. Thanks to the Fair Trade labelling schemes Fair Trade products are now available in more than 43,000 supermarkets throughout Europe. Other retail channels are local solidarity groups, wholefood shops, independent commercial stores, and institutional customers like schools or local administrations. Most large importing organisations run mail order catalogues as do many medium-sized ones. In general, mail order sales account for less than 10% of an organisation s turnover. Exceptions are Oxfam Fair Trade and Traidcraft (both United Kingdom, with 10% and 13% respectively) and U-Landsimporten (Denmark) with 14%. The development of the Internet may well affect the mail order business. Some of the large Fair Trade organisations already offer sophisticated on-line shopping facilities Fair Trade organisations in Europe offer more than 1,250 job opportunities for dedicated people wishing to bridge the gap between business thinking and ethical values. The survey shows that importing organisations currently provide about 750 full time equivalent (f.t.e) posts. In addition about 500 f.t.e jobs are provided by the world shops associations, the world shops themselves and the labelling organisations. Most of the work in the world shops and solidarity groups is, however, still done by volunteers. About 100,000 volunteers are actively involved in the Fair Trade sector in Europe. 4.4 The Market for Fair Trade in Europe Since 1988 the market for Fair Trade products in Europe has altered considerably. There are now labelling initiatives in 14 of the 18 countries, (the exceptions being Greece, Malta, Portugal and Spain). These have been instrumental in extending the market for Fair Trade by introducing the Fair Trade concept to supermarkets and other commercial outlets. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

14 There are a number of different labelling schemes: Max Havelaar (7 countries), TransFair (4 countries), Fairtrade Mark (United Kingdom and Ireland), Reilun kauppa (Finland) and Rättvisemärkt (Sweden). Two labels (TransFair and Max Havelaar) are in use in Luxembourg. The importing organisations that responded to the survey s questionnaire represent an aggregate turnover of over 120m per annum. It is difficult to obtain aggregate figures for world shops, since many national associations do not know the retail value of their members sales. With data available from only half the countries, (and with Germany, the largest market, missing), it is clear that their turnover must exceed 41.6m. This figure is based on approximately 1,050 shops and reflects an average net retail value per world shop of about 39,500. Even if, to be on the cautious side, we reduce this figure by 15%, this still leads to an estimated total net retail value of all European world shops of over 92m. The information available is more complete for the sales of Fair Trade labelled products. The total for products sold under Fair Trade labels is about. 210m. Unfortunately these different turnover figures cannot simply be added together to assess the aggregate retail impact of Fair trade products (labelled and nonlabelled) in Europe. This is because there is an overlap between the figures in the three categories (for more details see Annex 4, point 6 and 7). Nevertheless it is possible to come up with a reliable minimum estimate. How can this be done? 1) The retail value of labelled products, as provided by the labelling organisations, is reported to be around 210m. (Labelling applies only to food products.) 2) The retail value of non-labelled products refers mainly to non-food handicraft products, sold through the world shops. It is reasonable to estimate the non-food share in an average world shop to be at least 50% of total sales. This translates into about 46m of non-food sales through world shops in Europe (i.e. 50% of the above 92m of total sales). The sum of these non-overlapping turnover figures leads to a figure of 256m. This figure is a minimum. It includes neither non-labelled food products sold in world shops (like spices, alcoholic beverages, and other yet-to-be-labelled foods) nor non-food products sold through channels other than world shops. In conclusion it can be stated with certainty that the annual aggregate net retail value of Fair Trade products (labelled and non-labelled) sold in Europe through alternative channels and supermarkets exceeds 260m. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

15 Fair Trade would not be what it is without its incredible variety of awarenessraising and campaigning activities on behalf of excluded and disadvantaged producers. More than 10m are spent annually on education, public relations and marketing ( 5.6m by importing organisations, 1m by world shops associations, and 3.5m by labelling initiatives). In countries where Fair Trade label organisations are active, market research surveys are used regularly to assess market potential and to evaluate market performance. They attempt to answer questions such as how many people know about Fair Trade (or recognise the label), and how many are prepared to pay premium prices. (Wherever the results of such studies are available, details are given in the respective country chapter.) In general, knowledge about the label tends to be fairly high, usually between 15 and 30%, usually reflecting the maturity of the Fair Trade market in a particular country. However these figures must be interpreted with caution. Indeed, a few studies have shown that even among those who know (or pretend to know) the label up to about half do not know what it stands for. Ultimately, the impact of labelling can only be measured by the market share achieved for a particular product. Although most figures still fall far short of the supposed market potential, they do reflect the future challenge for Fair Trade the challenge of going mainstream. Top performers like Switzerland and the Netherlands are showing the way. (They are the countries with the most mature labelling organisations and the highest market penetration of Fair Trade products in mainstream retailing). Table 1.3 : Market shares of Fair Trade labelled products in European countries Market share Coffee Tea bananas 4.0 % or more Switzerland 4% Switzerland 15.0% Netherlands 4.2% Luxembourg 4.0% % Luxembourg 3.3% Switzerland 3.0% % Netherlands 2.7% Germany 2.5% Denmark 2% Sweden 1.8% % Denmark 1.8% United Kingdom1.5% Belgium 1.0% Denmark 1.8% Italy 1.22% Germany 1.0% < 1 % Sweden 0.8% Austria 0.7% Ireland 0.5% Finland 0.3% Norway 0.3% Italy 0.13% France 0.1% United Kingdom <1.0% Sweden 0.8% Austria 0.7% Netherlands 0.7% Italy 0.67% Finland <0.1% France <0.1% Luxembourg <0.1% Norway <0.1% Germany <1.0% United Kingdom <1.0% Belgium 0.6% EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

16 4.5 Overview : Fair Trade in Europe TOTAL Sample / remarks Importing organisations countries Sales Outlets World Shops 2, countries Supermarkets 43, countries Others 18, countries TOTAL 63,800 + Paid staff (full-time equivalent) Importing organisations organisations in 18 countries World shops association countries World shops countries Labelling organisations organisations in 14 countries TOTAL 1,237 + Volunteers in world shops + groups 96, countries Label Turnover, in countries Importing organisations 118,900 + from 32 organisations in 18 countries World shops, net retail value 41,600 + from 11 countries Labelling organisations, 208,900 + from 14 organisations in 14 countries net retail value TOTAL 369,400 + Expenditure on Education/PR/marketing, in 000 Importing organisations 5,600 + from 32 organisations in 18 countries World shop association 1,000 + from 11 countries Labelling organisations 3,500 + from 14 organisations in 14 countries TOTAL 10,100 + Public awareness of Fair Trade knowledge of label / concept 6 to 74 % from 11 countries Market shares, in % Fair Trade labelled coffee 0.1 to 3.3 from 14 countries Fair Trade labelled tea 0.1 to 4.0 from 12 countries Fair Trade labelled bananas 0.6 to 15.0 from 9 countries ESTIMATE, in 000 Net retail value for all 2,740 world shops 92,000 + see section 4.3 ESTIMATE, in 000 Net retail value all Fair Trade products in all channels 260,000 + see section 4.3 More details can be found in the country chapters and in Annex 3, which gives the exact breakdown of the above figures at national level. For a comprehensive understanding of the above figures see the explanations given in Annex 4. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

17 PART TWO: REVIEW OF FAIR TRADE BY COUNTRY EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

18 AUSTRIA The Structure of Fair Trade in Austria EZA Dritte Welt, founded in 1975 with support of the Dutch SOS Wereldhandel (now Fair Trade Organisatie), is the largest importing organisation by far. It accounts for over 60 % of the sales of Austrian world shops. EZA has a wholesale warehouse near Salzburg, and also runs two pilot model shops of its own in Salzburg and in Vienna. The second largest organisation, Eine-Welt-Handel (Karl Pirsch), has grown considerably in the last few years. They specialize in basketry products, run two shops of their own, and have begun to establish a network of franchise shops. Five further organisations fulfil the Austrian world shops association criteria for accreditation of suppliers to world shops. They are El Inka, CONA, LiCok, SAT, and dritte-welt-partner (from Germany). Austria has 68 world shops, of which 62 are members of the ARGE Weltläden, the Austrian world shops association. The six newly created Eine- Welt-Läden (one world shops) from Eine-Welt-Handel are not yet members of the national association. Since 1995 all member world shops have operated under the same name and logo. They also have a common marketing and communication plan and engage in many joint activities all the year round. Following the professionalization programme of the early nineties, the 60 plus shops employ more than 50 people, (31 f.t.e). The typical shop has one paid part-time coordinator working with a group of anything between 6 and 20 volunteers. The association offers a wide range of services to its members. It organises three national meetings a year, coordinates regional networking between shops, runs training courses, interfaces with the national media, and, coordinates European World Shops Day events. The association has signed contracts of cooperation with the recognized importers, leading to long-term planning security on both sides. Since 1993 TransFair Austria has been active in bringing Fair Trade products into the supermarkets. Labelled products in Austria currently include coffee, tea, cocoa and chocolate as well as orange juice. Through 8 licensees, Fair Trade labelled products are available in more than 1,500 supermarkets. There is, as yet, no national Fair Trade forum in Austria. The Fair Trade Market in Austria The two largest importing organisations have a joint turnover of around 6.5m. The Austrian Fair Trade market is dominated by the 60 or so world shops and 700 mostly church-related action groups, that sell Fair Trade products on an irregular basis. The shops represent a net retail value of 4.9m. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

19 Fair Trade market share has remained fairly stable despite concerted market expansion activity by TransFair. The net retail value of sales of labelled goods is around 3.1m. TransFair has, however, been extremely successful in increasing Fair Trade awareness, largely as the result of its broad membership of important development and environmental NGOs. Market research from 1999 (Nielsen, Vienna) indicates that 30% of Austrians recognise the Fair Trade label. Of these 9% have bought TransFair products regularly, 38% occasionally and 49% not at all. The core market potential (regular customers, plus occasional customers, plus non-customers who show an extremely positive attitude) is estimated to represent 32% of the Austrian population. Many prominent institutions have switched to Fair Trade coffee and tea in recent years. They include part of the Federal Chancellor s Offices, the Ministry of Interior, and three of the four political parties in Parliament. As the result of three years of concerted campaigning, the Austrian Parliament adopted a Fair Trade resolution in December This resolution calls upon the national Government to adopt Fair Trade as one of the leading principles for its development policy; to analyse how Fair Trade can be supported through legislative, budget and procurement measures; and to support Fair Trade principles in international bodies. A report must be drawn up within one year and presented to the Parliament. In 1998 an alliance was established between Fair Trade and the organic movement, represented by Bio-Ernte Austria, the Austrian organic farmers association, one of the largest in the world with more than 11,000 organic farmer members. The two movements promote the bio+fair concept, arranging countless bio+fair public breakfasts. In autumn 2000 a bridge to the consumer organisations was built, when Café Orgánico, the best-selling Fair Trade product in Austria became the first product ever to be presented with a special consumer protection award by the regional Government of Salzburg. All this should help to increase Fair Trade market share, which is currently 0.7% for both coffee and tea. Table 2.1 : Austria Importing organisations 7 + Sales Outlets World Shops 68 + Supermarkets 1,540 Others 1,370 + TOTAL 3,000 + Paid staff (full-time equivalent) Importing organisations 33 + World shops association 1.2 World shops 31 TransFair 3.8 TOTAL 69 + Volunteers in world shops + groups 3,600 Label Turnovers, in 000 EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001 TransFair Importing organisations 6,500 + World shops, net retail value 4,900 TransFair, net retail value 3,100 TOTAL 14,500 + Expenditure on Education/PR/marketing, in 000 Importing organisations World shop association 40 TransFair 150 TOTAL Public awareness of Fair Trade knowledge of TransFair 30 % Market shares, in % TransFair coffee 0.7 TransFair tea 0.7 TransFair bananas Not

20 BELGIUM The Structure of Fair Trade in Belgium Belgium has two large importing organisations, Oxfam Wereldwinkels in Flemish-speaking Belgium and Magasins du Monde Oxfam in Frenchspeaking Belgium. Oxfam Wereldwinkels believes that trade, education and action are three equally important aspects of Fair Trade. The organisation is therefore heavily involved in awareness-raising and lobbying activities. On the trading side, the organisation concentrates exclusively on food products. Its success in this area is reflected in the fact that its Equita chocolate range and Chilean wines are well known outside Belgium. As well as being an importing organisation Oxfam Wereldwinkels also has 175 shops in Flemish-speaking Belgium. These shops are run by 5,750 volunteers. Only the 15 biggest ones have paid staff. Magasins du Monde Oxfam, in French-speaking Belgium, specializes in handicrafts. The organisation has 74 world shops, run by 2,500 volunteers. It also runs a special type of shop involving young people. There are 60 such Jeunes Magasins du Monde (young world shops), small sales outlets based in schools and run by groups of young secondary school students, each group being supported by two teachers. Because they are retailers as well as importers, Oxfam Wereldwinkels and Magasins du Monde Oxfam are both members of both EFTA (European Fair Trade Association) and NEWS! (Network of European World Shops). Smaller importers in Belgium are Fair Trade Organisatie in Leuven (a subsidiary of the Dutch Fair Trade Organisatie) and Maya Fair Trading. The latter is the successor of Miel Maya Honig, an organisation concentrating strictly on honey and honey-based products. The old Miel Maya Honig survives, but restricts itself to supplying information and support to project partners. Max Havelaar Belgium, the national Fair Trade label organisation, is backed by a coalition of 28 member organisations. With 14 licensees having signed a contract with the organisation, Max Havelaar labelled coffee and bananas is now found in more than 1,000 supermarkets in Belgium. There is, as yet, no formalized national Fair Trade forum. On the initiative of the Secretary of State for Cooperation, many Fair Trade players have, however, begun to meet fairly regularly at national level in order to develop closer relationships. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

21 The Fair Trade Market in Belgium The turnover of Oxfam Wereldwinkels is approximately 5m. This is accounted for entirely by food products, sourced mainly from Latin America. Coffee alone makes up 30% of total turnover. Magasins du Monde adds another 2.7m to the Belgian market in handicraft sales. The honey and honey-related market gives Maya Fair Trading a turnover of 0.4m. Although Fair Trade labelled products cover only coffee and bananas, with 13 license contracts signed on coffee and one on bananas, sales of labelled products account for 5m of net retail value. 55 % of these sales are made outside the traditional Fair Trade circuit. In October 1999 a survey showed that 36 % of the population know about Max Havelaar. The problem however seems to be the lack of visibility of the products, in that people do not know where to buy them or where to find them on the shelves. This might explain why a very strong stated buying intention (77%), translates into comparatively low market shares of 1% for coffee and 0.6% for bananas. Both Oxfam Wereldwinkels and Magasins du Monde Oxfam campaign actively on topics such as the use of cocoa-fat substitutes in chocolate, the EU trade regime for bananas, or the labour situation in the textile and garment industries ( Made in Dignity, Clean Clothes Campaign ). Very creative methods are used in this work. For example, the Orissa-Express, transformed a normal bus into a travelling exhibition providing education and information about the plight of rice farmers in India. Other activities deal with domestic problems, like poverty and unemployment in Belgium, always putting these issues into their international context. Fair Trade in Belgium is thus often the centre of attention in the Belgian media. Table 2.2 : Belgium Importing organisations 4 + Sales Outlets World Shops 250 Supermarkets 1,050 Others TOTAL 1,700 + Paid staff (full-time equivalent) Importing organisations 60 + World shops association Not World shops 5 Max Havelaar 6 TOTAL 71 + Volunteers in world shops + groups 8,250 Label Turnovers, in 000 Max Havelaar Importing organisations 8,100 + World shops, net retail value n.a. Max Havelaar, net retail value 5,000 TOTAL 13,100 + Expenditure on Education/PR/marketing, in 000 Importing organisations World shop association Not Max Havelaar 270 TOTAL Public awareness of Fair Trade Knowledge of Max Havelaar 36 % Market shares, in % Max Havelaar coffee 1.0 Max Havelaar tea Not Max Havelaar bananas 0.6 Worldshake, one of Oxfam Wereldwinkels latest campaigns, targets young people and aims to help them to overcome feelings of helplessness vis-à-vis the complex process of globalisation. On May 6 th, 2000, between fifteen and twenty thousand people gathered in the Belgian town of Mechelen for a huge EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

22 rally and festival supporting demands for better protection for small-scale farmers in the South through genuine reform of the World Trade Organisation. As all the large Belgian Fair Trade organisations are very active in lobbying both the national authorities and the European institutions based in Brussels, many successes have been achieved. Fair Trade organisations are eligible for official funding and get an impressive amount of official support. Many municipalities have passed Fair Trade resolutions and the concept has found its place in the national government s new National Plan for Sustainable Development. In the light of this it comes as no surprise that the Belgian Parliament and several Ministries have introduced Fair Trade coffee and tea to their restaurants. Some of the European institutions based in Brussels have also opted to go fair. The EU Commission and the European Parliament use Fair Trade coffee (although not exclusively) and the Economic and Social Committee uses both coffee and tea from Fair Trade sources. Fair Trade awareness among the general public and political authorities is increasing. There is also a perceived increased openness on the part of commercial business to engage in discussions on Fair Trade principles. It is evident that the Belgian Fair Trade movement goes from strength to strength and continues to attract volunteers to its cause. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

23 DENMARK The Structure of Fair Trade in Denmark Denmark has three important Fair Trade importers: U-Landsimporten, Butik Salam and U-Landsforeningen Svalern, which account for over 75% of all sales in Danish world shops. U-Landsimporten imports only food - coffee, tea, cocoa, dried fruits, vegetables, spices, nuts and chocolates. Coffee, alone accounts for 87% of its turnover. The organisation runs one of the most extensive Fair Trade websites with more than 650 pages, including a large section in English. Butik Salam and U-Landsforeningen Svalerne both specialize in handicrafts, sourced mainly from Asia. Svalerne concentrates heavily on basketry products from Bangladesh. All three organisations together with five shops are members of FairNet, the Danish association of world shops established in Apart from those, there are seven further world shops in Denmark who have, thus far, chosen to remain outside the association. FairNet brings its members closer together, through seminars and joint campaigning and advocacy initiatives. FairNet is well embedded into the Danish NGO circuit and collaborates with Danida (the Danish Association for International Development) and the 92-group, a coalition of 13 environmental and development NGOs. Neither the shops nor the association have paid staff and depend on the work of 100 volunteers. The Danish label organisation Max Havelaar Denmark was launched in It has 15 licensees who trade bananas, cocoa/chocolate, coffee, sugar/sweets, and tea under the Fair Trade label of the foundation. These labelled products are currently available in more than 2,700 supermarkets in Denmark. The Fair Trade Market in Denmark The combined sales figures of the three main importing organisations are about 1.3m. World shop sales have stagnated in the last few years, the net retail value remaining more or less stable at around 400,000. Max Havelaar Denmark received a huge boost with the launch of Fair Trade bananas in November Since then, Fair Trade labelled products have found their way into many supermarkets. The market share for both coffee and tea is 1.8%, and for bananas is 2%. The net retail value of labelled products sold in Denmark exceeds 8m. Prominent institutions that have chosen to use Max Havelaar products include the Ministry of Environment and the Danish Parliament (tea and coffee). EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

24 The manifold awareness-raising activities of the labelling organisation seem to be bearing fruit. A market survey in November 1999 by IFKA (Institut for Konjunktur- Analyse) found that 36% of the Danish population knew about Max Havelaar. Of those, 39% had purchased a Fair Trade labelled product in the past three months, another 19% had done so more than three months ago, and only 34% never had. With this potential market in mind, different members of FairNet are working on a relaunch of Fair Trade in Denmark. In this context discussions are underway on a possible merger between some key players in the Danish Fair Trade sector. This may take place in These new developments arise from the realization that it is too expensive to be small, as one of the people involved put it. One of the first steps in this process has been the decision of U-Landsimporten to work in very close cooperation with Urtekram, one of the top Danish suppliers of organic and natural products. Table 2.3 : Denmark Importing organisations 3 + Sales outlets World Shops 15 Supermarkets 2,740 Others n.a. TOTAL 2,750 + Paid staff (full-time equivalent) Importing organisations 16 + World shops association 0 World shops 0 Max Havelaar 5 TOTAL 21 + Volunteers in world shops + groups Label Turnover, in 000 Max Havelaar Importing organisations 1,300 + World shops, net retail value Max Havelaar, net retail value 8,050 TOTAL 9,750 + Expenditure on Education/PR/marketing, in 000 Importing organisations 50 + World shop association n.a. Max Havelaar 260 TOTAL educ/pr/marketing Public awareness of fair trade knowledge of Max Havelaar 36 % Market shares, in % Max Havelaar coffee 1.8 Max Havelaar tea 1.8 Max Havelaar bananas 2.0 EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

25 FINLAND The Structure of Fair Trade in Finland In Finland there is no single large importing organisation. Seven of the world shops act as small importers of goods for sale in their own shops and also for sale to the other world shops. Discussions are underway on a joint venture to include importing and the establishment of central storage facilities. The Finnish Association of World Shops Maailmankauppojen litto ry was set up in It has 41 members (not all of whom run their own shops) who generally operate independently of one another - a necessity in a huge and sparsely populated country. The bi-annual national meeting is the highlight of the association s effort to achieve greater exchange of information and experience. Cooperation among members has become more intensive of late with, for example, many Finnish shops participating in European World Shops Day. The 30 or so shops are run by about 600 volunteers and part-time paid staff. Non-food products account for 65% of sales, the remaining 35% of sales being food. Finland has Europe s only Fair Trade ship. The Estelle, a three masted steel schooner, renovated in 1997, serves as an attractive information point on Fair Trade, wherever she docks. She is also used as a cargo ship to transport Fair Trade goods from one place to another. The Finnish label organisation Reilun kaupan edistämisyditys ry. (Finnish Association for Promoting Fair Trade) was founded in Its members include the World Shops Association, trade unions, as well as environmental, development and church organisations. The Finnish label appears on coffee and tea in more than 2,100 outlets. The Fair Trade Market in Finland Sales through Finnish world shops have an estimated retail value of 1.2m. This sum will probably soon be exceeded by the value of products sold under the Fair Trade label. In 4 months following the label s launch in September 1999, sales of labelled products were 390,000 Euro. The Finnish population has one of the highest per capita annual coffee consumption levels in the world (about 10 kilos) providing plenty of market potential, for the leading labelled product. The launch of the Fair Trade label scheme in Finland was well publicised through advertisements in newspapers and magazines. Many coffee tastings were organised and attracted media attention. The national Fair Trade coffee week was a great success, and will be repeated twice a year. The market share for coffee has now reached 0.3%. EFTA European Fair Trade Association Fair Trade in Europe 2001

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