Index. British Columbia Court of Appeal 80, 130, 164, 177 British Columbia Supreme Court 78 but for test 3, 5, 44. Canada Alberta Supreme Court 41, 79

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1 Index abnormality. see normality; reasonableness test absence of tests 6 7, 259 accident insurance policies accidental shootings dangerous chattels and substances intervening conduct of children liability of firearms owners for accounting professions, intervening negligence by acts of god 133 flooding lightning addiction, drug and alcohol , 230n20 Alberta Court of Appeal 233 Alberta Supreme Court 41, 79 alcohol addiction 229 alternative danger doctrine 14, 15 16, 66, American Law Reports 167 animals, interventions by apportionment legislation arson cases foresight test in Canada 41 attractive nuisance doctrine 207 see also children, intervening conduct of attributive causation 5 Australia contributory negligence of the plaintiff 246 dangerous chattels and substances 238 deliberate interventions 83 8 drug and alcohol addiction , 230n20 escape from danger 212 escape from inconvenience 215 extraordinary natural phenomena 139 foresight test 43 6 fraud by plaintiffs 232 High Court of 43 4, 46, 62 4, 84 5, 87 8, 107 8, , 122, 124, 137, 139, 173, 185 7, 215, 250, 259 inadequate warnings 239, infection of injuries 145 intervening conduct of children 204 intervening negligent legal advice intervening negligent omissions 130 lower courts 45 6, 64 medical negligence 171 4, 174n23 harm 220, 221 2, New South Wales Court of Appeal 45, 64, 85 7, ordinary intervening negligent acts 122, 124 prisoner suicides 159n21 probability test 97 8 reasonable foreseeability 32 reasonableness test 62 4 refusal to accept medical treatment 182 rescue cases 191, 192 scope of risk approach state courts 44 5 suicide cases Supreme Court of New South Wales 191 Supreme Court of Queensland 109, 238 Supreme Court of South 45, 64, 220, 223 4, 239, 250 Supreme Court of Victoria 84n102, 109, 159n21, 160, 204 Victorian Court of Appeal 109 wrongful birth claims British Columbia Court of Appeal 80, 130, 164, 177 British Columbia Supreme Court 78 but for test 3, 5, 44 Canada Alberta Supreme Court 41, 79

2 268 British Columbia Court of Appeal 80 deliberate intervention fatal accidents legislation foresight test intervening conduct of children 206 intervening gross negligence intervening negligence as novus actus interveniens 125 medical negligence medical rescue 197 harm 220, 223 negligent inspection nineteenth century case 23 Nova Scotia Court of Appeal 124 novus actus interveniens and remoteness of damage 253, 257 Ontario Court of Appeal 39, 40, 124, 165, 175 ordinary intervening negligent acts 122 prisoner suicide cases 164 rape and arson cases reasonableness test 65 6 refusal to accept medical treatment 182 rescue cases 190 scope of risk approach suicide cases Supreme Court of 39, 40, 65 6, 77, 78, 96 7, 112, 122, 127 8, 185, 196, 208 car accidents. see motor vehicle accidents causation, factual and legal 5 6, Causation in the Law (Hart & Honore) 88, 101 chain of causation breaking by intervening gross negligence first English case to refer to 24 5 impact of deliberate interventions impact of intentional criminal conduct 74 5 intervening negligence as breaking 125 chattels and substances, dangerous children, intervening conduct of 88 9, , 238 and contributory negligence 17, 248 and deliberate intervention 73 development of case law Civil Liabilities (Contribution) Act 1978 (England) 247 The Law of Intervening Causation coincidences concurrent wrongdoers conduct necessary to exercise legal rights or privileges contributory negligence and action of children 17 defence of 10 of the plaintiff 245 7, Court of Common Pleas 103, 189 criminal intervention 45, 48 9, 70, 74 5, 81 3 dangerous chattels and substances Davies, M. 49 defamation and publication deliberate interventions Australia 83 8 Canada French Cour de cassation 89 impact on chain of causation intentional criminal conduct 74 5 Ireland 89 New Zealand 88 9 Papua New Guinea 89 rescue cases 73 United Kingdom 71 7 dependent intervening force 9 direct consequence test (England) 13 disease contracted due to lowered vitality drug addiction , 230n20 duty-based approach. see scope of risk approach England cases during nineteenth century 14 25, cases prior to nineteenth century first case to refer to chain of causation 24 5 first decision based on probability 22 medical negligence see also United Kingdom English Court of Appeal 55, 73, 103 4, 105, 122 3, 124 5, 126 7, 139, 142, 147 9, 156, 158, 158n16, 177 8, 180 1, 192, 198, 202 3, 216, 236, 247 8, 250 1, 255 foresight test 38 probability test 92 4 escape from danger and inconvenience

3 Index 269 development of case law (danger) development of case law (inconvenience) explosive substances extraordinary natural phenomena factual causation 5, fatal accidents legislation 157 8, firearms cases intervening conduct of children owner s liability for accidental shootings Fleming, John 6, 7, 49, 234, 261 flooding foresight test Australia 43 6 Canada endorsement of 33 Europe 48 9 judicial initiative to dilute 50 New Zealand 47 9 plaintiff as author of intervening event 33 4 and probability of event 32 9 rejection of 33 5 suitability of 35 8, United Kingdom 32 9 United States of America (USA) 42 3 use of 31 2 fraud by plaintiffs 232 French Cour de cassation deliberate interventions 89 foresight test 48 9 Germany medical rescue Schutzzweck der Norm 101 scope of risk approach Goodhart, A.L. 8, 191n22 Hart, H.L.A. 88, 101 High Court of Australia 6 7, 43 4, 46, 48, 84 5, 87 8, , 122, 124, 137, 173, 185 7, 215, 247, 250, 259 History of English Law, A (Holdsworth) 133, 141 Holdsworth, W. 133, 141 Holmes, O.W. 31 Honore, T. 88, 101 hospitals institutional liability 234 negligence of in suicide cases 163, 164 House of Lords 77, 94 5, 106 7, 125, 137, 138, 148 9, , 158, 178 9, 184, 213, 222, 233, 234, 235, 249 inadequate warnings independent intervening force 9 infection of injuries inflammable substances injure, intent of defendant to 16 inspection, negligent/omission of institutional liability insurance policies intervening causation 3 4 absence of tests 259 challenging nature of cases 6 7 and contributory negligence defence 10 general principles from case law need for judicial policy choices negligence as 20 1 and reasonable foreseeability 10 varying nature of events and circumstances 6 7, 259 voluntary and deliberate 21 2 intervening criminal conduct 45, 48 9, 70, 74 5, 81 3 intervening events plaintiff as author of 33 4 third party criminal 45 by third person 34 5 see also deliberate interventions intervening force 8 9 intervening gross negligence intervening negligent omissions intervening omissions 40, 45 6 intervening ordinary negligence Ireland conduct necessary to exercise legal rights or privileges 228 Court of Appeal 116 dangerous chattels and substances 237 escape from danger 212 intervening conduct of children 203, 204 intervening negligent omissions 131 nineteenth century case 19 ordinary intervening negligent acts 121, 122 probability test 98 9 reasonableness test 66 scope of risk approach 116 Supreme Court of 98 9

4 270 joint liability judges use of Latin phrases 7 8 use of metaphor and descriptive terms 7 judicial policy choices, need for kidney donation cases knowledge of dangerous situations, plaintiff s 18 last human wrongdoer rule reduced use of 121 last opportunity rule 246 Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945 (England) legal causation 5 6, legal professions, intervening negligence by liability of firearms owners likelihood first English decision based on 22 suitability of 35 8 Linden, A. 181, 223, 249 Lord Campbell s Act Manitoba Court of Appeal 39 40, 190 maritime incidents 22, 92, heavy weather at sea intervening recklessness 128 reasonableness test 53 5 McNaghten Rule of criminal responsibility 156, 156n7, 158, 162 medical negligence 169 Australia 171 4, 174n23 Canada England United States of America (USA) see also refusal to accept medical treatment medical rescue mental institutions and institutional liability 234 motor vehicle accidents and intervening gross negligence ordinary intervening negligence acts suicide cases The Law of Intervening Causation National Court of Justice of Papua New Guinea 48, 98 natural phenomena, extraordinary negligence conduct of third parties 47 8 intervening 20 1 of a municipal corporation 46 see also medical negligence negligence, intervening ordinary harm development of case law negligent inspection negligent rescue attempts New Brunswick Court of Appeal 234 New South Wales, Supreme Court of 191 New South Wales Court of Appeal 45, 64, 85 7, 183, 221, , 238, 241, New Zealand Court of Appeal 7, 88, , 162, 163, 239 dangerous substances 239 deliberate interventions 88 9 foresight test 47 8, 47 9 hospital negligence 163 inadequate warnings 240 infection of injuries 145 intervening conduct of children 206 probability test 98 reasonable foreseeability 32 scope of risk approach suicide cases Nineteenth century cases during cases prior to normality see also reasonableness test Nova Scotia Court of Appeal 124 novus actus interveniens 3 4 as breaking chain of causation challenging nature of cases 6 7 concurrent wrongdoers context and contributory negligence defence 10 definition 9 10 emergence of judicially-developed doctrine 15 first English case to refer to 24 5 intervening negligence as 125 as Latin term 8 link with remoteness of damage 253 8

5 Index 271 unreasonable intervening conduct varying nature of events and circumstances 6 7, 259 omissions, intervening 40, 45 6 inspection medical 177 Ontario Court of Appeal 39, 40, 124, 165, 175 Papua New Guinea deliberate interventions 89 foresight test 48 probability test 98 passing off actions personality changes 75 6 plaintiffs as author of intervening event 33 4 contributory negligence by 245 7, disease contracted due to lowered vitality fraud by 232 intervening negligence of knowledge of dangerous situation 18 meritorious conduct of 79 trespass by unreasonable intervening conduct by policy choices, judicial, need for prisoners institutional liability suicide cases , 164 probability of actions 23 Australia 97 8 first English decision based on 22 and the foresight test 32 9 Ireland 98 9 New Zealand 98 Papua New Guinea 98 Scotland 92 suitability of 35 8 United Kingdom 91 5 United States of America (USA) 95 6 use of 91 property, rescue of proximate cause formula (USA) 13 publication Queensland Supreme Court 109, 238 rainfall, heavy rape cases 79 reasonable foreseeability 24 Australia 43 6 Canada endorsement of 33 Europe 48 9 judicial initiative to dilute 50 New Zealand 47 9 plaintiff as author of intervening event 33 4 rejection of 33 5 suitability of 35 8, United Kingdom 32 9 United States of America (USA) 42 3 use of 31 2 reasonableness test 51 Australia 62 4 Canada 65 6 concerns around 66 Ireland 66 maritime collisions 53 5 rescue cases 54 United Kingdom 52 9 United States of America (USA) 61 recklessness. see intervening gross negligence refusal to accept medical treatment remoteness of damage link with novus actus interveniens rescue cases deliberate intervention 73 development of case law probability 92 4 reasonableness test 54 Restatement of the Law of Torts, Second (American Law Institute) coincidences 140, 141 exercise of legal rights or privileges 227 foresight test 43 functional capacity of children 208 intervening gross negligence 126 intervening negligent omissions interventions by animals 142 liability for acts performed during insanity 167 harm 219 negligent rescue cases 193

6 272 normality 59 ordinary/extraordinary negligence probability 95 rescue cases scope of risk approach voluntary and deliberate human action 70, 76 7 road accidents and contributory negligence 250 see also motor vehicle accidents sane-insane dimension of suicide cases schools and institutional liability 234 Schutzzweck der Norm 101 scientific causation 5 scope of risk approach Australia Canada concerns over 117 emerging use of Ireland 116 New Zealand United Kingdom Scotland probability test 92 suicide cases 156 self-rescue 55 6, 198, 216 and contributory negligence 251 several liability shootings, accidental dangerous chattels and substances intervening conduct of children liability of firearms owners for significant influence notion slander cases spousal desertion after disfiguring/ debilitating accident 229 Squib case 13 14, 32, 52, 70, 71, 91, 210 substances, dangerous suicide cases Australia Canada and contributory negligence 249 England foresight test in Canada 41 2 institutional liability 234 motor vehicle accidents New Zealand The Law of Intervening Causation prisoners sane-insane dimension United Kingdom United States of America (USA) superseding cause doctrine 3 definition 9, 10 nineteenth century USA cases 25 7 Supreme Court of Canada 39, 40, 65 6, 77, 78, 96 7, 112, 122, 127 8, 185, 196, 205, 208 Supreme Court of Ireland 98 9 Supreme Court of New South Wales 191 Supreme Court of Pennsylvania 122, 207 Supreme Court of Queensland 109 Supreme Court of South Australia 45, 64, 223 4, 239, 250 Supreme Court of Tasmania Supreme Court of the USA 82 3, , 135, 137 8, Supreme Court of Victoria 84n102, 109, 159n21, 160, 204 susceptibility to later harm, negligence causing development of case law Tasmania tests, absence of 6 7, 259 third party intervention 45, 47 9 criminal 70 deliberate United Kingdom conduct necessary to exercise legal rights or privileges contributory negligence of the plaintiff 246 dangerous chattels and substances 237 9, defamation/publication deliberate human action 71 7 disease contracted due to lowered vitality escape from danger , escape from inconvenience , 216 extraordinary natural phenomena 135 6, 137 foresight test 32 9 infection of injuries 144, 145 intervening conduct of children 200 3, intervening gross negligence 126 7

7 Index 273 intervening negligence as novus actus interveniens 125 intervening negligent omissions , 131 interventions by animals last opportunity rule 246 maritime incidents medical negligence harm 220 1, negligent inspection negligent rescue attempts novus actus interveniens and remoteness of damage ordinary intervening negligent acts probability test 91 5 reasonableness test 52 9 refusal to accept medical treatment 181, rescue cases scope of risk approach suicide cases wrongful birth claims 184 United States of America (USA) contributory negligence escape from danger 211 extraordinary natural phenomena 135 foresight test 42 3 intermediate appellate courts intervening conduct of children 204 5, intervening criminal conduct 81 3 intervening gross negligence 128 intervening negligence case 21 maritime incidents medical negligence normality approach ordinary intervening negligent acts 121, 124 probability test 95 6 proximate cause formula in nineteenth century 13 reasonableness test 61 rescue cases rescue of property 195 scope of risk approach Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals 124 suicide cases superseding cause doctrine 25 7 Supreme Court 82 3, , 135, 137 8, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania 122 wrongful birth claims 183n73 unreasonable intervening conduct see also reasonableness test vandalism, intervening acts of 41 Victorian Court of Appeal 109 voluntariness. see deliberate intervention Wagon Mound cases 10, 33, 36, 253 warnings, inadequate Williams, G. 140 workers compensation cases 144 6, 155 7, 171 2, 177 9, 181, 249 wrongful birth 183 5

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