Trust and Reputation Management in P2P Networks

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1 CEC 2004 Trust and Reputation Management in P2P Networks Zoran Despotovic, Karl Aberer EPFL I&C Distributed Information Systems Laboratory

2 Outline slide 2

3 Motivation slide 3

4 P2P Systems Basics slide 4

5 Unstructured P2P Networks Find I have "brick_in_the_wall.mp3" in slide 5

6 Structured P2P Networks slide 6

7 Structured P2P Example??? 0?? 1?? 00? 01? 10? 11? peer 1 peer 2 peer 3 peer 4 slide 7

8 Outline slide 8

9 General Definition slide 9

10 Example slide 10

11 Problem Statement slide 11

12 Trust Multigraph vs. P2P Overlay Network slide 12

13 Classification Criteria slide 13

14 Trust and Trust Models slide 14

15 Assumed Peer Behavior slide 15

16 Peer Behavior Examples slide 16

17 Outline slide 17

18 Solution Classes slide 18

19 Social Networks slide 19

20 Exponential Feedback Aggregation slide 20

21 Synchronous Feedback Aggregation slide 21

22 Further Possibilities slide 22

23 Main Properties slide 23

24 Probabilistic Estimation Techniques slide 24

25 Bayesian Estimation slide 25

26 Maximum Likelihood Estimation slide 26

27 Method Performance [0,1] case slide 27

28 Probabilistic Estimation Main Properties slide 28

29 Game-theoretic Reputation Models slide 29

30 Strategic Game slide 30

31 Nash Equilibrium slide 31

32 Bayesian Games slide 32

33 Repeated Games slide 33

34 Repeated Games - Example slide 34

35 Reputation Modeling Basics slide 35

36 Reputation Modeling Main Results slide 36

37 Advanced Reputation Models slide 37

38 Imperfect Private Monitoring Example [Del03] slide 38

39 Game-theoretic Reputation Models - Discussion slide 39

40 Outline slide 40

41 Comparative Analysis slide 41

42 Conclusions slide 42

43 Research Issues slide 43

44 References [Abe01] Karl Aberer. P-grid: A self-organizing access structure for p2p information systems. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Cooperative Information Systems (CoopIS 2001), Trento, Italy, September 5-7, [Abe02] Karl Aberer. Scalable data access in P2P systems using unbalanced search trees. In Proceedings of Workshop on Distributed Data and Structures (WDAS-2002), Paris, France, [AD01] K. Aberer and Z. Despotovic. Managing trust in a Peer-2-Peer information system. In Proc. of the IX International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, Atlanta, Georgia, November [APHS02] K. Aberer, M. Punceva, M. Hauswirth, and R. Schmidt. Improving data access in P2P systems. IEEE Internet Computing, 6(1):58-67, [APS90] D. Abreu, D. Pearce, and E. Stachetti. Toward a theory of discounted repeated games with imperfect monitoring. Econometrica, 58: , [Axe84] R. Axelrod. The Evolution of Cooperation. Basic Books, New York, [BBK94] T. Beth, M. Borcherding, and B. Klein. Valuation of trust in open networks. In Proceedings of the European Symposium on Re- search in Computer Security (ESORICS), pages 3-18, Brighton, UK, Springer-Verlag. [BKO02] G. Bolton, E. Katok, and A. Ockenfels. How effective are online reputation mechanisms? an experimental investigation. Discussion paper , Max Planck Institute for Research into Economic Systems, Germany, ftp://ftp.mpiew-jena.mpg.de/pub/esi/discussionpapers/ pdf. [BLB03] S. Buchegger and J. Y. Le Boudec. The effect of rumor spreading in reputation systems for mobile ad-hoc networks. In Proc. of WiOpt `03: Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks, Sophia-Antipolis, France, [Cli01] Clip2. The gnutella protocol specification v0.4 (document revision 1.2). ocol_0.4.pdf, Jun [CMH+02] Ian Clarke, Scott G. Miller, Theodore W. Hong, Oskar Sandberg, and Brandon Wiley. Protecting free expression online with freenet. IEEE Internet Computing, 6(1):40-49, [CSWH00] Ian Clarke, Oskar Sandberg, Brandon Wiley, and Theodore W. Hong. Freenet: A distributed anonymous information storage and retrieval system. In ICSI Workshop on Design Issues in Anonymity, Berkeley, CA, July [DA04] Z. Despotovic and K. Aberer. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Peers' Performances in P2P Networks. In Second Workshop on the Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems, Cambridge, MA, USA, Available at [DBK+01] Frank Dabek, Emma Brunskill, M. Frans Kaashoek, David Karger, Robert Morris, Ion Stoica, and Hari Balakrishnan. Building Peer-to-Peer systems with Chord, a distributed lookup service. In Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HotOS-VIII), pages 81-86, slide 44

45 References [Del00] C. Dellarocas. Immunizing online reputation reporting systems against unfair ratings and discriminatory behavior. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM conference on Electronic Commerce, Minneapolis, USA, October [Del03] C. Dellarocas. Efficiency and robustness of binary feedback mechanisms in trading environments with moral hazard. Working paper , MIT, [FG02] E. Fehr and S. Gächter. Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature, 14: , [FKM90] D. Fudenberg, D. Kreps, and E. Maskin. Repeated games with long-run and short-run players. Review of Economic Studies, 57: , [FL89] D. Fudenberg and D. Levine. Reputation and equilibrium selection in games with a patient player. Econometrica, 57(4): , [FL92] D. Fudenberg and D. Levine. Maintaining a reputation when strategies are imperfectly observed. Review of Economic Studies, 59: , [FM86] D. Fudenberg and E. Maskin. The folk theorem in repeated games with discounting or incomplete information. Econometrica, 54: , [Har68] J.C. Harsanyi. Games with incomplete information played by 'bayesian' players. Management Science, 14: , , , [HW01] D. Houser and J. Wooders. Reputation in auctions: Theory and evidence from ebay. Working paper, University of Arizona, [Kan02] M. Kandori. Introduction to repeated games with private monitoring. Journal of Economic Theory, 102:1-15, [KSGM03] S. D. Kamvar, M. T. Schlosser, and H. Garcia-Molina. Eigenrep: Reputation management in p2p networks. In Proceedings of the World Wide Web Conference, Budapest, Hungary, [KW82] D. Kreps and R. Wilson. Reputation and imperfect information. Journal of Economic Theory, 27: , [LCC+02] Qin Lv, Pei Cao, Edith Cohen, Kai Li, and Scott Shenker. Search and replication in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. In International Conference on Supercomputing, pages 84-95, [MA02] M. I. Melnik and J. Alm. Does a seller's ecommerce reputation matter? evidence from ebay auctions. Journal of Industrial Economics, 50(3): , [MMH02] L. Mui, M. Mohtashemi, and A. Halberstadt. A computational model of trust and reputation. In Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Science (HICSS), slide 45

46 References [MRZ02] N. Miller, P. Resnick, and R. Zeckhauser. Eliciting honest feedback in electronic markets. Working paper, SITE02 workshop, Available at: presnick/papers/elicit/. [PBMW98] L. Page, S. Brin, R. Motwani, and T. Winograd. The PageRank citation ranking: Bringing order to the web. Technical report, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, [RAD03] M. Richardson, R. Agrawal, and P. Domingos. Trust management for the semantic web. In Proceedings of the Second International Semantic Web Conference, pages , Sanibel Island, FL, [RD01] Antony I. T. Rowstron and Peter Druschel. Pastry: Scalable, decentralized object location, and routing for large-scale peerto-peer systems. In ACM International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms (Middleware), pages , [RFH+01] Sylvia Ratnasamy, Paul Francis, Mark Handley, Richard Karp, and Scott Shenker. A scalable content-addressable network. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM '01, pages , [RWE+01] Sean Rhea, Chris Wells, Patrick R. Eaton, Dennis Geels, Ben Y. Zhao, Hakim Weatherspoon, and John Kubiatowicz. Maintenance- free global data storage. IEEE Internet Computing, 5(5):40-49, [RZ02] P. Resnick and R. Zeckhauser. Trust among strangers in inter- net transactions: Empirical analysis of ebay's reputation system. In Michael R. Baye, editor, The Economics of the Internet and E-Commerce, volume 11 of Advances in Applied Microeconomics. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science, [RZFKw00] P. Resnick, R. Zeckhauser, E. Friedman, and K. Kuwabara. Reputation systems. Communications of the ACM, 43(12):45-48, December [Sel78] R. Selten. The chain-store paradox. Theory and Decision, 9: , [SMK+01] Ion Stoica, Robert Morris, David Karger, Frans Kaashoek, and Hari Balakrishnan. Chord: A scalable peer-to-peer lookup service for internet applications. In Proceedings of the 2001 ACM SIGCOMM Conference, pages , [Usu01] Jean-Claude Usunier. Trust management in computer information systems. Working paper, IUMI, HEC, University of Lausanne, Switzerland, [XL04] L. Xiong and L. Liu. Peertrust: Supporting reputation-based trust in peer-to-peer communities. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering (TKDE), Special Issue on Peer-to-Peer Based Data Management, [YS00] B. Yu and M. P. Singh. A social mechanism of reputation management in electronic communities. In Proceedings of Fourth International Workshop on Cooperative Information Agents, pages , [ZMM99] G. Zacharia, A. Moukas, and P. Maes. Collaborative reputation mechanisms in electronic marketplaces. In Proceedings of 32nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA, slide 46

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