Fred Below & Adam Henninger. Crop Physiology Laboratory Department of Crop Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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1 Fred Below & Adam Henninger Crop Physiology Laboratory Department of Crop Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

2 Quest for 300 Bushel Corn 9 billion people by 2050 requires a doubling of grain production including corn 300 bu corn produced each year in the U.S. National Corn Growers Contest

3 Quest for 300 Bushel Corn Herman Warsaw s farm Saybrook, IL July 1985

4 Quest for 300 Bushel Corn Intelligent Intensification with the Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World What are the factors that have the biggest impact on corn yield each year?

5 Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World Ranks those factors that each year can have a positive (and sometimes negative) impact on corn yield Gives each factor an average bushel per acre value

6 Crucial Prerequisites, but not Yield Wonders Drainage Pest/Weed Control Proper soil ph & adequate levels of P and K based on soil tests

7 Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World Rank Factor Value bu/acre Weather 70+ Nitrogen 70 Hybrid 50 Previous Crop 25 Plant Population 20 Tillage 15 Growth Regulators 10 Given key prerequisites

8 220 Weather and Nitrogen Grain yield (bu acre -1 ) Same site DeKalb, IL Fertilizer N rate (lb acre -1 )

9 Grain yield (bu acre -1 ) Weather and Nitrogen D Nitrogen 2005 D Weather Same site Champaign, IL Fertilizer N rate (lb acre -1 )

10 Grain yield (bu/acre) Better N Use with Biotechnology Traits 220 Hybrid Pair 1 Hybrid Pair Rootworm control Insecticide Biotech resistant Fertilizer N rate (lb/acre) Champaign, IL 2008

11 Greater Nutrient Removal with Grain as a Result of Biotechnology Traits Nutrient Non RW resistant Root worm resistant Difference bushels or lbs/acre removed % Yield N P K S Zn (oz) Champaign, IL 2008, average of two hybrid pairs

12 Grain Yield is a Product Function of Yield Components Yield = (plants/acre) x (kernels/plant) x (weight/kernel)

13 Some Examples of Yield Component Combinations for Different Yields 200 bushels = 32,000 plants/ac x 550 kernels/plant x 250 mg/kernel 250 bushels = 36,000 plants/ac x 600 kernels/plant x 255 mg/kernel 300 bushels? = 45,000 plants/ac x 565 kernels/plant x 260 mg/kernel

14 Plant Competition Can Decrease Yield Grain yield (bu acre -1 ) Champaign, IL 2009 Plant population (x10 3 acre -1 )

15 Are Twin Rows a way to increase Plant Population? Champaign, 2009

16 Leaf Greening from Strobliurin Fungicides Leaves greener 50 days after VT application

17 Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World Rank Factor Given key prerequisites Weather Nitrogen Hybrid Previous Crop Plant Population Tillage Growth Regulators TOTAL Value bu/acre bu

18 How to Get 300 Bushels? Provide better prerequisites, especially mineral nutrients Optimize each of the seven wonders and their positive interactions

19 Prerequisites for 300 Bushels? Proper soil ph & adequate levels of P and K based on soil tests Fertility- Use technology to apply required amounts of nutrients each year, Sulfur & Micronutrients?

20 How to Get 300 Bushels? Better prerequisites along with packages of optimized yield wonders. Is the value of combined factors greater than their individual impact?

21 Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World Rank Factor Weather Nitrogen Hybrid Previous Crop Plant Population Tillage Growth Regulators Total Improved Fertility Prerequisites Value bu/acre bu

22 Standard vs. High Tech Package Fertility Nitrogen Genetics No P or K based on soil test 100 lbs P 2 O 5 as MESZ (N, P, S, & Zn) 180 lbs pre-plant as UAN 100 lbs extra N sidedress as Super-U RR Refuge Hybrid Triple stack Hybrid Both with soil insecticide at planting Population 32,000 plants/ac vs 45,000 plants/ac Fungicide No Fungicide Both in 30 inch rows and twin rows in 2010 Strobilurin Fungicide R1)

23 High-Yield Omissions Study, Ears from 1/1000 of an acre High Technology Package Standard Practice

24 Add Technology Remove Technology Omission Plot Experimental Design FACTORS TREATMENT Fertility Nitrogen Genetics Population Fungicide HIGH TECH MESZ Base + Slow release Triple stack 45,000 Strobilurin Fertility No P & K Base + Slow release Triple stack 45,000 Strobilurin Nitrogen MESZ Base Triple stack 45,000 Strobilurin Genetics MESZ Base + Slow release Refuge 45,000 Strobilurin Population MESZ Base + Slow release Triple stack 32,000 Strobilurin Fungicide MESZ Base + Slow release Triple stack 45,000 none STANDARD No P & K Base Refuge 32,000 none Fertility MESZ Base Refuge 32,000 none Nitrogen No P & K Base + Slow release Refuge 32,000 none Genetics No P & K Base Triple stack 32,000 none Population No P & K Base Refuge 45,000 none Fungicide No P & K Base Refuge 32,000 Strobilurin

25 Omission Plots All Sites in both Years Medium to high soil P & K 180 lb base N as UAN RW traited & Non-RW isolines Soybean as previous crop Conventional tillage Champaign Weather Wet spring in both years Abnormally cool throughout 2009 Abnormally hot during grain fill in 2010 Dixon Springs

26 Standard vs High-Tech 2009 Standard High Tech Factor Yield D Yield D bu acre -1 None or All Fertility Nitrogen Genetics Population Fungicide LSD (p<0.10) = 7 Data from Champaign and Dixon Springs

27 Standard vs High-Tech 2010 Standard High Tech Factor Yield D Yield D bu acre -1 None or All Fertility Nitrogen Genetics Population Fungicide LSD (p<0.10) = 7 Data from Champaign and Dixon Springs

28 Standard vs High-Tech Two Years Standard High Tech Factor Yield D Yield D bu acre -1 None or All Fertility Nitrogen Genetics Population Fungicide LSD (p<0.10) = 6 Data from Champaign and Dixon Springs

29 Standard vs High Tech Package Fertility Nitrogen Genetics No or fall P or K based on soil test 100 lbs P 2 O 5 as MESZ (N,P, S, & Zn) banded 4-6 directly under row at planting 180 lbs pre-plant as urea 180 lbs pre-plant SuperU + 60 lbs sidedress urea with Agrotain Low Management Yield Potential High Management Yield Potential Both triple-stack with soil insecticide at planting Population 32,000 plants/ac vs 45,000 plants/ac Both final stand in 30 inch and twin rows Fungicide No Fungicide Headline-Amp or R1

30 Omission Plots plots at 5 sites with Banded fertility at planting Different MYP hybrids Twin rows vs 30 inch Different fungicides Weather Different planting dates Different growing conditions Rushville Springfield DeKalb Champaign Harrisburg

31 Improved Growth with Spring-Banded MESZ Champaign, IL 2011

32 No Corn Plant Left Behind Standard Technology High Technology Champaign, IL 2011

33 Weather Conditions During the 2011 Growing Season at Champaign, IL 110 Planting Maximum daily temperature Minimum daily temperature 10 year average ( ) maximum daily temperature 10 year average ( ) minimum daily temperature Daily precipitatation R1 R Ambient temperature ( o F) Precipitation (inches) Julian day

34 Omission Plot Experiments in Illinois is 2011 Number Location Omission plot name 1 Rushville DeKalb hybrid comparison 2 Champaign DeKalb hybrid comparison 3 Champaign Pioneer omission plot 4 Champaign Twin row omission plot 5 Pleasant Plains DeKalb hybrid comparison 6 Champaign Non-irrigated omission plot 7 Champaign 30-inch omission plot 8 Harrisburg 30-inch omission plot 9 Champaign Syngenta omission plot 10 Champaign Irrigated omission plot 11 Champaign DeKalb hybrid comparison 12 Harrisburg Twin row omission plot

35 Yield Response from High-Tech Management in 2011 Management response (bu acre -1 ) Avg. = 26 bu acre Omission Plot Experiment (sorted)

36 2011 Omission Plot at Champaign, IL Standard High Tech Factor Yield Δ Yield Δ bushels acre None or all Fertility Nitrogen Genetics Population Fungicide LSD (P 0.1) = 16

37 Hybrid Adjusted Yield Response from High-Tech Management Management response (bu acre -1 ) Avg. = 33 bu acre Omission Plot Experiment (sorted)

38 Value of Input Factors with Standard or High-Tech Factor Standard High Tech Δ bushels acre Fertility Nitrogen 8 11 Population Fungicide 3 8 Average of 12 individual trials in Illinois in 2011

39 Conclusions Yield gains are possible from a systems approach to crop management that combines individual practices known to impact yield The factor or factors which drive increased yield in the high-tech package depend on the weather

40 Conclusions Increasing plant population may be the foundation for pushing higher yields, but it must be managed Selecting the right hybrid for the high-tech package is crucial, especially in a stressful environment

41 Personnel Brad Bandy Tom Boas Ryan Becker Ross Bender Fernando Cantao Laura Gentry Jason Haegele Cole Hendrix Adam Henninger Jim Kleiss Bianca Moura Matías Ruffo Juliann Seebauer Martín Uribelarrea Mike Vincent Kyle Vogelzang Wendy White Acknowledgements Financial Support AGCO AgroFresh AgroTain BASF Dawn Equipment Dow AgroSciences GrowMark Honeywell Illinois Corn Marketing Board Illinois Fertilizer Research Council Monsanto Mosaic Orthman Pioneer Rosen s Inc. Syngenta Valent BioSciences WinField Solutions

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