Best Practices Guidebook for Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Freight Transportation

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1 Best Practices Guidebook for Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Freight Transportation Final Report Prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation via Center for Transportation and the Environment Prepared by H. Christopher Frey and Po-Yao Kuo Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina USA October 4, 2007

2 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS/ DISCLAIMER This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Transportation via Center for Transportation and the Environment. The authors are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of either the U.S. Department of Transportation or the Center for Transportation and the Environment at the time of publication. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. i

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...ES-1 ES.1 Background... ES-1 ES.2 Study Methodology... ES-1 ES.3 Identification of Best Practices and Their Estimated Reductions in GHG Emissions, Energy Use and Refrigerant Use... ES-4 ES.4 Quantitative Assessment Results... ES- ES.5 Major Findings... ES-12 ES. Recommendations... ES PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND Purpose of This Guidebook Background Using This Guidebook DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS Best Practices for Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Freight Transportation Modes of Freight Transportation Subgroup Responsible Parties Target Parties Greenhouse Gas Emissions Strategy Types for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Technological Strategies Operational Strategies Practice Goals Developmental Status METHODOLOGY Literature Review Reductions in GHG Emissions, and Energy or Refrigerant Use, for Individual Best Practices Quantitative Assessments of Best Practices Quantifying Cost Implications Summarizing and Reporting the Results Qualitative Assessments of Best Practices Aggregated Reductions in GHG Emissions, Energy or Refrigerant Use for Multiple Best Practices ii

4 3. Intermodal Substitution BEST PRACTICES FOR THE TRUCK MODE Anti-Idling Best Practice 1-1: Off-Board Truck Stop Electrification Best Practice 1-2: Truck-Board Truck Stop Electrification Best Practice 1-3: Auxiliary Power Units Best Practice 1-4: Direct-Fired Heaters Best Practice 1-5: Direct-Fired Heaters with Thermal Storage Units Air Conditioning System Improvement Best Practice 1-: Enhanced Air Conditioning System I - for Direct Emissions Best Practice 1-7: Enhanced Air Conditioning System II - for Indirect Emissions Best Practice 1-8: Alternative Refrigerants - CO Best Practice 1-9: Alternative Refrigerants - HFC-152a Best Practice 1-: Alternative Refrigerants - HC Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Best Practice 1-11: Vehicle Profile Improvement I - Cab Top Deflector, Sloping Hood and Cab Side Flares Best Practice 1-12: Vehicle Profile Improvement II - Closing and Covering of Gap between Cab and Trailer or Van, Aerodynamic Bumper, Underside Air Baffles, and Wheel Well Covers Best Practice 1-13: Vehicle Profile Improvement III - Trailer or Van Leading and Trailing Edge Curvatures Best Practice 1-14: Pneumatic Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Best Practice 1-15: Planar Boat Tail Plates on a Tractor-Trailer Best Practice 1-1: Vehicle Load Profile Improvement Tire Rolling Resistance Improvement Best Practice 1-17: Automatic Tire Inflation Systems Best Practice 1-18: Wide-Base Tires Best Practice 1-19: Low-Rolling-Resistance Tires Best Practice 1-20: Pneumatic Blowing to Reducing Rolling Resistance Hybrid Propulsion Best Practice 1-21: Hybrid trucks Weight Reduction Best Practice 1-22: Lightweight Materials iii

5 4.7 Transmission Improvement Best Practice 1-23: Advanced Transmission Best Practice 1-24: Transmission Friction Reduction through Low-Viscosity Transmission Lubricants Diesel Engine Improvement Best Practice 1-25: Engine Friction Reduction through Low-Viscosity Engine Lubricants Best Practice 1-2: Increased Peak Cylinder Pressures Best Practice 1-27: Improved Fuel Injectors Best Practice 1-28: Turbocharged, Direct Injection to Improved Thermal Management Best Practice 1-29: Using Thermoelectric Technology to Recovery Waste Heat Accessory Load Reduction Best Practice 1-30: Electric Auxiliaries Best Practice 1-31: Fuel-Cell-Operated Auxiliaries Modifications in Driver Operational Practice Best Practice 1-32: Truck Driver Training Program Alternative Fuel Best Practice 1-33: B20 Biodiesel Fuel Summary of Potential Best Practices for the Truck Mode Comparisons of Modal GHG Emissions Reductions for the Best Practices Quantitative Cost Results for Selected Best Practices BEST PRACTICES FOR THE RAIL MODE Anti-Idling Best Practice 2-1: Combined Diesel Powered Heating and Auto Engine Start/Stop Systems Best Practice 2-2: Battery-Diesel Hybrid Switching Locomotive Best Practice 2-3: Plug-In Units Weight Reduction Best Practice 2-4: Lightweight Materials Rolling Resistance Improvement Best Practice 2-5: Lubrication Improvement Alternative Fuel Best Practice 2-: B20 Biodiesel Fuel for Locomotives Summary of Potential Best Practices for the Rail Mode Comparisons of the Modal GHG Emissions Reductions for the Best Practices Quantitative Cost Results for the Selected Best Practices BEST PRACTICES FOR THE AIR MODE...0 iv

6 .1 Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Best Practice 3-1: Surface Grooves Best Practice 3-2: Hybrid Laminar Flow Technology Best Practice 3-3: Blended Winglet Best Practice 3-4: Spiroid Tip Air Traffic Management Best Practice Weight Reduction Best Practice 3-: Airframe Weight Reduction Best Practice 3-7: Non-Essential Weight Reduction Ground Support Equipment Improvement Best Practice 3-8: Ground-Based Equipment as an Alternative to Auxiliary Power Units Best Practice 3-9: Electric or Hybrid Heavy Duty Delivery Trucks Engine Improvement Best Practice 3-: Improved Engine Overall Efficiency Summary of Potential Best Practices for the Air Mode....7 Comparisons of the Modal GHG Emissions Reductions for the Best Practices BEST PRACTICES FOR THE WATER MODE Propeller System Improvement Best Practice 4-1: Off-Center Propeller Best Practice 4-2: Propeller Boss Cap with Fins (PBCF) Best Practice 4-3: Auxiliary Free-Rotating Propulsion Device behind the Main Propeller Anti-Idling Best Practice 4-4: Shoreside Power for Marine Vessels at Ports Alternative Fuel Best Practice 4-5: B20 Biodiesel Fuel for Ships Summary of Potential Best Practices for the Water Mode Comparisons of the Modal GHG Emissions Reductions for the Best Practices Quantitative Cost Results for the Water Mode BEST PRACTICES FOR THE PIPELINE MODE Process Control Device Improvement Best Practice 5-1: Convert Natural Gas Pneumatic Controls to Instrument Air Best Practice 5-2: Replace High-Bleed Natural Gas Pneumatic Devices with Low-Bleed Pneumatic Devices Connecting Method Best Practice 5-3: Hot Tap Pipeline Connecting v

7 Method Maintenance Best Practice 5-4: Transfer Compression Best Practice 5-5: Inline Inspection Summary of Potential Best Practices for the Pipeline Mode Comparisons of the Modal GHG Emissions Reductions for the Best Practices Quantitative Cost Results for the Pipeline Mode SUMMARY AND COMPARISON OF GHG EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FOR ALL FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION MODES Truck Mode Rail Mode Air Mode Water Mode Pipeline Mode Intermodal Comparisons Total Modal GHG Emissions Reductions Comparisons of Best Practices Whose Costs Are Assessed Quantitatively Intermodal Substitutions CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Recommendations for Future Research Needs REFERENCES APPENDIX A. DETAILS OF INPUT DATA, ASSUMPTIONS, AND ESTIMATION RESULTS FOR TRUCK MODE BEST PRACTICES Appendix A.1 Best Practice 1-1: Off-Board Truck Stop Electrification Appendix A.2 Best Practice 1-2: Truck-Board Truck Stop Electrification Appendix A.3 Best Practice 1-3: Auxiliary Power Units Appendix A.4 Best Practice 1-4: Direct-Fired Heaters Appendix A.5 Best Practice 1-5: Direct-fired Heaters with Thermal Storage Units Appendix A. Best Practice 1-: Enhanced Air Conditioning System I - for Direct Emissions Appendix A.7 Best Practice 1-7: Enhanced Air Conditioning System II - for Indirect Emissions Appendix A.8 Best Practice 1-8: Alternative Refrigerants - CO vi

8 Appendix A.9 Best Practice 1-9: Alternative Refrigerants - HFC-152a Appendix A. Best Practice 1-: Alternative Refrigerants - HC Appendix A.11 Best Practice 1-11: Vehicle Profile Improvement I - Cab Top Deflector, Sloping Hood and Cab Side Flares Appendix A.12 Best Practice 1-12: Vehicle Profile Improvement II - Closing and Covering of Gap between Tractor and Trailer, Aerodynamic Bumper, Underside Air Baffles, and Wheel Well Covers... Appendix A.13 Best Practice 1-13: Vehicle Profile Improvement III - Trailer or Van Leading and Trailing Edge Curvatures Appendix A.14 Best Practice 1-14: Pneumatic Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Appendix A.15 Best Practice 1-15: Planar Boat Tail Plates on a Tractor-Trailer Appendix A.1 Best Practice 1-1: Vehicle Load Profile Improvement Appendix A.17 Best Practice 1-17: Automatic Tire Inflation Systems Appendix A.18 Best Practice 1-18: Wide-Base Tires... 1 Appendix A.19 Best Practice 1-19: Low-Rolling-Resistance Tires Appendix A.20 Best Practice 1-20: Pneumatic Blowing to Reducing Rolling Resistance Appendix A.21 Best Practice 1-21: Hybrid Trucks Appendix A.22 Best Practice 1-22: Lightweight Materials Appendix A.23 Best Practice 1-23: Advanced Transmission Appendix A.24 Best Practice 1-24: Transmission Friction Reduction through Low-Viscosity Transmission Lubricants Appendix A.25 Best Practice 1-25: Engine Friction Reduction through Low-Viscosity Engine Lubricants Appendix A.2 Best Practice 1-2: Increased Peak Cylinder Pressures Appendix A.27 Best Practice 1-27: Improved Fuel Injectors Appendix A.28 Best Practice 1-28: Turbocharged, Direct Injection to Improved Thermal Management Appendix A.29 Best Practice 1-29: Thermoelectric Technology to Recovery Waste Heat Appendix A.30 Best Practice 1-30: Electric Auxiliaries Appendix A.31 Best Practice 1-31: Fuel-Cell-Operated Auxiliaries Appendix A.32 Best Practice 1-32: Truck Driver Training Program Appendix A.33 Best Practice 1-33: B20 Biodiesel Fuel for Trucks APPENDIX B. DETAILS OF INPUT DATA, ASSUMPTIONS, AND ESTIMATION RESULTS FOR RAIL MODE BEST PRACTICES vii

9 Appendix B.1 Best Practice 2-1: Combined Diesel Powered Heating System and Auto Engine Start/Stop System Appendix B.2 Best Practice 2-2: Battery-Diesel Hybrid Switching Locomotive Appendix B.3 Best Practice 2-3: Plug-in Unit Appendix B.4 Best Practice 2-4: Light Weight Materials... 2 Appendix B.5 Best Practice 2-5: Lubrication Improvement Appendix B. Best Practice 2-: B20 Biodiesel Fuel for Locomotives APPENDIX C. DETAILS OF INPUT DATA, ASSUMPTIONS, AND ESTIMATION RESULTS FOR AIR MODE BEST PRACTICES Appendix C.1 Best Practice 3-1: Surface Grooves Appendix C.2 Best Practice 3-2: Hybrid Laminar Flow Technology Appendix C.3 Best Practice 3-3: Blended Winglet Appendix C.4 Best Practice 3-4: Spiroid Tip Appendix C.5 Best Practice 3-5: Air Traffic Management Improvement Appendix C. Best Practice 3-: Airframe Weight Reduction Appendix C.7 Best Practice 3-7: Non-Essential Weight Reduction Appendix C.8 Best Practice 3-8: Ground-Based Equipment as an Alternative to Auxiliary Power Units Appendix C.9 Best Practice 3-9: Electric or Hybrid Heavy Duty Delivery Trucks 225 Appendix C. Best Practice 3-: Improved Engine Overall Efficiency APPENDIX D. DETAILS OF INPUT DATA, ASSUMPTIONS, AND ESTIMATION RESULTS FOR WATER MODE BEST PRACTICES Appendix D.1 Best Practice 4-1: Off-Center Propeller Appendix D.2 Best Practice 4-2: Propeller Boss Cap with Fins Appendix D.3 Best Practice 4-3: Auxiliary Free-rotating Propulsion Device behind the Main Propellers Appendix D.4 Best Practice 4-4: Shoreside Power for Marine Vessels at Ports Appendix D.5 Best Practice 4-5: B20 Biodiesel Fuel for Ships APPENDIX E. DETAILS OF INPUT DATA, ASSUMPTIONS, AND ESTIMATION RESULTS FOR PIPELINE MODE BEST PRACTICES Appendix E.1 Best Practice 5-1: Convert Natural Gas Pneumatic Controls to Instrument Air Appendix E.2 Best Practice 5-2: Replace High-Bleed Natural Gas Pneumatic Devices with Low-Bleed Pneumatic Devices Appendix E.3 Best Practice 5-3: Hot Tap Method viii

10 Appendix E.4 Best Practice 5-4: Transfer Compression Appendix E.5 Best Practice 5-5: Inline Inspection APPENDIX F. FUEL PROPERTIES, CO 2 EMISSIONS COEFFICIENTS FOR FULES, AND AVERAGE UNIT FUEL COSTS FOR GUIDEBOOK APPENDIX F.1 Properties of Different Fuels F.1.1 Definitions of Fuel Properties F.1.2 Diesel Fuel...20 F.1.3 Jet Fuel...22 F.1.4 Biodiesel...23 F.1.5 Residual Fuel Oil...23 F.1. Natural Gas...24 APPENDIX F.2 CO 2 Emissions Coefficients for Different Fuels F.2.1 Diesel Fuel...25 F.2.2 Jet Fuel...25 F.2.3 Biodiesel...25 F.2.4 Residual Fuel Oil...25 F.2.5 Natural Gas...25 F.2. Comparison of CO 2 Emissions Coefficients of Different Fuels...2 APPENDIX F.3 Average Unit Costs for Different Fuels... 2 F.3.1 Diesel Fuel...2 F.3.2 Jet Fuel...2 F.3.3 Biodiesel...2 F.3.4 Residual Fuel Oil...27 F.3.5 Natural Gas...27 F.3. Comparison of Average Unit Cost of Different Fuels...27 ix

11 LIST OF TABLES Table ES- 1. Potential Best Practices and Their Potential Reductions in Modal GHG Emissions and Energy Use... ES-5 Table ES- 2. Summary of Potential GHG Emissions Reductions, Energy Use Reduction, Net Savings, Unit Net Savings, and Simple Pay-back Periods of Selected Best Practices... ES-11 Table 1-1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Freight Transportation Sector in Table 1-2. A Scenario of GHG Emissions from Freight Transportation from 2003 to Table 2-1. Truck Classifications by Weight, Number of Axles, and Number of Tires... 9 Table 3-1. Contribution of Selected Greenhouse Gases to Total Modes. 13 Table 3-2. The Format of Standardized Reporting Table... 1 Table 3-3. A Standardized List of Responsible Parties and Target Parties Table 3-4. The Format of Simplified Summary Table Table 4-1. List and Description of Potential Best Practices for the Truck Mode Table 4-2. Summary Table for the Comparison of the Quantitative Cost Results for Selected Best Practices for the Truck Mode Table 5-1. List and Description of Potential Best Practices for the Rail Mode Table 5-2. Summary Table for the Comparison of the Quantitative Cost Results for Selected Best Practices for the Rail Mode Table - 1. List and Description of Potential Best Practices for the Air Mode... 7 Table 7-1. List and Description of Potential Best Practices for the Water Mode... 7 Table 7-2. Summary Table for the Comparison of the Quantitative Cost Results for A Selected Best Practices for the Water Mode Table 8-1. List and Description of Potential Best Practices for the Pipeline Mode Table 8-2. Summary Table for the Comparison of the Quantitative Cost Results for Selected Best Practices for the Pipeline Mode Table 9-1. Potential Best Practices for the Truck Mode and the Estimated Reductions in GHG Emissions and Energy Use Table 9-2. Potential Best Practices for the Rail Mode and the Estimated Reductions in GHG Emissions and Energy Use... 9 Table 9-3. Potential Best Practices for the Air Mode and the Estimated Reductions in GHG Emissions and Energy Use Table 9-4. Potential Best Practices for the Water Mode and the Estimated Reductions in GHG Emissions and Energy Use... 0 x

12 Table 9-5. Table 9-. Potential Best Practices for the Pipeline Mode and the Estimated Reductions in GHG Emissions and Energy Use... 2 Quantitative Summary of Reductions in GHG Emissions, Energy Use, and Costs of Selected Best Practices... xi

13 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1-1 Overview of the Organization and Content of This Guidebook....5 Figure 4-1. Reductions in Modal GHG Emissions for the Best Practices for the Truck Mode...49 Figure 5-1. Reductions in Modal GHG Emissions for the Best Practices for the Rail Mode..57 Figure - 1. Reductions in Modal GHG Emissions for the Best Practices for the Air Mode...71 Figure 7-1. Reductions in Modal GHG Emissions for the Best Practices for the Water Mode...80 Figure 8-1. Reductions in Modal GHG Emissions for Best Practices for the Pipeline Mode..87 Figure 9-1. Total Modal 2025 GHG Emissions Reductions Based on Simultaneous Implementation of Multiple Best Practices in Each Mode...4 Figure 9-2. Magnitudes of the Total Modal 2025 GHG Emissions Reductions Based on Simultaneous Implementation of Multiple Best Practices for Each Mode...5 Figure 9-3. Estimated GHG Emissions per Unit of Freight Transport of Each Mode...8 xii

14 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ES.1 Background Freight transportation is comprised of five major modes: truck, rail, air, water, and pipeline. Freight transportation accounts for approximately 9% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. 1-3 The individual contributions of each of the five freight transportation modes to total freight transportation GHG emissions are 0,, 5, 13, and 1 percent, respectively. Energy use for all modes could increase by 75% from 2003 to 2030, based on a long-term energy trend scenario in the Energy Information Administration s Annual Energy Outlook Since energy use for freight transportation is expected to increase significantly in the next 25 years, and because GHG emissions are largely based on energy use, GHG emissions will also increase significantly. Governments and the freight industry recognize the need for solutions to meet future challenges for GHG emissions reductions. 2,5 There are a growing number of technological and operational strategies, existing or developing, that could reduce GHG emissions. Disseminating information regarding these technological and operational strategies can facilitate decision making to achieve reductions in energy use and GHG emissions. This guidebook presents a survey of potential best practices for reducing energy use and GHG emissions in freight transportation. The report characterizes each potential best practice in order to serve the information needs of decision makers and responsible parties. ES.2 Study Methodology The methodology includes reviewing literature to identify best practices, assessing maximum reductions in GHG emissions and energy or refrigerant use for individual best practices and of multiple best practices, assessing cost savings, and summarizing and reporting assessment results. The GHG emissions of interest here are CO 2, methane (CH 4 ), and refrigerants. CO 2 has a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. Methane has a global warming potential of 21. The currently widely used refrigerant, HFC-134a, has a GWP of 1,300. However, methane and refrigerant are emitted in smaller mass amounts than CO 2. A potential best practice is an existing or developing strategy or technology that is expected to lead to reductions in energy use, refrigerant use, and greenhouse gas emissions. Potential best practices are identified based on literature review. The potential best practices are categorized by subgroups based on the factors that the practices can improve, or the technologies that vehicles or devices may apply, to reduce GHG emissions. ES-1

15 The potential reduction in GHG emission and energy or refrigerant use for each potential best practice is estimated based on what may be achievable by Reductions are compared to estimated 2025 GHG emissions if none of these best practices are adopted. While the scope of this work includes estimate of GHG emissions, energy use, and refrigerant use, in most cases, significant reductions in GHG emissions achievable with potential best practices are associated with reductions in energy use.. The potential per-device reductions in GHG emissions, energy or refrigerant use for an individual potential best practice are estimated based on the results of literature review. Per-device reductions for each potential best practice, except for alternative fuel strategies, are estimated based on the differences in per-device emissions, energy use or refrigerant use with and without the use of this potential best practice. Reductions for alternative fuel strategies are estimated based on life cycle inventories. Each practice may only be applicable to a fraction of all devices within a mode. Identified potential best practices are categorized with respect to developmental status: commercially available, pilot tests, and new concepts. Commercially available systems can be purchased or implemented now. Potential best practices based on pilot tests may be available within five to ten years, whereas those that are new concepts may require research, development, and demonstration that could vary in duration. An assumption is made that each potential best practice reaches a best estimate of maximum market penetration by Technical, practical, and cost barriers are not quantified here. Actual market penetration may be lower than estimated. However, the estimates provide a useful upper bound as to what might be achieved if adoption of such practices is encouraged. Potential best practices are grouped by subgroup. Subgroups are based on similar objectives or methods. An example is aerodynamic drag reduction. Aggregate reductions in modal GHG emissions and energy or refrigerant use for a subgroup are estimated based on a simple linear combination of the reductions for multiple potential best practices within the subgroup, except in some situations. In some cases, two or more practices within a subgroup are mutually exclusive because they cannot be used simultaneously. In the case of mutual exclusion, the practice with the highest estimated reduction is used in the estimate of total reductions for the subgroup. For example, three alternative refrigerants for air conditioning systems that could be used as potential best practices are mutually exclusive. Only one refrigerant can be used in an air conditioning system. CO 2 is chosen here because it has the lowest GWP compared to the other candidate refrigerants and its potential reductions in modal GHG emissions are the highest. Thus, the estimates do not double count mutually exclusive practices. For some potential best practices, it is possible that they could be implemented ES-2

16 simultaneously but that they may interact. Thus, the total reduction may not be a simple linear combination of the reductions of each practice. An example would be several practices that reduce aerodynamic drag of a truck. However, there is a lack of data upon which to quantify the overall reduction associated with interactions among multiple practices within a subgroup. Therefore, these interactive effects are not quantified. The linear combination may tend to overestimate the maximum possible reduction for the subgroup. Such situations are noted. For all potential best practices, a quantitative estimate is made of the potential reductions in energy use, GHG emissions, and refrigerant leakage. However, for many potential best practices, inadequate data are available for assessment of cost. Quantitative assessments for cost effectiveness are performed, where sufficient data are available for: practice cost; energy or refrigerant cost reduction; and total net cost savings. Total net cost savings is the difference between annual energy or refrigerant cost savings and the annualized costs, the latter of which include levelized capital costs and annual operation and maintenance costs. Net savings per unit of GHG emissions reductions are estimated by normalizing total net savings with respect to GHG emissions reductions. A positive value of net savings means that the practice will pay for itself over some period of time, whereas a negative value means that the annualized costs exceed savings associated with reductions in energy use or refrigerant use. A standardized reporting table, which includes three parts, is used to report the quantitative characteristics and assessment results of individual potential best practices. The first part summarizes characteristics, including: practice name; applicable mode type; subgroup; responsible parties; target parties; targeted GHGs; strategy type; practice goals; developmental status; and practice summary The second part includes: the magnitude of transport activity for the whole mode; the magnitude of transport activity to which the practice is applicable; total annual modal reductions in GHG emissions, energy use, and refrigerant use; and reductions of each per unit of freight transport. The third part includes: annualized costs; energy or refrigerant costs savings; net savings per unit of reductions in GHG emissions and energy or refrigerant use; and simple payback periods. The effects of the potential best practices where cost quantitative data are not available are discussed qualitatively in a structured approach. A simplified summary table, which includes four parts, is used to report the qualitative assessment results. The first part is technological information, including: practice name; applicable mode type; subgroup; responsible parties; target parties; target GHGs of interest; strategy type; practice goals for GHG emissions reduction; developmental status; and a brief summary of the practice. The second part includes quantitative estimates of the potential modal reductions in GHG emissions, energy use or refrigerant use for individual potential best practices. The third part is cost information, which can be any available knowledge, such as assumptions regarding capital cost, cost ES-3

17 premiums or cost savings, and retail price impacts reported in the literature. The fourth part describes the benefits and the drawbacks of the practice. ES.3 Identification of Potential Best Practices and Their Estimated Reductions in GHG Emissions, Energy Use and Refrigerant Use A total of 59 strategies have been identified as potential best practices in freight transportation. There are 33,,, 5, and 5 potential best practices for the truck, rail, air, water, and pipeline modes, respectively. Over half of the total number of potential best practices is for the truck mode. Reduction in energy use is the basis of GHG emissions reductions for 51 of the potential best practices. One practice can reduce direct GHG emissions but increases direct energy use. For 3 practices, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced but life cycle energy use may be increased. Four strategies, which are potential best practices for the air conditioning system improvement subgroup for the truck mode, can reduce GHG emissions by reducing refrigerant leakage rate or by using low global-warming-potential refrigerants. Table ES-1 summarizes key aspects of the characteristics and potential reductions in modal GHG emissions and energy use for individual potential best practices. The magnitude of aggregate reductions in 2025 for each subgroup is also summarized in Table ES-1. The reported reductions are the difference between 2025 GHG emissions (or energy use) with and without use of potential best practices in a subgroup. For cases of mutual exclusivity within a subgroup, one estimate of the reductions is given. For cases of multiple practice interaction, a simple linear combination of the reductions is applied, which may tend to overestimate the maximum possible reduction for the subgroup. The potential total GHG emissions reduction by 2025 for all 59 potential best practices is estimated as 4. 8 tons CO 2 eq. If no potential best practices are implemented, the total GHG emissions by 2025 for the freight transportation are estimated to be tons CO 2 eq. If all potential best practices are implemented, the total GHG emissions for the freight transportation are estimated to be.4 8 tons CO 2 eq. Thus, total estimated GHG emissions reductions by 2025 for all potential best practices, 4. 8 tons CO 2 eq., is estimated to be 42% of 2025 GHG emissions if no potential best practice is implemented. Most of these estimated reductions (4.4 8 tons CO 2 eq. out of a total reduction of 4. 8 tons CO 2 eq.) are attributed to an estimated energy use reduction of BTU. A small portion of these estimated reductions ( tons CO 2 eq.) is attributed to refrigerant leakage rate reduction or use of low global-warming-potential refrigerants. ES-4

18 Table ES- 1. Potential Best Practices and Their Potential Reductions in Modal GHG Emissions and Energy Use Mode Subgroup a I.D. No. Brief Name of Potential Best Practice Developmental Status b Potential Reduction in Modal GHG Emissions c Potential Reduction in Modal Energy Use d The Magnitude of Aggregate GHG Emissions Reductions in 2025 for Each Subgroup ( Tons CO 2 eq.) e The Magnitude of Aggregate Energy Use Reduction in 2025 for Each Subgroup ( 15 BTU) f Truck Anti-Idling (E) Air Conditioning System Improvement (B) Continued on next page a b c d e f g 1-1 Off-Board Truck Stop Electrification C L L 1-2 Truck-Board Truck Stop Electrification C L L 1-3 Auxiliary Power Units C M M 1-4 Direct-Fired Heaters C M M 1-5 Direct-Fired Heaters with Thermal Storage Units P M M 1- Enhanced Air Conditioning System I - for Direct Emissions P L - Enhanced Air Conditioning 1-7 System II - for Indirect C L L Emissions 1-8 Alternative Refrigerants - CO 2 N M Alternative Refrigerants - HFC-152a N M - 1- Alternative Refrigerants - HC N M g 0.02 Some best practices within a subgroup are mutually exclusive or have interactions. (E) = mutually exclusive within a subgroup; (I) = interaction within a subgroup; and (B) = some best practices are mutually exclusive and some have interactions within a subgroup. Developmental status: N = new concepts; P = pilot tests; C = commercially available systems. New concepts include basic research activities, applied research activities, and experiments at laboratory level. Pilot tests include testing prototype vehicles and demonstration projects. Commercially available systems can be purchased or implemented now. Potential reductions in modal GHG emissions are estimated based on the difference in 2025 modal emissions with and without the selected best practice divided by the total modal emissions if no best practices are implemented. These potential reductions are categorized into three ranges: low (L) (0% - 1%), medium (M) (1% - 4%), and high (H) (> 4%). Potential reductions in modal energy use are estimated based on the difference in 2025 modal energy use with and without the selected best practice divided by the total modal energy use if no best practices are implemented. These potential reductions are categorized into four ranges: low (L) (0% - 1%), medium (M) (1% - 4%), high (H) (> 4%), and negative (NG) (energy increases). - refers to no reduction. These reductions are estimated based on the difference between 2025 modal emissions with and without implementation of the representative best practices of the subgroup. As noted in the text, only one best practice is selected if multiple practices within a subgroup are mutually exclusive. For cases of multiple interactions, a simple linear combination of the reductions is applied. These reductions are estimated based on the difference between 2025 modal energy use with and without implementation of the representative best practices of the subgroup. Of the reported value, 17.8 tons CO 2 eq. aggregated GHG emission reduction is attributed to refrigerant leakage rate reduction or use of low global-warming-potential refrigerants. ES-5

19 Table ES-1. Continued Mode Subgroup a I.D. No. Brief Name of Potential Best Practice Developmental Status b Potential Reduction in Modal GHG Emissions c Potential Reduction in Modal Energy Use d The Magnitude of Aggregate GHG Emissions Reductions in 2025 for Each Subgroup ( Tons CO 2 eq.) e The Magnitude of Aggregate Energy Use Reduction in 2025 for Each Subgroup ( 15 BTU) f Truck Truck Cab Top Deflector, Sloping 1-11 Hood and Cab Side Flares C M M Closing and Covering of Gap Between Tractor and Trailer, 1-12 Aerodynamic Bumper, C M M Underside Air Baffles, and Wheel Well Covers Aerodynamic Drag Trailer Leading and Trailing Reduction (B) 1-13 C M M Edge Curvatures Pneumatic Aerodynamic Drag 1-14 Reduction N M M Planar Boat Tail Plates on a 1-15 Tractor-Trailer N M M Vehicle Load Profile 1-1 Improvement C L L 1-17 Automatic Tire Inflation Systems C L L Tire Rolling 1-18 Wide-base Tires C M M Resistance 1-19 Low-Rolling-Resistance Tires C M M Improvement (E) Pneumatic Blowing to Reducing 1-20 Rolling Resistance N L L Hybrid Propulsion 1-21 Hybrid trucks N M M Weight Reduction 1-22 Lightweight Materials P H H Advanced Transmission P L L Transmission Improvement (I) Transmission Friction Reduction through Low-Viscosity Transmission Lubricants Engine Friction Reduction through Low-Viscosity Engine Lubricants C L L C M M Increased Peak Cylinder 1-2 C M M Diesel Engine Pressures Improvement (I) 1-27 Improved Fuel Injectors P H H Turbocharged, Direct Injection to 1-28 Improved Thermal Management C L L Thermoelectric Technology to 1-29 Recovery Waste Heat N H H Accessory Load 1-30 Electric Auxiliaries C M M Reduction (B) 1-31 Fuel-Cell-Operated Auxiliaries N H H Driver Operation Improvement 1-32 Truck Driver Training Program C M M Alternative Fuel 1-33 B20 Biodiesel Fuel for Trucks C H NG Total for the Truck Mode Continued on next page ES-

20 Table ES-1. Continued Mode Subgroup a I.D. No. Brief Name of Potential Best Practice Developmental Status b Potential Reduction in Modal GHG Emissions c Potential Reduction in Modal Energy Use d The Magnitude of Aggregate GHG Emissions Reductions in 2025 for Each Subgroup ( Tons CO 2 eq.) e The Magnitude of Aggregate Energy Use Reduction in 2025 for Each Subgroup ( 15 BTU) f Rail Air Water Anti-Idling (E) Combined Diesel Powered Heating System and Auto Engine Start/stop System Battery-Diesel Hybrid Switching Locomotive P M M C M M 2-3 Plug-In Units C L L Weight Reduction 2-4 Light Weight Materials C H H Rolling Resistance Improvement Alternative Fuel 2- Total for the Rail Mode Aerodynamic Drag Reduction (E) Air Traffic Management Weight Reduction Ground Support Equipment Improvement Engine Improvement Total for the Air Mode 2-5 Lubrication Improvement P M M B20 Biodiesel Fuel for Locomotives N H NG Surface Grooves P M M 3-2 Hybrid Laminar Flow N H H Technology Blended Winglet C M M 3-4 Spiroid Tip P M M 3-5 Air traffic Management Improvement N H H Airframe Weight Reduction N M M 3-7 Non-Essential Weight Reduction N L L Ground-Based Equipment as an 3-8 Alternative to Auxiliary Power P Units M M Electric or Hybrid Heavy Duty Delivery Trucks P Improved Engine Overall 3- Efficiency C H H Off-Center Propeller C M M Propeller System 4-2 Propeller Boss Cap with Fins C M M Improvement (E) Auxiliary Free-Rotating 4-3 Propulsion Device behind the C M M Main Propeller Anti-Idling 4-4 Shoreside Power for Marine Vessels at Ports P L NG 0.2 > Alternative Fuel 4-5 B20 Biodiesel Fuel for Ships N M NG Total for the Water Mode Continued on next page ES-7

21 Table ES-1. Continued Mode Subgroup a I.D. No. Brief Name of Potential Best Practice Developmental Status b Potential Reduction in Modal GHG Emissions c Potential Reduction in Modal Energy Use d The Magnitude of Aggregate GHG Emissions Reductions in 2025 for Each Subgroup ( Tons CO 2 eq.) e The Magnitude of Aggregate Energy Use Reduction in 2025 for Each Subgroup ( 15 BTU) f Pipeline Process Control Device Improvement Convert Natural Gas Pneumatic 5-1 Controls to Instrument Air Replace High-Bleed Natural Gas 5-2 Pneumatic Devices with Low-Bleed Pneumatic Devices C L L C L L 1.4 < 0.01 Connecting Method 5-3 Hot Tap Method C M L 2.5 < 0.01 Maintenance Total for the Pipeline Mode 5-4 Transfer Compression C L L 5-5 Inline Inspection C M L 1.8 < ES-8

22 Within each mode, multiple potential best practices can be applied simultaneously to achieve total 2025 modal GHG emissions reductions (compared to projected emissions if no potential best practices are used) of 57, 19, 34, 4, and 4 percent for the truck, rail, air, water, and pipeline modes, respectively. In making these estimates, we do not double count mutually exclusive potential best practices and we consider linear combinations of reductions for multiple potential best practices that could synergistically interact. The potential best practices also vary substantially in terms of their potential percentage reductions in modal GHG emissions. The variations in reductions among individual practices range from 0.2 to 5.5 percent for the truck mode, 0. to 5.5 percent for the rail mode, 1.0 to 13.0 percent for the air mode, 0.2 to 3.0 percent for the water mode, and 0.1 to 1.9 percent for the pipeline mode. The average reductions for a potential best practice are 2.2, 3.4, 2.3, 1. and 1.3 percent for the truck, rail, air, water, and pipeline modes, respectively. There is also substantial variability among the potential best practices in terms of their contributions to percentage decreases or increases in modal energy use. The range of these changes among individual potential best practices are from a 4.3 percent increase to a 5.7 percent decrease for the truck mode, a 5.3 percent increase to a 4.8 percent decrease for the rail mode, a 1.0 to 13.0 percent decrease for the air mode, a 1.3 percent increase to a 3.0 percent decrease for the water mode, and a 0.02 to 0.5 percent decrease for the pipeline mode. The averages of these changes are 1.8, 1.5, 2.3, 1.0, and 0.2 percent for the truck, rail, air, water, and pipeline modes, respectively. Several potential best practices in the truck, rail, and water modes are based on alternative fuels. Alternative fuel strategies consume more energy than conventional petroleum fuel, based on life cycle inventories. Thus, the average percentage reductions in modal energy use among all potential best practices for truck, rail and water, which range from 1.0 to 1.8 percent, are significantly smaller than their average percentage reductions in modal GHG emissions, which range from 1. to 3.4 percent. The magnitude of the estimated potential GHG emissions reductions for the truck mode in 2025, which is 4 tons CO 2 eq., is significantly higher than for any of the other four modes, which range from approximately 5 to 20 tons CO 2 eq. The truck mode is estimated to contribute percent of freight transportation GHG emissions in 2025 if none of the potential best practices are adopted. The total GHG emissions of this mode in 2025 are estimated to increase 7 percent over 2003 levels. If all identified potential best practices are implemented aggressively, 2025 GHG emissions could be reduced by as much as 28 percent compared to 2003 levels. Of other modes, each of the other four modes is estimated to contribute 12 percent or less to total freight GHG emissions in If no potential best practices are implemented, modal GHG emissions in 2025 from the rail, air, water, and pipeline ES-9

23 modes are estimated to increase 49, 5, 28, and 15 percent, respectively, compared to 2003 levels. If all identified potential best practices are implemented aggressively, 2025 GHG emissions could increase by 20, 8, 22, and 9 percent, respectively, compared to 2003 levels, which is smaller than the increase if no potential best practices are implemented. In sum, if all identified practices are implemented aggressively, the possible net decrease in total freight transportation GHG emissions from 2003 to 2025 is 11%, even if energy use increases as currently projected. The magnitude of the estimated potential energy use reduction for the truck mode in 2025 is also significantly higher than for the other four modes. If no potential best practices are implemented, the truck mode is estimated to consume 70 percent of freight transportation energy in The truck mode energy use in 2025 is estimated to increase by 7 percent compared to 2003 levels. If all identified potential best practices are implemented aggressively, 2025 energy use could be reduced by as much as 12 percent compared to 2003 levels. Each of the other four modes are estimated to consume 12 percent or less of total freight energy consumption in 2025 If no best practices are implemented, total modal energy use in 2025 from the rail, air, water, and pipeline modes are estimated to increase 49, 5, 28, and 15 percent, respectively, compared to 2003 levels. If all identified potential best practices are implemented aggressively, these increases in energy use are estimated at 3, 8, 25, and 13 percent, respectively, compared to 2003 levels. These energy use increases with the implementation of all identified potential best practices are significantly less than those energy use increases without the implementation of all identified potential best practices. ES.4 Quantitative Assessment Results To date, sufficient information has been obtained to assess the costs of 13 potential best practices quantitatively. Table ES-2 summarizes: reductions in GHG emissions and energy use; net savings; net savings per unit of GHG emissions reduction; and net savings per unit of energy use reduction, and simple pay-back periods of selected potential best practices. These 13 potential best practices vary substantially in terms of annual reductions in modal GHG emissions and energy use within their individual modes. Four best practices for the truck mode, which include auxiliary power units, direct-fired heaters, hybrid trucks, and B20 biodiesel, have the potential to achieve substantial GHG emissions reductions (8 ton CO 2 eq./year or more). Two best practices for the truck mode, auxiliary power units and hybrid, also have the potential to reduce energy use substantially, by BTU or more. These 13 potential best practices vary substantially regarding their cost- effectiveness and simple pay-back periods. The most cost-effective best practices are: plug-in units for the rail mode; direct-fired heater for the truck mode; and combined diesel powered heating system and ES-

24 Table ES- 2. Summary of Potential GHG Emissions Reductions, Energy Use Reduction, Net Savings, Unit Net Savings, and Simple Pay-back Periods of Selected Best Practices a Water Rail Truck Mode I.D. No. Practice Name Modal GHG Emission Reduction ( ton CO2 eq./year) Modal Energy Use Reduction ( 12 BTU /year) Net Saving ($ /year) Net Saving per Unit of GHG Emission Reduction ($/ton CO2 eq.) Net Saving per Unit of Energy Use Reduction ($/ BTU) Simple Pay- back period (year) 1-1 Off-Board Truck Stop Electrification N/A c 1-3 Auxiliary Power Units Direct Fire Heaters Hybrid Trucks B20 Biodiesel for Trucks N/A b N/A d Combined Diesel Powered 2-1 Heating System and Auto Engine Start/stop System 2-2 Battery Diesel Hybrid Switching Locomotive Plug-In Unit B20 Biodiesel for Locomotives N/A b N/A d 4-5 B20 Biodiesel for Ships N/A b N/A d Pipeline a b c d 5-1 Convert Natural Gas Pneumatic Controls to Instrument Air 5-2 Replace High-Bleed Natural Gas Pneumatic Devices with Low-Bleed Pneumatic Devices Hot Tap Method These assessments are based on the assumptions that these best practices reach their potential maximum market shares in This practice has no energy use reduction due to an increase in energy use, and it has no net saving due to high annualized cost and no energy cost saving. There is no pay-back period for this best practice because there is no initial capital cost to users. There is no pay-back period for this best practice because there is no net saving. ES-11

25 auto engine start/stop system for the rail mode. The least cost-effective best practices are B20 biodiesel for the truck, rail and water modes. Five best practices have simple pay-back periods of less than 1 year. From a national policy perspective, consideration of the potential magnitude of reductions is important. From an individual owner or operator perspective, consideration of cost savings and cost effectiveness may be more important. Even larger percentage reductions are possible if intermodal shifts, such as from truck to rail, are possible. The complete rail-truck intermodal shift could reduce GHG emissions for the truck mode by 85 percent, if no potential best practices are implemented for either mode. Whether intermodal shift is possible depends on site-specific characteristics. ES.5 Major Findings Many potential best practices exist to reduce energy and refrigerant use, which could lead to reductions in GHG emissions. If potential best practices are aggressively implemented, it is possible for there to be a net decrease in total GHG emissions and energy use in freight transportation. Potential additional reductions might be possible if certain intermodal shifts are encouraged where possible. Limited quantitative data is available upon which to base assessments of the costs of potential best practices. For thirteen potential best practices for which adequate data are available, the normalized cost savings per unit of GHG emissions reduction was highly variable. Ten of these potential best practices produce net cost savings because of significant energy cost savings. Three of them have net cost increases because they involve substitution of alternative fuel. Switching from petroleum to biodiesel can reduce GHG emissions but increase total costs, based on recent fuel prices. Governments and individual owners or operators are encouraged to carefully compare their options. From a national policy perspective, some potential best practices, such as direct fired heaters and B20 biodiesel for the truck mode, offer greater potential for large magnitudes in reduction of total GHG emissions, but may not be as cost-effective as other practices. Additional research and development might result in reduced costs. From an individual owner or operator perspective, consideration of cost savings and cost effectiveness are more important. Some potential best practices may be a no regrets proposition and the owner or operator can realize a net cost savings. This guidebook makes no recommendations about the use of specific strategies as best practices because typically information for best practices is incomplete and does not enable situation-specific assessment and comparison. While it is clear that many potential best ES-12

26 practices will not be considered by potential adopters until adequate cost data is available upon which to estimate costs reliably, at this time insufficient data are available to characterize costs reliably for most of the best practices identified here. ES. Recommendations Information given here can be updated as new information becomes available. In this work, costs could be assessed for only 13 best practices. Since potential adopters of best practices need cost data for all of the possible best practices, there is a critical need for more cost information. Ongoing work is recommended to obtain or develop cost estimates for best practices for which costs are not reported here, as well as to update cost estimates reported here as new data become available. The impact of variations of key assumptions, such as market penetration rates, fuel prices, capital costs, and operation and maintenance costs, can be assessed via sensitivity analysis. Developing tools to support decision making regarding best practices are also recommended. Effective best practices are developed based on the conditions faced by a specific decision-maker, such as local fuel costs. It is critical to develop a decision support framework that will allow such parties to compare multiple best practices on the basis of representative and relevant important assumptions. A decision tree is helpful in situations of complex multistage decision problems for choosing best practices and can be applied to assist individuals in choosing from among many best practices. A decision tree involves a hierarchical cascade of questions to guide decision-maker toward promising best practices appropriate to their situations. The decision tree could be implemented in an interactive web-based format and may be publicly accessible. ES-13

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