# Data Centers. Comparing Data Center & Computer Thermal Design

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Data Centers Comparing Data Center & Computer Thermal Design By Michael K. Patterson, Ph.D., P.E., Member ASHRAE; Robin Steinbrecher; and Steve Montgomery, Ph.D. The design of cooling systems and thermal solutions for today s data centers and computers are handled by skilled mechanical engineers using advanced tools and methods. The engineers work in two different areas: those who are responsible for designing cooling for computers and servers and those who design data center cooling. Unfortunately, a lack of understanding exists about each other s methods and design goals. This can lead to non-optimal designs and problems in creating a successful, reliable, energyefficient data processing environment. This article works to bridge this gap and provide insight into the parameters each engineer works with and the optimizations they go through. A basic understanding of each role will help their counterpart in their designs, be it a data center, or a server. Server Design Focus Thermal architects are given a range of information to begin designing the thermal solution. They know the thermal design power (TDP) and temperature specifications of each component (typically junction temperature, T J, or case temperature T C ). Using a processor as an example, Figure 1 shows a typical component assembly. The processor is specified with a maximum case temperature, T C, which is used for design purposes. In this example, the design parameters are TDP = 103 W and T C = 72 C. Given an ambient temperature specification (T A ) = 35 C, the required thermal resistance of this example would need to be equal to or lower than: CA, required = (T C T A )/TDP = 0.36 C/W (1) Sometimes this value of CA is not feasible. One option to relieve the demands of a thermal solution with a lower thermal resistance is a higher T C. Unfortunately, the trend for T C continues to decline. Reductions in T C result in higher performance, better reliability, and less power used. Those advantages are worth obtaining, making the thermal challenge greater. One of the first parameters discussed by the data center designer is the temperature rise for the servers, but this value is a secondary consideration, at best, in the server design. As seen by Equation 1, no consideration is given to chassis temperature rise. The thermal design is driven by maintaining component temperatures within specifications. The primary parameters being T c, T ambient, and CA, actual. The actual thermal resistance of the solution is driven by component selection, material, configuration, and airflow volumes. Usually, the only time that chassis T RISE About the Authors Michael K. Patterson, Ph.D., P.E., is thermal research engineer, platform initiatives and pathfinding, at Intel s Digital Enterprise Group in Hillsboro, Ore. Robin Steinbrecher is staff thermal architect with Intel s Server Products Group in DuPont, Wash. Steve Montgomery, Ph.D., is senior thermal architect at Intel s Power and Thermal Technologies Lab, Digital Enterprise Group, DuPont, Wash. 3 8 A S H R A E J o u r n a l a s h r a e. o r g A p r i l

3 ment. Monitoring of temperature sensors is accomplished via on-die thermal diodes or discrete thermal sensors mounted on the printed circuit boards (PCBs). Component utilization monitoring is accomplished through activity measurement (e.g., memory throughput measurement by the chipset) or power measurement of individual voltage regulators. Either of these methods results in calculation of component or subsystem power. Data Center Design Focus The data center designer faces a similar list of criteria for the design of the center, starting with a set of requirements that drive the design. These include: Cost: The owner will have a set budget and the designer must create a system within the cost limits. Capital dollars are the primary metric. However, good designs also consider the operational cost of running the system needed to cool the data center. Combined, these comprise the total cost of ownership (TCO) for the cooling systems. Equipment list: The most detailed information would include a list of equipment in the space and how it will be racked together. This allows for a determination of total cooling load in the space, and the airflow volume and distribution in the space. Caution must be taken if the equipment list is used to develop the cooling load by summing up the total connected load. This leads to over-design. The connected load or maximum rating of the power supply is always greater than the maximum heat dissipation possible by the sum of the components. Obtaining the thermal load generated by the equipment from the supplier is the only accurate way of determining the cooling requirements. Unfortunately, the equipment list is not always available, and the designer will be given only a cooling load per unit area and will need to design the systems based upon this information. Sizing the cooling plant is straightforward when the total load is known, but the design of the air-handling system is not as simple. Performance: The owner will define the ultimate performance of the space, generally given in terms of ambient temperature and relative humidity. Beaty and Davidson 2 discusses typical values of the space conditions and how these relate to classes of data centers. Performance also includes values for airflow distribution, total cooling, and percent outdoor air. Reliability: The cooling system s reliability level is defined and factored into equipment selection and layout of distribution systems. The reliability of the data center cooling system requires an economic evaluation comparing the cost of the reliability vs. the cost of the potential interruptions to center operations. The servers protect themselves in the event of cooling failure. The reliability of the cooling system should not be justified based upon equipment protection. Data Center Background Experience in data center layout and configuration is helpful to the understanding of the design issues. Consider two cases at the limits of data center arrangement and cooling configuration: 1. A single rack in a room, and 2. A fully populated room, with racks side by side in multiple rows. Case 2 assumes a hot-aisle/cold-aisle rack configuration, where the cold aisle is the server airflow inlet side containing the perforated tiles. The hot aisle is the back-to-back server outlets, discharging the warm air into the room. The hot aisle/cold aisle is the most prevalent configuration as the arrangement prevents mixing of inlet cooling and warm return air. The most common airflow configuration of individual servers is front-to-back, working directly with the hot-aisle/cold-aisle concept, but it is not the only configuration. Consider the rack of servers in a data processing environment. Typically, these racks are 42U high, where 1U = 44.5 mm (1.75 in.) A U is a commonly used unit to define the height of electronics gear that can be rack mounted. The subject rack could hold 42 1U servers, or 10 4U servers, or other combinations of equipment, including power supplies, network hardware, and/or storage equipment. To consider the two limits, first take the described rack and place it by itself in a reasonably sized space with some cooling in place. The other limit occurs when this rack of equipment is placed in a data center where the rack is one of many similar racks in an aisle. The data center would have multiple aisles, generally configured front-to-front and back-to-back. Common Misconceptions A review of misconceptions illustrates the problems and challenges facing designers of data centers. During a recent design review of a data center cooling system, one of the engineers claimed that the servers were designed for a 20 C (36 F) T RISE, inlet to outlet air temperature. This is not the case. It is possible that there are servers that, when driven at a given airflow and dissipating their nominal amount of power, may generate a 20 C (36 F) T, but none were ever designed with that in mind. Recall the parameters that were discussed in the section on server design. Reducing CA can be accomplished by increasing airflow. However, this also has a negative effect. More powerful air movers increase cost, use more space, are louder, and consume more energy. Increasing airflow beyond the minimum required is not a desirable tactic. In fact, reducing the airflow as much as possible would be of benefit in the overall server design. However, nowhere in that optimization problem is T across the server considered. Assuming a simple T RISE leads to another set of problems. This implies a fixed airflow rate. As discussed earlier, most servers monitor temperature at different locations in the system and modulate airflow to keep the components within desired temperature limits. For example, a server in a well designed data center, particularly if located low in the rack, will likely see a T A of 20 C (68 F) or less. However, the thermal solution in the server is normally designed to handle a T A of 35 C (95 F). If the inlet temperature is at the lower value, the case temperature will be lower. Then, much less airflow is required, and if variable flow capability is built into the server, it will run quieter and consume less power. The server airflow 4 0 A S H R A E J o u r n a l a s h r a e. o r g A p r i l

4 (and hence T RISE ) will vary between the T A = 20 C (68 F) and 35 C (95 F) cases, a variation described in ASHRAE s Thermal Guideline for Data Processing Environments. The publication provides a detailed discussion of what data should be reported by the server manufacturer and in which configuration. Another misconception is that the airflow in the server exhaust must be maintained below the server ambient environmental specification. The outlet temperature of the server does not need to be below the allowed value for the environment (typically 35 C [95 F]). Design Decisions To understand the problems that can arise if the server design process is not fully understood, revisit the two cases introduced earlier. Consider the fully loaded rack in a space with no other equipment. If sufficient cooling is available in the room, the server thermal requirements likely will be satisfied. The servers will pull the required amount of air to cool them, primarily from the raised floor distribution, but if needed, from the sides and above the server as well. It is reasonable to assume the room is well mixed by the server and room distribution airflow. There likely will be some variation of inlet temperature from the bottom of the rack to the top but if sufficient space exists around the servers it is most likely not a concern. In this situation, not having the detailed server thermal report, as described in Reference 3, may not be problematic. At the other limit, a rack is placed in a space that is fully populated with other server racks in a row. Another row sits across the cold aisle facing this row as well as another sitting back-to-back on the hot-aisle side. The space covered by the single rack unit and its associated cold-aisle and hot-aisle floor space often is called a work cell and generally covers a 1.5 m 2 (16 ft 2 ) area. The 0.6 m 0.6 m (2 ft 2 ft) perforated tile in the front, the area covered by the rack (~0.6 m 1.3 m [~ 2 ft 4.25 ft]) and the remaining uncovered solid floor tile in the hot-aisle side. Consider the airflow in and around the work cell. Each work cell needs to be able to exist as a stand-alone thermal zone. The airflow provided to the zone comes from the perforated tile, travels through the servers, and exhausts out the top-back of the work cell where the hot aisle returns the warm air to the inlet of the room air handlers. The work cell cannot bring air into the front of the servers from the side as this would be removing air from another work cell and shorting that zone. No air should come in from the top either as that will bring air at a temperature well above the desired ambient and possibly above the specification value for T A (typically 35 C [95 F]). Based on this concept of the work cell it is clear that designers must know the airflow through the servers or else they will not be able to adequately size the flow rate per floor tile. Conversely, Figure 2: The work cell is shown in orange. if the airflow is not adequate, the server airflow will recirculate, causing problems for servers being fed the warmer air. If the design basis of the data center includes the airflow rates of the servers, certain design decisions are needed. First, the design must provide enough total cooling capacity for the peak, matching the central plant to the load. Another question is at what temperature to deliver the supply air. Lowering this temperature can reduce the required fan size in the room cooling unit but also can be problematic, as the system, particularly in a high density data center, must provide the minimum (or nominal) airflow to all of the work cells. A variant of this strategy is that of increasing the T. Doing this allows a lower airflow rate to give the same total cooling capability. This will yield lower capital costs but if the airflow rate is too low, increasing the T will cause recirculation. Also, if the temperature is too low, comfort and ergonomic issues could arise. If the supplier has provided the right data, another decision must be made. Should the system provide enough for the peak airflow, or just the typical? The peak airflow rate will occur when T A = 35 C (95 F) and the typical when T A = 20 ~ 25 C (68 F ~ 77 F). Sizing the air-distribution equipment at the peak flow will result in a robust design with flexibility, but at a high cost. Another complication in sizing for the peak flow, particularly in dense data centers, is that it may prove difficult to move this airflow through the raised floor tiles, causing an imbalance or increased leakage elsewhere. Care must be taken to ensure the raised floor is of sufficient height and an appropriate design for the higher airflows. If the nominal airflow rate is used as the design point, the design, installation, and operation (including floor tile selection for balancing the distribution) must be correct for the proper operation of the data center, but a cost savings potential exists. It is essential to perform some level of modeling to determine the right airflow. In this design, any time the servers ramp up to their peak airflow rate, the racks will be recirculating warm air from the hot aisle to feed some server inlets. This occurs because the work cell has to satisfy its own airflow needs (because its neighbors are also short of airflow) and, if the servers need more air, they will receive it by recirculating. Another way to visualize this is to consider the walls of symmetry around each work cell and recall that there is no flux across a symmetry boundary. The servers are designed to operate successfully at 35 C (95 F) inlet air temperatures so if the prevalence of this recirculation is not too great, the design should be successful. If the detailed equipment list is unknown when the data center is being designed, the airflow may be chosen based on historical airflows for similarly loaded racks in data centers of the same 4 1 A S H R A E J o u r n a l a s h r a e. o r g A p r i l

### OPEN RACK APPROACHES FOR MAXIMIZING THE EFFICIENCY OF EQUIPMENT IN A COLD- AISLE/HOT-AISLE DATA CENTER ENVIRONMENT By: Lars Larsen Product Manager -

OPEN RACK APPROACHES FOR MAXIMIZING THE EFFICIENCY OF EQUIPMENT IN A COLD- AISLE/HOT-AISLE DATA CENTER ENVIRONMENT By: Lars Larsen Product Manager - Physical Support Ortronics/Legrand WHITE PAPER Open

### Intel Atom Processor E3800 Product Family

Intel Atom Processor E3800 Product Family Thermal Design Guide October 2013 Document Number: 329645-001 Legal Lines and Disclaimers INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL PRODUCTS.

### - White Paper - Data Centre Cooling. Best Practice

- White Paper - Data Centre Cooling Best Practice Release 2, April 2008 Contents INTRODUCTION... 3 1. AIR FLOW LEAKAGE... 3 2. PERFORATED TILES: NUMBER AND OPENING FACTOR... 4 3. PERFORATED TILES: WITH

### Increasing Energ y Efficiency In Data Centers

The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, December 2007. Copyright 2007 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes

### High Density Data Centers Fraught with Peril. Richard A. Greco, Principal EYP Mission Critical Facilities, Inc.

High Density Data Centers Fraught with Peril Richard A. Greco, Principal EYP Mission Critical Facilities, Inc. Microprocessors Trends Reprinted with the permission of The Uptime Institute from a white

### Using CFD for optimal thermal management and cooling design in data centers

www.siemens.com/datacenters Using CFD for optimal thermal management and cooling design in data centers Introduction As the power density of IT equipment within a rack increases and energy costs rise,

### Data Center 2020: Delivering high density in the Data Center; efficiently and reliably

Data Center 2020: Delivering high density in the Data Center; efficiently and reliably March 2011 Powered by Data Center 2020: Delivering high density in the Data Center; efficiently and reliably Review:

### Dealing with Thermal Issues in Data Center Universal Aisle Containment

Dealing with Thermal Issues in Data Center Universal Aisle Containment Daniele Tordin BICSI RCDD Technical System Engineer - Panduit Europe Daniele.Tordin@Panduit.com AGENDA Business Drivers Challenges

### Element D Services Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 OVERVIEW A. This section supplements Design Guideline Element D3041 on air handling distribution with specific criteria for projects involving design of a Data Center spaces B. Refer

### How High Temperature Data Centers and Intel Technologies Decrease Operating Costs

Intel Intelligent Management How High Temperature Data Centers and Intel Technologies Decrease Operating Costs and cooling savings through the use of Intel s Platforms and Intelligent Management features

### Great Lakes Data Room Case Study

Great Lakes Data Room Case Study WeRackYourWorld.com Problem: During a warm summer period in 2008, Great Lakes experienced a network outage due to a switch failure in the network enclosure. After an equipment

### DataCenter 2020: hot aisle and cold aisle containment efficiencies reveal no significant differences

DataCenter 2020: hot aisle and cold aisle containment efficiencies reveal no significant differences November 2011 Powered by DataCenter 2020: hot aisle and cold aisle containment efficiencies reveal no

### Unified Physical Infrastructure SM (UPI) Strategies for Smart Data Centers

Unified Physical Infrastructure SM (UPI) Strategies for Smart Data Centers Deploying a Vertical Exhaust System www.panduit.com WP-09 September 2009 Introduction Business management applications and rich

### Cooling Capacity Factor (CCF) Reveals Stranded Capacity and Data Center Cost Savings

WHITE PAPER Cooling Capacity Factor (CCF) Reveals Stranded Capacity and Data Center Cost Savings By Lars Strong, P.E., Upsite Technologies, Inc. Kenneth G. Brill, Upsite Technologies, Inc. 505.798.0200

### Improving Data Center Energy Efficiency Through Environmental Optimization

Improving Data Center Energy Efficiency Through Environmental Optimization How Fine-Tuning Humidity, Airflows, and Temperature Dramatically Cuts Cooling Costs William Seeber Stephen Seeber Mid Atlantic

### Thinking Outside the Box Server Design for Data Center Optimization

Thinking Outside the Box Server Design for Data Center Optimization Marie Ross, Senior Applications Engineer Tom Gregory, Consultant Engineer October 2013 The benefits of analyzing thermal performance

### Elements of Energy Efficiency in Data Centre Cooling Architecture

Elements of Energy Efficiency in Data Centre Cooling Architecture Energy Efficient Data Center Cooling 1 STULZ Group of Companies Turnover 2006 Plastics Technology 400 Mio A/C Technology 200 Mio Total

### Combining Cold Aisle Containment with Intelligent Control to Optimize Data Center Cooling Efficiency

A White Paper from the Experts in Business-Critical Continuity TM Combining Cold Aisle Containment with Intelligent Control to Optimize Data Center Cooling Efficiency Executive Summary Energy efficiency

### Measure Server delta- T using AUDIT- BUDDY

Measure Server delta- T using AUDIT- BUDDY The ideal tool to facilitate data driven airflow management Executive Summary : In many of today s data centers, a significant amount of cold air is wasted because

### Energy Performance Optimization of Server Room HVAC System

International Journal of Thermal Technologies E-ISSN 2277 4114 2 INPRESSCO, All Rights Reserved Available at http://inpressco.com/category/ijtt/ Research Article Manoj Jadhav * and Pramod Chaudhari Department

### Choosing Close-Coupled IT Cooling Solutions

W H I T E P A P E R Choosing Close-Coupled IT Cooling Solutions Smart Strategies for Small to Mid-Size Data Centers Executive Summary As high-density IT equipment becomes the new normal, the amount of

### Cooling Small Server Rooms Can Be. - Jim Magallanes Computer Room Uptime: www.cruptime.com Uptime Racks: www.uptimeracks.com

Cooling Small Server Rooms Can Be Inexpensive, Efficient and Easy - Jim Magallanes Computer Room Uptime: www.cruptime.com Uptime Racks: www.uptimeracks.com Server Rooms Description & Heat Problem Trends

### Cooling Capacity Factor (CCF) Reveals Stranded Capacity and Data Center Cost Savings

WHITE PAPER Cooling Capacity Factor (CCF) Reveals Stranded Capacity and Data Center Cost Savings By Kenneth G. Brill, Upsite Technologies, Inc. Lars Strong, P.E., Upsite Technologies, Inc. 505.798.0200

### Data Center Operating Cost Savings Realized by Air Flow Management and Increased Rack Inlet Temperatures

Data Center Operating Cost Savings Realized by Air Flow Management and Increased Rack Inlet Temperatures William Seeber Stephen Seeber Mid Atlantic Infrared Services, Inc. 5309 Mohican Road Bethesda, MD

### Utilizing Temperature Monitoring to Increase Datacenter Cooling Efficiency

WHITE PAPER Utilizing Temperature Monitoring to Increase Datacenter Cooling Efficiency 20A Dunklee Road Bow, NH 03304 USA 2007. All rights reserved. Sensatronics is a registered trademark of. 1 Abstract

### APC APPLICATION NOTE #92

#92 Best Practices for Designing Data Centers with the InfraStruXure InRow RC By John Niemann Abstract The InfraStruXure InRow RC is designed to provide cooling at the row and rack level of a data center

### Analysis of the UNH Data Center Using CFD Modeling

Applied Math Modeling White Paper Analysis of the UNH Data Center Using CFD Modeling By Jamie Bemis, Dana Etherington, and Mike Osienski, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire,

### Using Simulation to Improve Data Center Efficiency

A WHITE PAPER FROM FUTURE FACILITIES INCORPORATED Using Simulation to Improve Data Center Efficiency Cooling Path Management for maximizing cooling system efficiency without sacrificing equipment resilience

### APC APPLICATION NOTE #112

#112 Best Practices for Deploying the InfraStruXure InRow SC By David Roden Abstract The InfraStruXure InRow SC (ACSC100 and ACSC101) is a self-contained air conditioner for server rooms and wiring closets.

### Reducing Data Center Energy Consumption

Reducing Data Center Energy Consumption By John Judge, Member ASHRAE; Jack Pouchet, Anand Ekbote, and Sachin Dixit Rising data center energy consumption and increasing energy costs have combined to elevate

### Data Center Rack Level Cooling Utilizing Water-Cooled, Passive Rear Door Heat Exchangers (RDHx) as a Cost Effective Alternative to CRAH Air Cooling

Data Center Rack Level Cooling Utilizing Water-Cooled, Passive Rear Door Heat Exchangers (RDHx) as a Cost Effective Alternative to CRAH Air Cooling Joshua Grimshaw Director of Engineering, Nova Corporation

### BICSInews. plus. july/august 2012. + Industrial-grade Infrastructure. + I Say Bonding, You Say Grounding + Data Center Containment.

BICSInews m a g a z i n e july/august 2012 Volume 33, Number 4 plus + Industrial-grade Infrastructure and Equipment + I Say Bonding, You Say Grounding + Data Center Containment & design deployment The

### GREEN FIELD DATA CENTER DESIGN WATER COOLING FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY. Shlomo Novotny, Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, Vette Corp.

GREEN FIELD DATA CENTER DESIGN WATER COOLING FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY Shlomo Novotny, Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, Vette Corp. Overview Data centers are an ever growing part of our economy.

### IMPROVING DATA CENTER EFFICIENCY AND CAPACITY WITH AISLE CONTAINMENT

DATA CENTER RESOURCES WHITE PAPER IMPROVING DATA CENTER EFFICIENCY AND CAPACITY WITH AISLE CONTAINMENT BY: STEVE HAMBRUCH EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Data centers have experienced explosive growth in the last decade.

### Benefits of. Air Flow Management. Data Center

Benefits of Passive Air Flow Management in the Data Center Learning Objectives At the end of this program, participants will be able to: Readily identify if opportunities i where networking equipment

### Verizon SMARTS Data Center Design Phase 1 Conceptual Study Report Ms. Leah Zabarenko Verizon Business 2606A Carsins Run Road Aberdeen, MD 21001

Verizon SMARTS Data Center Design Phase 1 Conceptual Study Report Ms. Leah Zabarenko Verizon Business 2606A Carsins Run Road Aberdeen, MD 21001 Presented by: Liberty Engineering, LLP 1609 Connecticut Avenue

### Prediction Is Better Than Cure CFD Simulation For Data Center Operation.

Prediction Is Better Than Cure CFD Simulation For Data Center Operation. This paper was written to support/reflect a seminar presented at ASHRAE Winter meeting 2014, January 21 st, by, Future Facilities.

### Rittal Liquid Cooling Series

Rittal Liquid Cooling Series by Herb Villa White Paper 04 Copyright 2006 All rights reserved. Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Auf dem Stützelberg D-35745 Herborn Phone +49(0)2772 / 505-0 Fax +49(0)2772/505-2319 www.rittal.de

### Case Study: Opportunities to Improve Energy Efficiency in Three Federal Data Centers

Case Study: Opportunities to Improve Energy Efficiency in Three Federal Data Centers Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy s Federal Energy Management Program Prepared By Lawrence Berkeley National

### Education Evolution: Scalable Server Rooms George Lantouris Client Relationship Manager (Education) May 2009

Education Evolution: Scalable Server Rooms George Lantouris Client Relationship Manager (Education) May 2009 Agenda Overview - Network Critical Physical Infrastructure Cooling issues in the Server Room

### Reducing Room-Level Bypass Airflow Creates Opportunities to Improve Cooling Capacity and Operating Costs

WHITE PAPER Reducing Room-Level Bypass Airflow Creates Opportunities to Improve Cooling Capacity and Operating Costs By Lars Strong, P.E., Upsite Technologies, Inc. 505.798.000 upsite.com Reducing Room-Level

### Chiller-less Facilities: They May Be Closer Than You Think

Chiller-less Facilities: They May Be Closer Than You Think A Dell Technical White Paper Learn more at Dell.com/PowerEdge/Rack David Moss Jon Fitch Paul Artman THIS WHITE PAPER IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES

### A White Paper from the Experts in Business-Critical Continuity TM. Data Center Cooling Assessments What They Can Do for You

A White Paper from the Experts in Business-Critical Continuity TM Data Center Cooling Assessments What They Can Do for You Executive Summary Managing data centers and IT facilities is becoming increasingly

### How High Temperature Data Centers & Intel Technologies save Energy, Money, Water and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Intel Intelligent Power Management Intel How High Temperature Data Centers & Intel Technologies save Energy, Money, Water and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Power and cooling savings through the use of Intel

### Using Simulation to Improve Data Center Efficiency

A WHITE PAPER FROM FUTURE FACILITIES INCORPORATED Using Simulation to Improve Data Center Efficiency Cooling Path Management for maximizing cooling system efficiency without sacrificing equipment resilience

### Power and Cooling for Ultra-High Density Racks and Blade Servers

Power and Cooling for Ultra-High Density Racks and Blade Servers White Paper #46 Introduction The Problem Average rack in a typical data center is under 2 kw Dense deployment of blade servers (10-20 kw

### Data Center Components Overview

Data Center Components Overview Power Power Outside Transformer Takes grid power and transforms it from 113KV to 480V Utility (grid) power Supply of high voltage power to the Data Center Electrical Room

### BRUNS-PAK Presents MARK S. EVANKO, Principal

BRUNS-PAK Presents MARK S. EVANKO, Principal Data Centers of the Future and the Impact of High Density Computing on Facility Infrastructures - Trends, Air-Flow, Green/LEED, Cost, and Schedule Considerations

### Supporting Cisco Switches In Hot Aisle/Cold Aisle Data Centers

CABINETS: ENCLOSED THERMAL MOUNTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS WHITE PAPER Supporting Cisco Switches In Hot Aisle/Cold Aisle Data Centers 800-834-4969 techsupport@chatsworth.com www.chatsworth.com All products

### Thermal Mass Availability for Cooling Data Centers during Power Shutdown

2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). Published in ASHRAE Transactions (2010, vol 116, part 2). For personal use only. Additional reproduction,

### Data Center Environments

Data Center Environments ASHRAE s Evolving Thermal Guidelines By Robin A. Steinbrecher, Member ASHRAE; and Roger Schmidt, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE Over the last decade, data centers housing large numbers of

### Rittal IT Liquid Cooling Packages

Rittal IT Liquid Cooling Packages Higher Efficiency & Performance Optimized for Today s Data Centers R High Efficiency. High Performance. High Density. Rittal leads the industry in developing high density

### Benefits of Cold Aisle Containment During Cooling Failure

Benefits of Cold Aisle Containment During Cooling Failure Introduction Data centers are mission-critical facilities that require constant operation because they are at the core of the customer-business

### How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data Center Infrastructure Systems

How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data Center Infrastructure Systems Paul Mathew, Ph.D., Staff Scientist Steve Greenberg, P.E., Energy Management Engineer

### AisleLok Modular Containment vs. Legacy Containment: A Comparative CFD Study of IT Inlet Temperatures and Fan Energy Savings

WH I TE PAPE R AisleLok Modular Containment vs. : A Comparative CFD Study of IT Inlet Temperatures and Fan Energy Savings By Bruce Long, Upsite Technologies, Inc. Lars Strong, P.E., Upsite Technologies,

### Managing Cooling Capacity & Redundancy In Data Centers Today

Managing Cooling Capacity & Redundancy In Data Centers Today About AdaptivCOOL 15+ Years Thermal & Airflow Expertise Global Presence U.S., India, Japan, China Standards & Compliances: ISO 9001:2008 RoHS

### USE OF FLOW NETWORK MODELING (FNM) FOR THE DESIGN OF AIR-COOLED SERVERS

USE OF FLOW NETWORK MODELING (FNM) FOR THE DESIGN OF AIR-COOLED SERVERS Robin Steinbrecher Intel Corporation 2800 Center Drive Dupont, WA 98327 robin.steinbrecher@intel.com Amir Radmehr, Kanchan M. Kelkar,

### Effect of Rack Server Population on Temperatures in Data Centers

Effect of Rack Server Population on Temperatures in Data Centers Rajat Ghosh, Vikneshan Sundaralingam, Yogendra Joshi G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,

### DataCenter 2020: first results for energy-optimization at existing data centers

DataCenter : first results for energy-optimization at existing data centers July Powered by WHITE PAPER: DataCenter DataCenter : first results for energy-optimization at existing data centers Introduction

### The New Data Center Cooling Paradigm The Tiered Approach

Product Footprint - Heat Density Trends The New Data Center Cooling Paradigm The Tiered Approach Lennart Ståhl Amdahl, Cisco, Compaq, Cray, Dell, EMC, HP, IBM, Intel, Lucent, Motorola, Nokia, Nortel, Sun,

### The Benefits of Supply Air Temperature Control in the Data Centre

Executive Summary: Controlling the temperature in a data centre is critical to achieving maximum uptime and efficiency, but is it being controlled in the correct place? Whilst data centre layouts have

### Data Center Energy Consumption

Data Center Energy Consumption The digital revolution is here, and data is taking over. Human existence is being condensed, chronicled, and calculated, one bit at a time, in our servers and tapes. From

### Challenges In Intelligent Management Of Power And Cooling Towards Sustainable Data Centre

Challenges In Intelligent Management Of Power And Cooling Towards Sustainable Data Centre S. Luong 1*, K. Liu 2, James Robey 3 1 Technologies for Sustainable Built Environments, University of Reading,

### White Paper. Data Center Containment Cooling Strategies. Abstract WHITE PAPER EC9001. Geist Updated August 2010

White Paper Data Center Containment Cooling Strategies WHITE PAPER EC9001 Geist Updated August 2010 Abstract Deployment of high density IT equipment into data center infrastructure is now a common occurrence

### Unique Airflow Visualization Techniques for the Design and Validation of Above-Plenum Data Center CFD Models

Unique Airflow Visualization Techniques for the Design and Validation of Above-Plenum Data Center CFD Models The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits

### Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program By Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

### AIR-SITE GROUP. White Paper. Green Equipment Room Practices

AIR-SITE GROUP White Paper Green Equipment Room Practices www.air-site.com Common practices to build a green equipment room 1 Introduction Air-Site (www.air-site.com) is a leading international provider

### Data Center Power Consumption

Data Center Power Consumption A new look at a growing problem Fact - Data center power density up 10x in the last 10 years 2.1 kw/rack (1992); 14 kw/rack (2007) Racks are not fully populated due to power/cooling

### Introducing AUDIT- BUDDY

Introducing AUDIT- BUDDY Monitoring Temperature and Humidity for Greater Data Center Efficiency 202 Worcester Street, Unit 5, North Grafton, MA 01536 www.purkaylabs.com info@purkaylabs.com 1.774.261.4444

### Power Trends in Networking Electronics and Computing Systems

Power Trends in Networking Electronics and Computing Systems Herman Chu Technical Leader, Cisco Systems 2/16/06 1 Topics Design trade-offs Power densities Cooling technologies Power reduction Looming governments

### Saving energy in the Brookhaven National Laboratory Computing Center: Cold aisle containment implementation and computational fluid dynamics modeling

Saving energy in the Brookhaven National Laboratory Computing Center: Cold aisle containment implementation and computational fluid dynamics modeling Student Intern Earth and Environmental Engineering,

### HPPR Data Center Improvements Projects Towards Energy Efficiency (CFD Analysis, Monitoring, etc.)

HPPR Data Center Improvements Projects Towards Energy Efficiency (CFD Analysis, Monitoring, etc.) Felipe Visbal / March 27, 2013 HPPR Data Center Technologies Team Services Data Centers: Thermal Assessments

### Data center TCO; a comparison of high-density and low-density spaces

White Paper Data center TCO; a comparison of high-density and low-density spaces M.K. Patterson, D.G. Costello, & P. F. Grimm Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon, USA M. Loeffler Intel Corporation, Santa

### The Effect of Data Centre Environment on IT Reliability & Energy Consumption

The Effect of Data Centre Environment on IT Reliability & Energy Consumption Steve Strutt EMEA Technical Work Group Member IBM The Green Grid EMEA Technical Forum 2011 Agenda History of IT environmental

### The Effect of Data Center Temperature on Energy Efficiency

The Effect of Data Center Temperature on Energy Efficiency Michael K Patterson Intel Corporation 2111 NE 25 th Avenue Hillsboro, Oregon, USA, 97124 Phone: (503) 712-3991 Email: michael.k.patterson@intel.com

### How High Temperature Data Centers & Intel Technologies save Energy, Money, Water and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Intel Intelligent Power Management Intel How High Temperature Data Centers & Intel Technologies save Energy, Money, Water and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Power savings through the use of Intel s intelligent

### Managing Data Centre Heat Issues

Managing Data Centre Heat Issues Victor Banuelos Field Applications Engineer Chatsworth Products, Inc. 2010 Managing Data Centre Heat Issues Thermal trends in the data centre Hot Aisle / Cold Aisle design

### Virtual Data Centre Design A blueprint for success

Virtual Data Centre Design A blueprint for success IT has become the back bone of every business. Advances in computing have resulted in economies of scale, allowing large companies to integrate business

### Data Center Temperature Rise During a Cooling System Outage

Data Center Temperature Rise During a Cooling System Outage White Paper 179 Revision 1 By Paul Lin Simon Zhang Jim VanGilder > Executive summary The data center architecture and its IT load significantly

### Introducing AUDIT-BUDDY

Introducing AUDIT-BUDDY Optimize the Data Center with AUDIT-BUDDY Executive Summary Proper temperature and humidity for the inlet air into the servers is essential to efficient data center operation. Several

### Data Center Operating Temperature: The Sweet Spot

Data Center Operating Temperature: The Sweet Spot A Dell Technical White Paper Dell Data Center Infrastructure David L. Moss THIS WHITE PAPER IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY, AND MAY CONTAIN TYPOGRAPHICAL

### Best Practices for Wire-free Environmental Monitoring in the Data Center

White Paper Best Practices for Wire-free Environmental Monitoring in the Data Center April 2012 Introduction Monitoring for environmental threats in the data center is not a new concept. Since the beginning

### 2006 APC corporation. Cooling Solutions and Selling Strategies for Wiring Closets and Small IT Rooms

Cooling Solutions and Selling Strategies for Wiring Closets and Small IT Rooms Agenda Review of cooling challenge and strategies Solutions to deal with wiring closet cooling Opportunity and value Power

### Hot Aisle vs. Cold Aisle Containment

Hot Aisle vs. Cold Aisle Containment By John Niemann White Paper #135 Executive Summary Both hot and cold air containment can significantly improve the predictability and efficiency of data center cooling

### Greening Commercial Data Centres

Greening Commercial Data Centres Fresh air cooling giving a PUE of 1.2 in a colocation environment Greater efficiency and greater resilience Adjustable Overhead Supply allows variation in rack cooling

### ANCIS I N C O R P O R A T E D

Room-Level Energy and Thermal Management in Data Centers: The DOE Air Management Tool Presentation at IMAPS Advanced Technology Workshop on Thermal Management Palo Alto, CA, September 30, 2010 Magnus K.

### Data Centre Cooling Air Performance Metrics

Data Centre Cooling Air Performance Metrics Sophia Flucker CEng MIMechE Ing Dr Robert Tozer MSc MBA PhD CEng MCIBSE MASHRAE Operational Intelligence Ltd. info@dc-oi.com Abstract Data centre energy consumption

### Technology Corporation

1 White Paper Meeting The Increased Demand For Efficient Computer Room Cooling Server Cooling Problems: An Overview As microprocessors and other electronic components in servers grow more powerful, they

### Optimizing Network Performance through PASSIVE AIR FLOW MANAGEMENT IN THE DATA CENTER

Optimizing Network Performance through PASSIVE AIR FLOW MANAGEMENT IN THE DATA CENTER Lylette Macdonald, RCDD Legrand Ortronics BICSI Baltimore 2011 Agenda: Discuss passive thermal management at the Rack

### Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row Cooling Devices:

Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row Cooling Devices: Results of Chill-Off 2 Comparative Testing Introduction In new data center designs, capacity provisioning for ever-higher power densities

### Office of the Government Chief Information Officer. Green Data Centre Practices

Office of the Government Chief Information Officer Green Data Centre Practices Version : 2.0 April 2013 The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region The contents of this document remain

### Improving Rack Cooling Performance Using Airflow Management Blanking Panels

Improving Rack Cooling Performance Using Airflow Management Blanking Panels By Neil Rasmussen White Paper #44 Revision 3 Executive Summary Unused vertical space in open frame racks and rack enclosures

### Best Practices for Wire-free Environmental Monitoring in the Data Center

White Paper 11800 Ridge Parkway Broomfiled, CO 80021 1-800-638-2638 http://www.42u.com sales@42u.com Best Practices for Wire-free Environmental Monitoring in the Data Center Introduction Monitoring for

### Environmental Data Center Management and Monitoring

2013 Raritan Inc. Table of Contents Introduction Page 3 Sensor Design Considerations Page 3 Temperature and Humidity Sensors Page 4 Airflow Sensor Page 6 Differential Air Pressure Sensor Page 6 Water Sensor

### Impacts of Perforated Tile Open Areas on Airflow Uniformity and Air Management Performance in a Modular Data Center

Impacts of Perforated Tile Open Areas on Airflow Uniformity and Air Management Performance in a Modular Data Center Sang-Woo Ham 1, Hye-Won Dong 1, Jae-Weon Jeong 1,* 1 Division of Architectural Engineering,

### Data Centre Energy Efficiency The Toronto Hydro Story

Data Centre Energy Efficiency The Toronto Hydro Story Data Center Efficiency Opportunity via Build and Relocation Initiative Objective: Build a new Data Center at one of our existing facilities with a

### How to Build a Data Centre Cooling Budget. Ian Cathcart

How to Build a Data Centre Cooling Budget Ian Cathcart Chatsworth Products Topics We ll Cover Availability objectives Space and Load planning Equipment and design options Using CFD to evaluate options

### IT White Paper MANAGING EXTREME HEAT: COOLING STRATEGIES FOR HIGH-DENSITY SYSTEMS

IT White Paper MANAGING EXTREME HEAT: COOLING STRATEGIES FOR HIGH-DENSITY SYSTEMS SUMMARY As computer manufacturers pack more and more processing power into smaller packages, the challenge of data center