Answer Explanations SAT Practice Test #2

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1 Answer Explanations SAT Practice Test # The College Board. College Board, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. 5LSA07

2 Answer Explanations SAT Practice Test #2 Section 1: Reading Test QUESTION 1. Choice A is the best answer. The narrator admits that his job is irksome (line 7) and reflects on the reasons for his dislike. The narrator admits that his work is a dry and tedious task (line 9) and that he has a poor relationship with his superior: the antipathy which had sprung up between myself and my employer striking deeper root and spreading denser shade daily, excluded me from every glimpse of the sunshine of life (lines 28-31). Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because the narrator does not become increasingly competitive with his employer, publicly defend his choice of occupation, or exhibit optimism about his job. QUESTION 2. Choice B is the best answer. The first sentence of the passage explains that people do not like to admit when they ve chosen the wrong profession and that they will continue in their profession for a while before admitting their unhappiness. This statement mirrors the narrator s own situation, as the narrator admits he finds his own occupation irksome (line 7) but that he might long have borne with the nuisance (line 10) if not for his poor relationship with his employer. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because the first sentence does not discuss a controversy, focus on the narrator s employer, Edward Crimsworth, or provide any evidence of malicious conduct. QUESTION 3. Choice C is the best answer. The first paragraph shifts from a general discussion of how people deal with choosing an occupation they later regret (lines 1-6) to the narrator s description of his own dissatisfaction with his occupation (lines 6-33). 1

3 Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because the first paragraph does not focus on the narrator s self-doubt, his expectations of life as a tradesman, or his identification of alternatives to his current occupation. QUESTION 4. Choice A is the best answer. In lines 27-33, the narrator is describing the hostile relationship between him and his superior, Edward Crimsworth. This relationship causes the narrator to feel like he lives in the shade and in humid darkness. These words evoke the narrator s feelings of dismay toward his current occupation and his poor relationship with his superior factors that cause him to live without the sunshine of life. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because the words shade and darkness do not reflect the narrator s sinister thoughts, his fear of confinement, or his longing for rest. QUESTION 5. Choice D is the best answer. The narrator states that Crimsworth dislikes him because the narrator may one day make a successful tradesman (line 43). Crimsworth recognizes that the narrator is not inferior to him but rather more intelligent, someone who keeps the padlock of silence on mental wealth which [Crimsworth] was no sharer (lines 44-48). Crimsworth feels inferior to the narrator and is jealous of the narrator s intellectual and professional abilities. Choices A and C are incorrect because the narrator is not described as exhibiting high spirits or rash actions, but Caution, Tact, [and] Observation (line 51). Choice B is incorrect because the narrator s humble background is not discussed. QUESTION 6. Choice B is the best answer. Lines state that the narrator had long ceased to regard Mr. Crimsworth as my brother. In these lines, the term brother means friend or ally, which suggests that the narrator and Crimsworth were once friendly toward one another. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because the narrator originally viewed Crimsworth as a friend, or ally, and later as a hostile superior; he never viewed Crimsworth as a harmless rival, perceptive judge, or demanding mentor. QUESTION 7. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 61-62, the narrator states that he once regarded Mr. Crimsworth as his brother. This statement provides evidence that the narrator originally viewed Crimsworth as a sympathetic ally. 2

4 Choices A, B, and C do not provide the best evidence for the claim that Crimsworth was a sympathetic ally. Rather, choices A, B, and C provide evidence of the hostile relationship that currently exists between the narrator and Crimsworth. QUESTION 8. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 48-53, the narrator states that he exhibited Caution, Tact, [and] Observation at work and watched Mr. Crimsworth with lynx-eyes. The narrator acknowledges that Crimsworth was prepared to steal snake-like if he caught the narrator acting without tact or being disrespectful toward his superiors (lines 53-56). Thus, Crimsworth was trying to find a reason to place the narrator in a ridiculous or mortifying position (lines 49-50) by accusing the narrator of acting unprofessionally. The use of the lynx and snake serve to emphasize the narrator and Crimsworth s adversarial, or hostile, relationship. Choices A and B are incorrect because the description of the lynx and snake does not contrast two hypothetical courses of action or convey a resolution. Choice C is incorrect because while lines suggest that Crimsworth is trying to find a reason to fault the narrator s work, they do not imply that an altercation, or heated dispute, between the narrator and Crimsworth is likely to occur. QUESTION 9. Choice B is the best answer. Lines state that the narrator noticed there was no cheering red gleam of fire in his sitting-room fireplace. The lack of a cheering, or comforting, fire suggests that the narrator sometimes found his lodgings to be dreary or bleak. Choices A and D are incorrect because the narrator does not find his living quarters to be treacherous or intolerable. Choice C is incorrect because while the narrator is walking home he speculates about the presence of a fire in his sitting-room s fireplace (lines 69-74), which suggests that he could not predict the state of his living quarters. QUESTION 10. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 68-74, the narrator states that he did not see the cheering glow of a fire in his sitting-room fireplace. This statement provides evidence that the narrator views his lodgings as dreary or bleak. Choices A, B, and C do not provide the best evidence that the narrator views his lodgings as dreary. Choices A and C are incorrect because they do not provide the narrator s opinion of his lodgings, and choice B is incorrect because lines describe the narrator s lodgings only as small. 3

5 QUESTION 11. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 11-12, the author introduces the main purpose of the passage, which is to examine the different views on where ethics should apply when someone makes an economic decision. The passage examines what historical figures Adam Smith, Aristotle, and John Stuart Mill believed about the relationship between ethics and economics. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because they identify certain points addressed in the passage (cost-benefit analysis, ethical economic behavior, and the role of the free market), but do not describe the passage s main purpose. QUESTION 12. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 4-5, the author suggests that people object to criticizing ethics in free markets because they believe free markets are inherently ethical, and therefore, the role of ethics in free markets is unnecessary to study. In the opinion of the critics, free markets are ethical because they allow individuals to make their own choices about which goods to purchase and which goods to sell. Choices A and B are incorrect because they are not objections that criticize the ethics of free markets. Choice C is incorrect because the author does not present the opinion that free markets depend on devalued currency. QUESTION 13. Choice A is the best answer. In lines 4-5, the author states that some people believe that free markets are already ethical because they allow for personal choice. This statement provides evidence that some people believe criticizing the ethics of free markets is unnecessary because free markets permit individuals to make their own choices. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because they do not provide the best evidence of an objection to a critique of the ethics of free markets. QUESTION 14. Choice B is the best answer. In lines 6-7, the author states that people have accepted the ethical critique and embraced corporate social responsibility. In this context, people embrace, or readily adopt, corporate social responsibility by acting in a certain way. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because in this context embraced does not mean lovingly held, eagerly hugged, or reluctantly used. 4

6 QUESTION 15. Choice C is the best answer. The third and fourth paragraphs of the passage present Adam Smith s and Aristotle s different approaches to defining ethics in economics. The fifth paragraph offers a third approach to defining ethical economics, how instead of rooting ethics in character or the consequences of actions, we can focus on our actions themselves. From this perspective some things are right, some wrong (lines 45-48). Choice A is incorrect because the fifth paragraph does not develop a counterargument. Choices B and D are incorrect because although character is briefly mentioned in the fifth paragraph, its relationship to ethics is examined in the fourth paragraph. QUESTION 16. Choice A is the best answer. In lines 57-59, the author states that Many moral dilemmas arise when these three versions pull in different directions but clashes are not inevitable. In this context, the three different perspectives on ethical economics may clash, or conflict, with one another. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because in this context clashes does not mean mismatches, collisions, or brawls. QUESTION 17. Choice C is the best answer. In lines 59-64, the author states, Take fair trade coffee... for example: buying it might have good consequences, be virtuous, and also be the right way to act in a flawed market. The author is suggesting that in the example of fair trade coffee, all three perspectives about ethical economics Adam Smith s belief in consequences dictating action, Aristotle s emphasis on character, and the third approach emphasizing the virtue of good actions can be applied. These three approaches share common ground (line 64), as they all can be applied to the example of fair trade coffee without contradicting one another. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because they do not show how the three different approaches to ethical economics share common ground. Choice A simply states that there are different views on ethics in economics, choice B explains the third ethical economics approach, and choice D suggests that people behave like a herd when considering economics. QUESTION 18. Choice C is the best answer. In lines 83-88, the author states that psychology can help define ethics for us, which can help explain why people react in disgust at economic injustice, or accept a moral law as universal. 5

7 Choices A and B are incorrect because they identify topics discussed in the final paragraph (human quirks and people s reaction to economic injustice) but not its main idea. Choice D is incorrect because the final paragraph does not suggest that economists may be responsible for reforming the free market. QUESTION 19. Choice A is the best answer. The data in the graph show that in Tanzania between the years 2000 and 2008, fair trade coffee profits were around $1.30 per pound, while profits of regular coffee were in the approximate range of cents per pound. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because they are not supported by information in the graph. QUESTION 20. Choice B is the best answer. The data in the graph indicate that between 2002 and 2004 the difference in per-pound profits between fair trade and regular coffee was about $1. In this time period, fair trade coffee was valued at around $1.30 per pound and regular coffee was valued at around 20 cents per pound. The graph also shows that regular coffee recorded the lowest profits between the years 2002 and 2004, while fair trade coffee remained relatively stable throughout the entire eight-year span (2000 to 2008). Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because they do not indicate the greatest difference between per-pound profits for fair trade and regular coffee. QUESTION 21. Choice C is the best answer. In lines 59-61, the author defines fair trade coffee as coffee that is sold with a certification that indicates the farmers and workers who produced it were paid a fair wage. This definition suggests that purchasing fair trade coffee is an ethically responsible choice, and the fact that fair trade coffee is being produced and is profitable suggests that ethical economics is still a consideration. The graph s data support this claim by showing how fair trade coffee was more than twice as profitable as regular coffee. Choice A is incorrect because the graph suggests that people acting on empathy (by buying fair trade coffee) is productive for fair trade coffee farmers and workers. Choices B and D are incorrect because the graph does not provide support for the idea that character or people s fears factor into economic choices. 6

8 QUESTION 22. Choice C is the best answer. The author of Passage 1 indicates that people can benefit from using screen-based technologies as these technologies strengthen certain cognitive skills (line 3) and the brain functions related to fast-paced problem solving (lines 14-15). Choice A is incorrect because the author of Passage 1 cites numerous studies of screen-based technologies. Choice B is incorrect because it is not supported by Passage 1, and choice D is incorrect because while the author mentions some benefits to screen-based technologies, he does not encourage their use. QUESTION 23. Choice A is the best answer. In lines 3-4, the author of Passage 1 provides evidence that the use of screen-based technologies has some positive effects: Certain cognitive skills are strengthened by our use of computers and the Net. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because they do not provide the best evidence that the use of screen-based technologies has some positive effects. Choices B, C, and D introduce and describe the author s reservations about screen-based technologies. QUESTION 24. Choice B is the best answer. The author of Passage 1 cites Patricia Greenfield s study, which found that people s use of screen-based technologies weakened their ability to acquire knowledge, perform inductive analysis and critical thinking, and be imaginative and reflective (lines 34-38). The author of Passage 1 concludes that the use of screen-based technologies interferes with people s ability to think deeply (lines 47-50). Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because the author of Passage 1 does not address how using the Internet affects people s health, social contacts, or self-confidence. QUESTION 25. Choice C is the best answer. In lines 39-41, the author states, We know that the human brain is highly plastic; neurons and synapses change as circumstances change. In this context, the brain is plastic because it is malleable, or able to change. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because in this context plastic does not mean creative, artificial, or sculptural. 7

9 QUESTION 26. Choice B is the best answer. In lines 60-65, the author of Passage 2 explains how speed-reading does not revamp, or alter, how the brain processes information. He supports this statement by explaining how Woody Allen s reading of War and Peace in one sitting caused him to describe the novel as about Russia. Woody Allen was not able to comprehend the famously long novel by speed-reading it. Choices A and D are incorrect because Woody Allen s description of War and Peace does not suggest he disliked Tolstoy s writing style or that he regretted reading the book. Choice C is incorrect because the anecdote about Woody Allen is unrelated to multitasking. QUESTION 27. Choice D is the best answer. The author of Passage 2 states that people like novelists and scientists improve in their profession by immers[ing] themselves in their fields (line 79). Both novelists and scientists, in other words, become absorbed in their areas of expertise. Choices A and C are incorrect because the author of Passage 2 does not suggest that novelists and scientists both take risks when they pursue knowledge or are curious about other subjects. Choice B is incorrect because the author of Passage 2 states that accomplished people don t perform intellectual calisthenics, or exercises that improve their minds (lines 77-78). QUESTION 28. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 83-90, the author of Passage 2 criticizes media critics for their alarmist writing: Media critics write as if the brain takes on the qualities of whatever it consumes, the informational equivalent of you are what you eat. The author then compares media critics you are what you eat mentality to ancient people s belief that eating fierce animals made them fierce. The author uses this analogy to discredit media critics belief that consumption of electronic media alters the brain. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because the final sentence of Passage 2 does not use ornate language, employ humor, or evoke nostalgia for the past. QUESTION Choice D is the best answer. The author of Passage 1 argues that online and other screen-based technologies affect people s abilities to think deeply (lines 47-50). The author of Passage 2 argues that the effects of consuming electronic media are less drastic than media critics suggest (lines 81-82).

10 Choices A and B are incorrect because they discuss points made in the passages but not the main purpose of the passages. Choice C is incorrect because neither passage argues in favor of increasing financial support for certain studies. QUESTION 30. Choice B is the best answer. The author of Passage 1 cites scientific research that suggests online and screen-based technologies have a negative effect on the brain (lines 25-38). The author of Passage 2 is critical of the research highlighted in Passage 1: Critics of new media sometimes use science itself to press their case, citing research that shows how experience can change the brain. But cognitive neuroscientists roll their eyes at such talk (lines 51-54). Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because they do not accurately describe the relationship between the two passages. Passage 1 does not take a clinical approach to the topic. Passage 2 does not take a high-level view of a finding examined in depth in Passage 1, nor does it predict negative reactions to the findings discussed in paragraph 1. QUESTION 31. Choice C is the best answer. In Passage 1, the author cites psychologist Patricia Greenfield s finding that every medium develops some cognitive skills at the expense of others (lines 29-31). In Passage 2, the author states If you train people to do one thing (recognize shapes, solve math puzzles, find hidden words), they get better at doing that thing, but almost nothing else (lines 71-74). Both authors would agree than an improvement in one cognitive area, such as visualspatial skills, would not result in improved skills in other areas. Choice A is incorrect because hand-eye coordination is not discussed in Passage 2. Choice B is incorrect because Passage 1 does not suggest that critics of electronic media tend to overreact. Choice D is incorrect because neither passage discusses whether Internet users prefer reading printed texts or digital texts. QUESTION 32. Choice B is the best answer. In Passage 1, the author cites Michael Merzenich s claim that when people adapt to a new cultural phenomenon, including the use of a new medium, we end up with a different brain (lines 41-43). The author of Passage 2 somewhat agrees with Merzenich s claim by stating, Yes, every time we learn a fact or skill the wiring of the brain changes (lines 54-56). Choices A, C, and D do not provide the best evidence that the author of Passage 2 would agree to some extent with Merzenich s claim. Choices A and D are incorrect because the claims are attributed to critics of new media. Choice C is incorrect because it shows that the author of Passage 2 does not completely agree with Merzenich s claim about brain plasticity. 9

11 QUESTION 33. Choice B is the best answer. In lines 16-31, Stanton argues that men make all the decisions in the church, the state, and the home. This absolute power has led to a disorganized society, a fragmentary condition of everything. Stanton confirms this claim when she states that society needs women to lift man up into the higher realms of thought and action (lines 60-61). Choices A and D are incorrect because Stanton does not focus on women s lack of equal educational opportunities or inability to hold political positions. Choice C is incorrect because although Stanton implies women are not allowed to vote, she never mentions that poor candidates are winning elections. QUESTION 34. Choice A is the best answer. Stanton argues that women are repressed in society because men hold high carnival, or have all the power, and make the rules in the church, the state, and the home (lines 16-31). Stanton claims that men have total control over women, overpowering the feminine element everywhere (line 18). Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because Stanton does not use the term high carnival to emphasize that the time period is freewheeling, or unrestricted; that there has been a scandalous decline in moral values; or that the power of women is growing. QUESTION 35. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 16-23, Stanton states that men s absolute rule in society is crushing out all the diviner qualities in human nature, such that society knows very little of true manhood and womanhood. Stanton argues that society knows less about womanhood than manhood, because womanhood has scarce been recognized as a power until within the last century. This statement indicates that society s acknowledgement of womanhood, or women s true character, is a fairly recent historical development. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because Stanton describes men s control of society, their domination of the domestic sphere, and the prevalence of war and injustice as long-established realities. QUESTION Choice B is the best answer. In lines 16-23, Stanton provides evidence for the claim that society s acknowledgement of womanhood, or women s true character, is a fairly recent historical development: [womanhood] has scarce been recognized as a power until within the last century.

12 Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because they do not provide the best evidence that society s acknowledgement of womanhood, or women s true character, is a fairly recent historical development. Rather, choices A, C, and D discuss men s character, power, and influence. QUESTION 37. Choice B is the best answer. In lines 23-26, Stanton states, Society is but the reflection of man himself, untempered by woman s thought; the hard iron rule we feel alike in the church, the state, and the home. In this context, man s rule in the church, the state, and the home means that men have a controlling force in all areas of society. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because in this context rule does not mean a general guideline, an established habit, or a procedural method. QUESTION 38. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 32-35, Stanton argues that people use the term the strong-minded to refer to women who advocate for the right to suffrage, or the right to vote in elections. In this context, people use the term the strong-minded to criticize female suffragists, as they believe voting will make women too masculine. Choices A and B are incorrect because Stanton does not suggest that people use the term the strong-minded as a compliment. Choice C is incorrect because Stanton suggests that the strong-minded is a term used to criticize women who want to vote, not those who enter male-dominated professions. QUESTION 39. Choice C is the best answer. In lines 36-39, Stanton states that society contains hardly any women in the best sense, and clarifies that too many women are reflections, varieties, and dilutions of the masculine gender. Stanton is suggesting that there are few best, or genuine, women who are not completely influenced or controlled by men. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because in this context best does not mean superior, excellent, or rarest. QUESTION 40. Choice A is the best answer. In lines 54-56, Stanton argues that man mourns, or regrets, how his power has caused falsehood, selfishness, and violence to become the law of society. Stanton is arguing that men are lamenting, or expressing regret about, how their governance has created problems. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because Stanton does not suggest that men are advocating for women s right to vote or for female equality, nor are they requesting women s opinions about improving civic life. 11

13 QUESTION 41. Choice B is the best answer. In lines 54-56, Stanton provides evidence that men are lamenting the problems they have created, as they recognize that their actions have caused falsehood, selfishness, and violence [to become] the law of life. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because they do not provide the best evidence that men are lamenting the problems they have created. Choice A explains society s current fragmentation. Choices C and D present Stanton s main argument for women s enfranchisement. QUESTION 42. Choice D is the best answer. In the sixth paragraph, Stanton differentiates between men and masculine traits. Stanton argues that masculine traits or characteristics, such as a love of acquisition and conquest, serve to subjugate one man to another (lines 69-80). Stanton is suggesting that some masculine traits position men within certain power structures. Choices A and B are incorrect because the sixth paragraph does not primarily establish a contrast between men and women or between the spiritual and material worlds. Choice C is incorrect because although Stanton argues that not all men are hard, selfish, and brutal, she does not discuss what constitutes a good man. QUESTION 43. Choice C is the best answer. In the first paragraph, the author identifies the natural phenomenon internal waves (line 3), and explains why they are important: internal waves are fundamental parts of ocean water dynamics, transferring heat to the ocean depths and bringing up cold water from below (lines 7-9). Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because they do not identify the main purpose of the first paragraph, as that paragraph does not focus on a scientific device, a common misconception, or a recent study. QUESTION 44. Choice B is the best answer. In lines 17-19, researcher Tom Peacock argues that in order to create precise global climate models, scientists must be able to capture processes such as how internal waves are formed. In this context, to capture a process means to record it for scientific study. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because in this context capture does not mean to control, secure, or absorb. 12

14 QUESTION 45. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 17-19, researcher Tom Peacock argues that scientists need to capture processes of internal waves to develop more and more accurate climate models. Peacock is suggesting that studying internal waves will inform the development of scientific models. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because Peacock does not state that monitoring internal waves will allow people to verify wave heights, improve satellite image quality, or prevent coastal damage. QUESTION 46. Choice C is the best answer. In lines 17-19, researcher Tom Peacock provides evidence that studying internal waves will inform the development of key scientific models, such as more accurate climate models. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because they do not provide the best evidence that studying internal waves will inform the development of key scientific models; rather, they provide general information about internal waves. QUESTION 47. Choice A is the best answer. In lines 65-67, the author notes that Tom Peacock and his team were able to devise a mathematical model that describes the movement and formation of these waves. In this context, the researchers devised, or created, a mathematical model. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because in this context devise does not mean to solve, imagine, or begin. QUESTION 48. Choice B is the best answer. Tom Peacock and his team created a model of the Luzon s Strait s underwater topography and determined that its distinct double-ridge shape... [is] responsible for generating the underwater [internal] waves (lines 53-55). The author notes that this model describes only internal waves in the Luzon Strait but that the team s findings may help researchers understand how internal waves are generated in other places around the world (lines 67-70). The author s claim suggests that while internal waves in the Luzon Strait are some of the largest in the world (line 25) due to the region s topography, internal waves occurring in other regions may be caused by some similar factors. Choice A is incorrect because the author notes that the internal waves in the Luzon Strait are some of the largest in the world (line 25), which suggests that internal waves reach varying heights. Choices C and D are incorrect because they are not supported by the researchers findings. 13

15 QUESTION 49. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 67-70, the author provides evidence that, while the researchers findings suggest the internal waves in the Luzon Strait are influenced by the region s topography, the findings may help researchers understand how internal waves are generated in other places around the world. This statement suggests that all internal waves may be caused by some similar factors. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because they do not provide the best evidence that internal waves are caused by similar factors but influenced by the distinct topographies of different regions. Rather, choices A, B, and C reference general information about internal waves or focus solely on those that occur in the Luzon Strait. QUESTION 50. Choice D is the best answer. During the period 19:12 to 20:24, the graph shows the 13 C isotherm increasing in depth from about 20 to 40 meters. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because during the time period 19:12 to 20:24 the 9 C, 10 C, and 11 C isotherms all decreased in depth. QUESTION 51. Choice D is the best answer. In lines 3-6, the author notes that internal waves do not ride the ocean surface but move underwater, undetectable without the use of satellite imagery or sophisticated monitoring equipment. The graph shows that the isotherms in an internal wave never reach the ocean s surface, as the isotherms do not record a depth of 0. Choice A is incorrect because the graph provides no information about salinity. Choice B is incorrect because the graph shows layers of less dense water (which, based on the passage, are warmer) riding above layers of denser water (which, based on the passage, are cooler). Choice C is incorrect because the graph shows that internal waves push isotherms of warmer water above bands of colder water. QUESTION 52. Choice A is the best answer. In lines 7-9, the author notes that internal waves are fundamental parts of ocean water dynamics because they transfer heat to the ocean depths and brin[g] up cold water from below. The graph shows an internal wave forcing the warm isotherms to depths that typically are colder. For example, at 13:12, the internal wave transfers heat to the ocean depths by forcing the 10 C, 11 C, and 13 C isotherms to depths that typically are colder. 14 Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because the graph does not show how internal waves affect the ocean s density, surface temperature, or tide flow.

16 Section 2: Writing and Language Test QUESTION 1. Choice B is the best answer because it provides a noun, reductions, yielding a grammatically complete and coherent sentence. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each provides a verb or gerund, while the underlined portion calls for a noun. QUESTION 2. Choice B is the best answer because it offers a transitional adverb, Consequently, that communicates a cause-effect relationship between the funding reduction identified in the previous sentence and the staffing decrease described in this sentence. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each misidentifies the relationship between the preceding sentence and the sentence of which it is a part. QUESTION 3. Choice A is the best answer because the singular verb has agrees with the singular noun trend that appears earlier in the sentence. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because the plural verb have does not agree with the singular subject trend, and the relative pronoun which unnecessarily interrupts the direct relationship between trend and the verb. QUESTION 4. Choice A is the best answer because it states accurately why the proposed clause should be added to the sentence. Without these specific examples, readers have only a vague sense of what nonprint formats might be. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each represents a misinterpretation of the relationship between the proposed clause to be added and the surrounding text in the passage. QUESTION 5. Choice D is the best answer because it includes only the preposition and noun that the sentence requires. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each includes an unnecessary pronoun, either them or their. The sentence contains no referents that would circulate e-books. QUESTION 6. Choice D is the best answer because the verb form cataloging parallels the other verbs in the series. 15

17 Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each interrupts the parallel structure in the verb series, either through an incorrect verb form or with an unnecessary subject. QUESTION 7. Choice B is the best answer because it consolidates references to the subject, librarians, by placing the relative pronoun whose immediately following librarians. This results in a logical flow of information within the sentence. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each fails to place librarians as the main subject of the sentence without redundancy, resulting in a convoluted sentence whose relevance to the preceding and subsequent sentences is unclear. QUESTION 8. Choice D is the best answer because no conjunction is necessary to communicate the relationship between the clauses in the sentence. The conjunction While at the beginning of the sentence already creates a comparison. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each provides an unnecessary coordinating conjunction. QUESTION 9. Choice B is the best answer because it mentions time periods when the free services described later in the sentence are particularly useful to library patrons. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each creates redundancy or awkwardness in the remainder of the sentence. QUESTION 10. Choice B is the best answer because it is concise; it is also consistent with the formal language in the rest of the sentence and the passage overall. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each is either unnecessarily wordy or uses colloquial language that does not correspond with the tone of the passage. QUESTION 11. Choice C is the best answer because it restates the writer s primary argument, which may be found at the end of the first paragraph: As public libraries adapt to rapid technological advances in information distribution, librarians roles are actually expanding. 16 Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because they do not paraphrase the writer s primary claim.

18 QUESTION 12. Choice B is the best answer because it clarifies that the sentence, which mentions a specific large-scale painting at the Art Institute of Chicago, is an example supporting the preceding claim about large-scale paintings. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because they propose transitional words or phrases that do not accurately represent the relationship between the preceding sentence and the sentence containing the underlined portion. QUESTION 13. Choice D is the best answer because no punctuation is necessary in the underlined phrase. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each separates parts of the noun phrase painter Georges Seurat s 10-foot-wide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte from one another with one or more unnecessary commas. QUESTION 14. Choice C is the best answer because it provides the appropriate possessive form, its, and a colon to introduce the identifying phrase that follows. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because none contains both the appropriate possessive form of it and the punctuation that creates a grammatically standard sentence. QUESTION 15. Choice C is the best answer because an analysis of the consequences of King Louis XV s reign is irrelevant to the paragraph. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because each represents a misinterpretation of the relationship between the proposed sentence to be added and the main point of the paragraph. QUESTION 16. Choice C is the best answer because it provides a coordinating conjunction, and, to connect the two verb phrases are characterized and are covered. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because each lacks the conjunction needed to connect the two verb phrases are characterized and are covered. QUESTION 17. Choice B is the best answer because it offers an example of an additional household item, a tea cup, with a specific measurement that is one-twelfth of its actual size. 17

19 Choices A, C, D are incorrect because, compared to the example preceding the underlined portion, each is vague and fails to offer a specific measurement of an additional household item. QUESTION 18. Choice B is the best answer because it provides correct punctuation and the coordinating conjunction but, which acknowledges the possible contrast between being sparsely furnished and displaying just as true period details. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each communicates an illogical relationship between the phrases that precede and follow the underlined portion. QUESTION 19. Choice A is the best answer because it provides a clause that is the most similar to the two preceding clauses, which both end with a reference to a specific wall. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each deviates from the stylistic pattern of the preceding two clauses. QUESTION 20. Choice D is the best answer because the article a requires the singular noun visitor, and the simple present verb remark is the appropriate verb tense in this context. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each contains either a noun or verb that does not fit the context. QUESTION 21. Choice D is the best answer because it identifies the drawers, rather than the visitor, as being dotted with pin-sized knobs. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because all three contain dangling modifiers that obscure the relationship between the visitor, the drawers, and the pin-sized knobs. QUESTION 22. Choice B is the best answer because paragraph 3 offers an overview of the exhibit and so serves to introduce the specific aspects of particular miniature rooms described in paragraphs 2 and Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each proposes a placement of paragraph 2 that prevents the passage from developing in a logical sequence.

20 QUESTION 23. Choice A is the best answer because it correctly completes the noun phrase that begins with sea otters, and directly follows the noun phrase with the verb help. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each separates the noun otters from the verb help in a way that results in a grammatically incomplete sentence. QUESTION 24. Choice B is the best answer because the data in the chart show lower sea urchin density in areas where sea otters have lived for two years or less than in areas where no otters are present. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because none accurately describes the data in the chart. QUESTION 25. Choice B is the best answer because the conjunctive adverb however accurately communicates the contrast between an environment shaped by the presence of sea otters, described in the preceding sentence, and an environment shaped by the absence of sea otters, described in this sentence. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each presents a conjunctive adverb that does not accurately depict the relationship between the preceding sentence and the sentence with the underlined word. QUESTION 26. Choice A is the best answer because the additional information usefully connects the carbon dioxide levels mentioned in this sentence with the global warming mentioned in the previous sentence. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each misinterprets the relationship between the proposed information and the main points of the paragraph and the passage. QUESTION 27. Choice D is the best answer because it offers the verb suggests followed directly by its object, a that-clause, without interruption. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each contains punctuation that unnecessarily separates the study from its findings that is, separates the verb from its object. QUESTION 28. Choice A is the best answer because it accurately reflects the fact that sea urchins graze voraciously on kelp, as stated in the first paragraph, and it also maintains the tone of the passage. 19

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