Preface. PART I Background, Principles, Overview 1

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2 Contents Preface xv PART I Background, Principles, Overview 1 CHAPTER 1 Business Processes More Important Than Ever 3 Fosdick s Thesis 3 And Now? 4 The Need for Practical Guidance 5 Building Methods to Meet the Need 8 What to Expect 9 Who Are You? 9 References 10 CHAPTER 2 A Brief History How the Enterprise Came to Be Process Oriented 13 Learning from the Past 13 The Multiskilled Craftsworker 14 The Advent of the Specialist 15 The Rise of Functional Specialties 16 Function and Organization What s the Difference? 17 Losing the Process in the Functions 17 Enter Reengineering: Exit Reengineering: The Wonder Years: Business Process Rides Again!: 2000 Present 22 From Fad to Business as Usual 23 Process-Oriented Products 24 Process Frameworks 24 Less Polarization 25 A Predictable Complaint 26 Process Orientation The Best of All Worlds? 28 References 28 v

3 vi Contents CHAPTER 3 Business Processes What Are They, Anyway? 31 The Trouble with Process Why We Need a Clear Definition 31 No Definitions, but Lots of Opinions 31 Is Business Process an Arbitrary Concept? 32 Does It Matter? 32 Trouble Controlling Scope and Producing Useful Deliverables 33 Problems Caused by Improperly Defined Processes 34 Your Scope Will Often Be Smaller Than a Business Process 35 Hasn t This Problem Been Solved Already? 36 What Do Books in the Business Process Field Say? 36 What Does the Dictionary Say? 37 What Do Information Systems Dictionaries Say? 37 So What, Finally, Is a Business Process? 38 The Approach We ll Take 39 Defining Process in General 39 Defining Business Process in Particular 46 A Test for Business Processes Boundaries 49 Applying the Guideline 53 So What? 55 Is Everything a Process? 55 Can All Processes Be Modeled? 56 Summary 56 Criteria for Business Processes 56 Other Business Process Characteristics 59 Measurable 59 Automation 59 Levels of Detail 60 Customers: Internal and External 60 Closing Advice 61 Processes Are Hidden 62 They re Bigger Than You Think 62 Hidden Issues 63 What s Next? 64 References 64 CHAPTER 4 The Approach in a Nutshell 65 This Chapter and Beyond 65 Why It Works 66 Whom It s For 67 Processes Results, Not Work 67 Frameworks in General 68 A Framework for Process Enablers 69 A Framework for Putting Processes and Systems in Context 72 One Person s Mission Is Another Person s Objective 72 Expanding the Framework 73

4 Contents vii A Closer Look at the Three-Tier Architecture 74 Presentation Services 74 Business Services 75 Data Management 76 Models in General 76 The Modeling Techniques We Employ 77 Business Process: Process Workflow Models 77 Presentation Services: Use Cases and Use Case Scenarios 81 Business Services: Service Specification and Supporting Techniques 82 Data Management: Data Models 82 Five-Tier Thinking 82 A Workflow-Driven Methodology The Process of Studying Processes 83 Establish Process Context, Scope, and Goals 84 Understand the As-Is Process 85 Design the To-Be Process 85 After the Three-Phase Method 87 Applications of the Approach 88 PART II Phase 1: Establish Process Context, Scope, and Goals 91 CHAPTER 5 Discover Business Processes 93 Process Discovery What, Why, and How 93 The Goal: An Overall Process Map 95 The Approach 97 Questions You ll Probably Have 99 Step 1: Get Started 101 Gathering Background Information 101 Meeting with the Sponsor 105 Step 2: Conduct Pre-Session Interviews 110 Step 3: Prepare for First Session 114 Step 4: Initiate First Session 118 Step 5: Analyze Terms and Find the Nouns 123 Step 6: Identify Activities 127 Step 7: Link the Activities and Determine Business Processes 129 Naming the Business Processes 132 Choose the First Process Project 133 Divine Intervention 134 Analytic Approach 135 References 136 CHAPTER 6 Establish Process Scope and Contents 137 Goals 137 Overview 137 How Specifically Do Scope and Contents Help? 139

5 viii Contents Step 1: Identify Triggering Event(s) 139 Step 2: Identify Result for Each Stakeholder 142 Step 3: Identify Subprocesses 146 Step 4: Identify Cases 147 Step 5: Identify Participating Organizations 149 Step 6: Identify Individual Actors and Main Responsibilities 149 Step 7: Identify Supporting Mechanisms 149 Step 8: Identify Process Measures (Optional) 150 CHAPTER 7 Conduct Initial As-Is Process Assessment 151 Establishing Rationale and Direction 151 The Process Case for Action and Process Vision 153 Why Bother? Doesn t Everyone Know This Already? 153 The Case for Action 154 Step 1: Stakeholder Assessment 154 Step 2: Context 155 Step 3: Consequences of Inaction 156 A Note on the Simplified Framework 156 The Vision 157 An Example 158 A Closer Look at Assessment by Stakeholder 159 Everyone s a Critic 159 Don t Guess Ask! 160 The Customer 161 The Performers 163 Owners and Managers 164 Suppliers 165 Other Groups 165 Process Differentiator 166 What Is a Differentiator, Improvement Dimension, or Strategic Discipline? 166 A Common Misconception 168 Differentiators in Action 169 The Relevance of the Concept 170 Faster, Cheaper, Better, or What? 172 Common Questions 173 Look at the Process in Terms of Enablers 174 Workflow Design 175 Information Systems 176 Motivation and Measurement 178 Human Resources 179 Policies and Rules 181 Facilities 182 All Enablers Matter 182 The Environment in Which the Process Operates 182 An Example 183

6 Contents ix Topics in the Environment 184 Beliefs, Culture, and Management Style 185 Everything Stems from Beliefs 186 Other Cultural Traits 186 Core Competencies 188 What Are We Really Good At? 188 Measures 189 How Many? 190 Got the Time? 190 Who s Involved? 192 Efficiency 192 Cost 193 Summary of Measures 193 Potential Improvements 194 One Poster Is Worth a Thousand Words 195 Summarizing Findings 195 It Matters! 195 References 197 PART III Phase 2: Understand the As-Is Process 199 CHAPTER 8 Process Workflow Models: The Essentials 201 Overview 201 The Real Purpose of This Section 201 The Practical Side 201 Swimlane Diagrams What and Why 202 What s the Attraction? 202 What Are They? 202 Example 1: The Essence of Workflow Modeling 205 Example 2: Getting to the Essence Without Diving into Detail 205 Question 1: Who Gets the Work Next? 207 Question 2: How Does It Get There? 209 Question 3: Who Really Gets the Work Next? 210 What Did We Learn from This Example? 211 Example 3: How Do I Depict? 213 Customer Service 213 Repair Service 214 Service Analysis 214 Telemarketing 214 Market Database Research 215 RB Tel Questions Raised 215 Essential Elements of a Swimlane Diagram 216 The Details 216 Actors and Roles 216 Steps and Decisions 219

7 x Contents Flow 223 What s Next? 231 CHAPTER 9 Process Workflow Models Managing Progressive Detail 233 The Curse of Detail 233 What s the Problem? 233 Achieving a Controlled Descent 234 Three Levels of Workflow Diagrams 234 Level 1: The Handoff Diagram 235 Issues and Observations with the Handoff Diagram 237 Recap 239 Level 2: The Service Diagram 240 Level 3: The Task Diagram 243 Closing Thoughts 244 CHAPTER 10 Process Workflow Models The Finer Points 245 Introduction 245 Actors and Other Characters 245 Every Actor? Really? 246 Jobs, Roles, and Committees 247 Systems as Actors 248 Passive Actors 252 Processes as Actors 254 Steps and Types of Steps 255 What Makes It Go? Flow! 255 Dealing with Complexity 258 Flowing On 261 CHAPTER 11 Develop As-Is Process Workflow Model 263 Introduction 263 Dealing with Resistance to As-Is Modeling 265 Assembling the Team 267 Management and Front-Line Participants? 267 Front-Line Workers or Representatives? 268 IT and Other Supporting Players? 268 External Participants 269 Preparing for the Modeling Session 269 Scheduling 269 The Kickoff 273 Approach 273 Question 1: What Are We Doing? 274 Question 2: Which Process Are We Modeling? 275 Building the Handoff-Level Diagram 275 The Mechanics and the Methods 275

8 Contents xi Option 1 Trace the Flow (The Three Questions Approach) 276 Option 2 Bottom Up (Gather Activities, Then Assemble) 280 Refining the Initial Model The Five Key Questions 281 Can We Stop Now? 284 Producing the Service Diagram 288 Issues During As-Is Modeling 290 Misapplying Workflow Modeling 290 Modeling Different Versions of the Same Process 292 Inability to Model a Particular Situation 293 Facilitation Issues 294 Dealing with Disagreement 296 Conclusion 297 PART IV Phase 3: Design the To-Be Process 299 CHAPTER 12 Conduct Final As-Is Process Assessment 301 Introduction 301 Getting Ready 303 Confirm Initial Assessment and Goals 303 Capture First Impressions 304 Identify Leverage Points 304 Assessment by Enablers 306 Workflow Design 307 Information Systems 309 Motivation and Measurement 310 Human Resources 314 Policies and Rules 317 Facilities 317 Other Factors 318 Assess Individual Steps 319 Consolidate Improvement Ideas 320 Decide on Approach 320 References 321 CHAPTER 13 Determine To-Be Process Characteristics and Workflow 323 Look Before You Leap! 323 Goals 324 Philosophy/Approach 324 Post and Review Key Materials from Previous Phases 326 Collect Ideas Getting Started 327 Build on Ideas Generated During Assessment 327 Generate Ideas That Specifically Address the Leverage Points 328 Steal Ideas by Reviewing Best Practices 328 Best Practices in General 328

9 xii Contents Workflow Design 329 Information Systems 330 Motivation and Measurement ( Reward and Punishment Schemes) 331 Human Resources 332 Policies and Rules 333 Facilities Design (or Other Factors) 334 Brainstorming Additional Suggestions 334 Apply the Challenge Process 335 Assess Ideas in Context and Select 337 Develop Ideal To-Be Workflow 340 Develop To-Be Workflow 343 Road Trip 344 References 347 PART V Related Requirements Definition Techniques 349 CHAPTER 14 Business-Oriented Data Modeling 351 Data Modeling What It Is, What It Isn t 351 Basic Terms and Concepts 352 A Simple Example 353 The Narrative Component the Entity Definitions 353 The Graphic Component the Entity-Relationship Diagram 355 Levels of Detail 359 Contextual Data Model 362 Conceptual Data Model 362 Logical Data Model 363 The Components Further Guidelines and Pitfalls 363 Entities 364 Attributes 366 Relationships 367 Starting Your Data Model 369 Starting Covertly 369 Starting Overtly 370 Starting by Reverse Engineering 372 From Conceptual to Logical 373 References 373 CHAPTER 15 Requirements Modeling with Use Cases and Services 375 From Workflow to Information System Requirements 375 A Time of Transition 375 Transition into Use Cases 376 Separation into Business Services and Use Cases 376 A Quick Example 380 Business Services Why? 384

10 Contents xiii Disclaimer and Direction 387 The Approach and How It s Different 387 Business Services in General 390 Services and Events A Point of Confusion 390 Business Services and Business Events 391 What Is an Event? 391 Types of Events 392 Services Granularity 393 A Few More Guidelines 394 Want More? 395 Use Case Concepts 395 Use Cases in General 395 Extensions and Scenarios 396 The Methodology 397 Seven Steps to Success 397 Using Facilitated Sessions 398 Step 1: Identify Services (Scope) and Complete Initial Service Specifications (Concept) 399 Choose Your Primary Approach 399 Brainstorm for Events or Services 400 Refine the List of Events or Services 401 Finalize the Scope-Level List of Services 402 Describe Business Services 403 Confirm Business Services 404 Step 2: Identify Use Cases (Scope) and Complete Initial Use Case Descriptions (Concept) 404 Discover Use Cases 404 Describe the Use Cases 406 Step 3: Complete Final Service Specifications (Detail) 409 Step 4: Begin Final Use Case Descriptions (First Pass at Detail) 412 Create Use Case Dialogues 412 Step 5: Refine Final Use Case Descriptions (Final Pass at Detail) 415 Step 6: Identify and Describe Use Case Scenarios (Conditions and Outcomes) 418 Establish Use Case Scenarios 419 Step 7: Complete Use Case Scenario Descriptions (Dialogues); Refine Use Cases As Necessary 420 Closing Thoughts 420 More Uses of Use Cases 420 But Why Do They Work So Well? 422 Reference 422 Appendix 423 About the Authors 435 Index 437

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