Backup and restore of Oracle databases: introducing a disk layer

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1 Backup and restore of Oracle databases: introducing a disk layer by Ruben Gaspar IT-DB-DBB CERN IT Department CH-1211 Geneva 23 Switzerland BR evolution: Backup to disk

2 Agenda CERN Oracle databases & Oracle backup basics Backup to disk implementation details Recovery platform Some bits of backup to disk backend Summary CERN IT Department CH-1211 Geneva 23 Switzerland BR evolution: Backup to disk- 2

3 Agenda CERN Oracle databases & Oracle backup basics Backup to disk implementation details Recovery platform Some bits of backup to disk backend Summary CERN IT Department CH-1211 Geneva 23 Switzerland BR evolution: Backup to disk- 3

4 Target Oracle databases for backup to disk ~70 Oracle databases, most of them running Oracle clusterware (RAC) 49 are being backed up to disk and then tape 21 are just backed up with snapshots. Test and development instances. 15 Data Guard RAC clusters in Prod Active Data Guard since upgrade to 11g They are just backed up to tape Redo Transport 10 Oracle single instance in DBaaS also backed up using snapshots. BR evolution: Backup to disk- 4 4

5 Oracle backup basics The Oracle clock: System Change Number (SCN) It will take 544 years to run out of SCN at 16K/s smon_scn_time tracks time versus SCN Type of backups Consistent: taken while database has been cleanly shutdown. All redo applied to data files. Archive logs are not produced. Inconsistent: taken while database is running. Database must be in archivelog mode. It means archive logs will be produced. Point in Time Recoveries (PITR) are possible. Drawback: clean-up of archivelogs is critical to avoid that database blocks TSM was playing a critical role here Backup sets: Oracle proprietary format for backups. Binary files. Backup sets are containers for one or several backup pieces Backup pieces contain blocks of 1 or several data files (multiplexing) RMAN channels: disk or tape or proxy, read data files and write back to the backup media. We use SBT: serial backup to tape API, using IBM Tivoli Data Protection 6.3 (provided by TSM support) BR evolution: Backup to disk- 5

6 Oracle backup basics (II) Backup jobs based on templates. Recovery Manager API --Full backup incremental level 0 database; --comulative backup incremental level 2 cumulative database; --Incremental backup incremental level 1 database; --Archivelogs backup tag 'BR_TAG' archivelog all delete all input; Retention policy from 60 to 90 days, depending on DB. CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO RECOVERY WINDOW OF 90 DAYS; e.g. LEMONRAC [1xfull + 6xdifferential + archivelogs] * 13 weeks 2 Full Cum. Inc 1 PITR Arch Fulls (GB) Inc (GB) Archived logs Total LEMONRAC Controlfile backup, automatically taken by each backup CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP ON; e.g. LHCBSTG [2xfull + 5xdifferential + 24x4 archivelogs] *13 weeks = 934GB BR evolution: Backup to disk- 6

7 BR evolution: Backup to disk- 7

8 What is there to be backed up? Backup jobs using RMAN API take care of : Database files: user and system files Control files: contain structure and status of data files. They have also all backup history Archived logs: backup of redo logs. Needed for inconsistent backup strategies. They need to be backed up and removed from the active file system otherwise if running out of space, database freezes/stops. 5.1TB redo logs produced per day ALL THREE ARE CRITICAL FOR A BACKUP/RECOVERY strategy BR evolution: Backup to disk- 8

9 Agenda CERN Oracle databases & Oracle backup basics Backup to disk implementation details Recovery platform Some bits of backup to disk backend Summary BR evolution: Backup to disk- 9

10 Backup architecture Custom solution: about 15k lines of code, Perl + Bash Flexible: easy to adapt to new Oracle release, backup media Based on Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) templates Central logging Easy to extend via Perl plug-ins: snapshot, exports, RO tablespaces, BR evolution: Backup to disk- 10

11 Backup architecture Custom solution: about 15k lines of code, Perl + Bash Flexible: easy to adapt to new Oracle release, backup media Based on Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) templates Central logging Easy to extend via Perl plug-ins: snapshot, exports, RO tablespaces, We send compressed: 1 out of 4 full backups All archivelogs BR evolution: Backup to disk- 11

12 Impact on TSM Savings depend on database workload, e.g.: backup sets on disk for three databases DB Full (GB) Inc (GB) Archived logs (GB) Savings EDHP % CASTORNS % ATLASSTG % + x 1/4 Sent to tape + backup sets are compressed (see later) Source: TSM support Savings ~ 71% BR evolution: Backup to disk- 12

13 Impact on TSM (II) 15 accounts: alicestg,atlasstg,cmsstg,castorns,.. Source: TSM support ~70% savings 29 accounts: pdb,wcernp,itcore,aisdbp, ~47% savings BR evolution: Backup to disk- 13

14 Workflow for disk/tape backups DISK Same workflow as per tape backups to ease maintenance Disk or Tape templates are almost identical, just channel allocation differs Disk channel allocation calculated on the fly considering available space in aggregate and file system: using Netapp management API called ZAPI About 75 templates to adapt to all type of backup strategies Tape and disk backup strategies co-exist Reversible changing from one to another is a matter of changing templates. BR evolution: Backup to disk- 14

15 Workflow for disk/tape backups DISK Same workflow as per tape backups to ease maintenance Disk or Tape templates are almost identical, just channel allocation differs Disk channel allocation calculated on the fly considering available space in aggregate and file system: using Netapp management API called ZAPI About 75 templates to adapt to all type of backup strategies Tape and disk backup strategies co-exist Reversible changing from one to another is a matter of changing templates. BR evolution: Backup to disk- 15

16 Typical DB architecture Public interface 10GbE LAN Public interface RAC 10GbE 10GbE Interconnect 10GbE Private network 10GbE C-mode 10GbE 1 GbE Cluster interconnect 1 GbE 7-mode 6Gb/s mgmt network 6Gb/s Archivelogs controfile datafiles BR evolution: Backup to disk- 16 Media Manager Server IBM TSM backup01 backup02 At least 2 file systems for backup to disk: /backup/dbsxx/dbname 16

17 New C-mode features Transparent file system movements: cluster01::> volume move start -destination-aggregate aggr1_c01n02 -vserver vs1 -volume castorns03 -cutover-window 10 DNS load balancing inside the cluster Automatic virtual IP rebalancing (based on failover groups) Access security via export-policy joins firewall + different authentication mechanisms: sys, krb5, ntlm Global namespace Compression and Deduplication We strongly rely on compression as the way to satisfy 2.3PB of backup set storage needs using 1.1PB of disk BR evolution: Backup to disk- 17

18 Backup to disk configuration on database servers Global namespace in use: /backup/dbsxx Ease management: mount point unchanged as data moves. It s a Netapp C-mode feature (see later) 7-mode: mount o priv-controllerip:/vol/castorns03 /ORA/dbs03/CASTOR C-mode: mount -o public-ip-cluster:/backup/dbs01/castorns /backup/dbs01/castorns /backup/dbs01/<dbname> autobackup controlfile + backupsets /backup/dbsxx/<dbname> backupsets RMAN configuration parameters: minimal change CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '/backup/dbs01/<dbname>/<dbname>_%f'; BR evolution: Backup to disk- 18

19 Particular cases Solution also operational in a Data Guard configuration: full and incremental taken on standby (more while talking about restores) archivelogs + controlfile Primary Database Redo Transport Active Data Guard for users access and for disaster recovery Multiple channels: rman_channels_connect in order to distribute backup load full + incremental + controlfile Plug-in for RO tablespaces backup (ACCLOG: size about 170TB, growth 70TB/year) Automatic clean-up in case of tablespace state change One backup set per tablespace Extension to allow special mount points (ACCLOG) rman_mounts_readonly BR evolution: Backup to disk

20 Backup to disk performance Backups run faster ~ 50% than on tape ACCLOG full backup 5TB 34 hours ~ 35 MB/s Tape Sending backup sets from disk to tape needs optimisation Work on progress with TSM support 14 hours ~ 100MB/s Disk 20 BR evolution: Backup to disk- 20

21 Backup to Disk space consumption Channels order is important storage management Space distribution should be according planning to avoid miss balance. File systems should grow at same pace. Emptiest volume is always selected on top Automatic size extension BR evolution: Backup to disk

22 Agenda CERN Oracle databases & Oracle backup basics Backup to disk implementation details Recovery platform Some bits of backup to disk backend Summary BR evolution: Backup to disk- 22

23 Recovery platform Only reliable proof of truth: run a recovery Any change introduce in backup platform/backup strategy is always validated via test recoveries Isolation Run independently of the production database Cant access any other system (database network links) No user jobs must run Flexible and easy to customize Maximize recovery server: several recoveries at the same time Exports taken after a successful recovery help in support cases: mainly logical errors Open source: BR evolution: Backup to disk

24 Recovery platform (II) Introducing disk buffer highly improves our recovery testing Also tested with Data Guard configurations: Data Guard: Oracle support ID RMAN> set backup files for device type disk to accessible Restore from disk are usually 50% faster More recoveries can be run, nowadays about 40 recoveries per week No blocking of tape resources that could be used by backups BR evolution: Backup to disk

25 Agenda CERN Oracle databases & Oracle backup basics Backup to disk implementation details Recovery platform Some bits of backup to disk backend Summary BR evolution: Backup to disk- 25

26 Backup to disk cluster 2xFAS6240 Netapp controllers 24xdiskshelf DS x3TB SATA disks each (576 disks) raid_dp (raid6) 1.1 PB usable space split into 8 aggregates ~ 135TB each 2xquad core 64bit Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU 2.53GHz 10gbps connectivity Multipath SAS loops 3 gbps Flash cache 512GB per node BR evolution: Backup to disk- 26

27 How fast, How compressed MB/s Compression (datafiles) 50 0 RMAN backup to disk* Number of channels Online compression of datafiles ~55% (saved by compression) Backupsets compression of a 501 GB tablespace of random alphanumeric strings, dbms_random. Croncompression Netapp no-compressed (t) basic low medium high Nocompressed-fs Inlinecompression Netapp GB 83GB (6h21 ) 116GB (49 ) 88GB (07h23 ) 82GB (11h02 ) 459GB(41 ) 188GB 188GB(46 ) knfs dnfs dnfs + Ontap compression *Ontap fas6240, 72x 3TB SATA disks. Percentage saved (%) 83% 76,8% 82,4% 83,6% 8,3% 62% 62% BR evolution: Backup to disk- 27

28 Compression: real values Used(GB)* Saved (GB) %saved-bycompression AISDB_PROD CASTORNS CMSSTG CSR ITCORE EDHP LEMONRAC *Space used on controller side Logical space used: Used + Saved BR evolution: Backup to disk

29 NAS controllers throughput net_data_recv disk_data_written compression ratio 29 BR evolution: Backup to disk- 29

30 Deduplication When combined with compression, it doesn t provide good results Due to the way compression works: compression group: 32k, our Oracle block is 8k, Wafl block is 4k 4k 4k Checksum 30 BR evolution: Backup to disk- 30

31 Deduplication When combined with compression, it doesn t provide good results Due to the way compression works: compression group: 32k, our Oracle block is 8k, Wafl block is 4k Control files are a different story. Block size of 16k 4k 4k DB Type Location Size(GB) Checksum PAYP archives /backup/dbs PAYP archives /backup/dbs PAYP controlfile /backup/dbs PAYP fullinc /backup/dbs PAYP fullinc /backup/dbs BR evolution: Backup to disk- 31

32 Agenda CERN Oracle databases & Oracle backup basics Backup to disk implementation details Recovery platform Some bits of backup to disk backend Summary BR evolution: Backup to disk- 32

33 Summary Backup and Recovery testing is critical Tape copies are essential but TSM became a critical point of failure for DB services Adding a disk buffer Removes TSM criticality Reduces DB volume in TSM Speeds up backups and restores Better response time Better resource utilization Disk buffer plug-ins were easily integrated in our backup framework First system to exploit Ontap C-mode features Valuable experience for the future BR evolution: Backup to disk- 33

34 Questions? BR evolution: Backup to disk- 34

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