Anti-Inflammatory Drugs from Plant and Marine Sources

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1 D. A. Lewis Anti-Inflammatory Drugs from Plant and Marine Sources 1989 BirkhauserVerlag Basel Boston Berlin

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. Preface. Acknowledgements..12 SECTION I : INFLAMMATION AND INFLAMMATORY DISEASE Chapter 1 Rheumatic Diseases 15 Soft tissue rheumatism 19 Osteoarthritis 19 Crystal induced disease 20 Rheumatoid arthritis 20 Seronegative polyarthritis 21 Infective arthritis 22 Connective tissue disorders 22 Drug induced arthropathy 22 Suggested reading 23 Chapter 2 Inflammation and its relationship to rheumatic disease 25 Acute inflammation 25 Phagocytosis 33 Frustrated phagocytosis 34 Chronic inflammation 37 Biochemistry of chronic inflammation 40 Suggested reading 46 References 46 Chapter 3 Inflammatory inhibitors 47 Endogenous anti-inflammatory factors 47 Superoxide dismutase 50 Anti-oxidants and free radical scavengers 51 Eicosanoids 51 Anti-proteases 52 Lipocortins 53 Vasocortin 54 Cyclic AMP 54 S-Adenosyl-L-methionine 55 Suggested reading 56 References 56 Chapter 4 Assessment of anti-inflammatory activity 59 Animal models of inflammation 60 Pharmacological screening 61 Acute inflammation 62 Increased permeability of blood vessels 64 Chronic inflammation 65 Granuloma models 68

3 Air-pouch inflammation in rats 68 Casein air-pouch inflammation 69 Fertile egg test 70 Schultz-Dale reaction 73 Tissue culture 75 Fagocytosis and Fc receptors 76 Non-animal tests 78 Biochemical tests 78 Protein stabilization 79 Lysosome stabilization 79 Erythrocytes 81 Syperoxide anion production 81 Prostaglandin production 82 Classification of drugs 85 Mode of action of anti-inflammatory drugs 87 Suggested reading 89 References 90 SECTION II SOURCES Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 : ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS FROM PLANT AND MARINE Anti-inflammatory substances in plant and marine organisms 95 The alkaloids 96 Alkaloid detection 97 Alkaloid extraction 99 Alkaloid pharmacology 100 Anti-inflammatory activity of specific alkaloids 101 Mode of action of the alkaloids 128 Sources of alkaloids 129 Suggested reading 132 References 132 Flavonoids 137 Anti-inflammatory action of flavonoids, 142 Flavonoids and lipoxygenase activity 144 Absorption of flavonoids in the gastrointestinal tract 147 Detection and identification of flavonoids 147 Flavonoid detecting agents 151 Anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids against animal models 151 Sources of flavonoids 160 Suggested reading 163 References 164 Terpenoids 167 Terpenoid isolation techniques 170 Iridoids 172 Anti-inflammatory properties of sesquiterpene lactones 173

4 Chapter 8 Possible modes of action of sesquiterpene lactones 176 Triterpenoids and related compounds 181 Suggested reading 198 References 199 Anti-inflammatory activity of other substances 201 Steroids 201 Coumarins 206 Some sources of sterols, coumarins and miscellaneous compounds 225 References 227 Chapter 9 Medicinal plants and crude drugs 231 General list of medicinal plants 269 Common medical plants 270 Suggested reading 277 References 278 SECTION Chapter III 10 Chapter 11 : EXTRACTION, TISSUE CULTURE, DIET AND ARTHRITIS Extraction of secondary products from raw material 287 Aqueous extraction 290 Specific classes of compounds 291 Isolation of alkaloids 293 Isolation of flavonoids 295 Column chromatography 296 High performance liquid chromatography 297 Gas liquid chromatography 298 Mass spectrometry 298 Identification techniques 298 Phenols and phenolic acids 299 Terpenoids 302 Appendix 307 General reagents, 307 Alkaloids 308 Amino acids and amines 308 Carbohydrates 309 Phenols 309 Terpenoids and sterols 310 Suggested reading 311 Reference 311 Plant tissue culture Principles of plant tissue culture Callus culture Cell suspensions Secondary product formation Sample extraction Large-scale culture

5 Specific cultures for secondary products 324 Biotransformations 331 Appendix 332 Suggested reading 334 References 334 Chapter 12 Diet and arthritis 335 Appendix 344 One-week menu 344 Suggested reading 346 References 346 List of medicinal plants and marine species 348 Index of medicinal compounds 361 List of figures 366 List of tables 370 General index 371

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