Global Online Entrepreneurship Past Research and Future Directions

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Global Online Entrepreneurship Past Research and Future Directions"

Transcription

1 Global Online Entrepreneurship Past Research and Future Directions Anna Morgan-Thomas & Rebecca Reuber Working Papers m 2013:04

2 Adam Smith Research Foundation Working Papers Series 2013:04 The Working Papers series is intended to reflect the diverse range of interdisciplinary research interests of staff in the College of Social Sciences at the University of Glasgow. By publishing papers as works in progress, it aims to encourage and promote the interdisciplinary research work of members of the College, and to provide a forum in which to share innovative ideas and approaches on interdisciplinary topics, and elicit feedback from peers before submitting to more formal refereed peer review in the form of conference papers or journal articles. To this end, the author s contact details for correspondence are normally provided in each paper. Submissions: Papers authored by one or more members of College staff can be submitted to the ASRF (via the address below) to be considered for publication. Texts should normally be no longer than 8,000 words, and should be submitted in a Microsoft Word-compatible (.doc or.rtf) file format. Authors are advised to keep in mind the generalist audience of the Working Papers series and avoid technical language and extensive footnotes as much as possible. m The Adam Smith Research Foundation (ASRF) is based within the College of Social Sciences at the University of Glasgow, and aims to promote and sustain research within the UK, European and international arenas. The Foundation promotes the engagement of staff in key policy debates and in shaping policy for the future. It provides the environment in which to foster further links between the College s disciplines and supports the development of interdisciplinary research both within and beyond the University. The Foundation seeks to honour the Enlightenment legacy of Adam Smith ( ) with independent, original research that impartially advances knowledge in the Information Age. It aims to support and encourage interdisciplinary research and collaboration within seven cross-college Research Themes:. Globalisation, Competitiveness and Sustainability. Governance, Policy, Accountability and Risk Management. Health and Wellbeing. Inequalities, Inclusion, Identities and Social Change. Justice, Rights, Security and Conflict. People, Places, Engagement and Change. Learning Across the Professions Adam Smith Research Foundation College of Social Sciences University of Glasgow 66 Oakfield Avenue Glasgow G12 8LS Tel: +44 (0) / University of Glasgow 2013 The University of Glasgow, charity number SC004401

3 Working Papers m 2013:04 Global Online Entrepreneurship Past Research and Future Directions Anna Morgan-Thomas & Rebecca Reuber March 2013

4 Adam Smith Research Foundation. Working Papers Series Abstract: Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) are reshaping international business (IB). By accelerating the reach, depth and intensity of information flows and connections between firms and individuals, ICT developments give rise to new forms of IB activity. In this paper we identify, synthesise and evaluate empirical evidence concerning the effects of e-business on the internationalisation of firms. We use the term global online entrepreneurship (GOE) to capture the entrepreneurial nature of global e-opportunity and to position the review at the intersection of international business, e-business and entrepreneurship research. We analyse and compare 73 empirical studies in relation to their research themes, theoretical frameworks, research methodology and findings and conclusions. By integrating the evidence, the paper contributes to our understanding of GOE, its antecedents and its outcomes. The analysis reveals the most relevant contributions, major research gaps and limitations in existing research, and it concludes with suggestions for further research. About the authors Dr Anna Morgan-Thomas, is Senior Lecturer in Management in the Adam Smith Business School, University of Glasgow Dr. A. Rebecca Reuber, is Professor of Strategic Management in the Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto Address for correspondence

5 Introduction Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) are reshaping international business (IB). By accelerating the reach, depth and intensity of information flows and connections between firms and individuals, ICT developments have fundamental effects on the participants and operation of the global economy (Jean et al. 2010b; Loane & Bell 2010; Rangan & Sengul 2009). One visible outcome is the emergence of a new breed of multinational enterprises (MNEs) new ventures that operate online from the outset (Singh & Kundu 2002). Amazon, Google, ebay and Facebook are well-known examples of the accelerated internationalisation that can accompany a dominant online firm. Their spectacular rise from obscurity to the top of global rankings with market valuations in billions (Financial Times 2009) rescales what is normally meant by international entrepreneurship or born global. Collectivley, they highlight both the entrepreneurial opportunities afforded by ICTs and the continuing importance of internationalisation in facilitating business growth. In addition to these widely recognized examples, ICT is also facilitating the internationalisation of more representative companies. Established MNEs are using such technologies to develop governance and organisational structures so that they can use arm s length market exchanges to outsource activities (Rangan & Sengul 2009). In smaller firms, ICT is being leveraged to alleviate resource constraints and this is altering the speed and patterns of foreign market entry (Moen et al. 2003; Morgan-Thomas 2009). The emergence of consumers as active players in the IB arena (Chandra & Coviello 2010) and the ongoing blurring of the boundaries between firms and their customers in Web 2.0 contexts (Bell & Loane 2010) show that participation in global online business is not limited to firms. A number of conceptual papers explore the potential of ICTs for international business theory, focusing on internationalisation theories (Petersen et al. 2002; Pezderka & Sinkovics 2011), entry modes (Singh & Kundu 2002), intermediaries (Andersen 2005, Sharma 2005) and international relationships (Jean et al. 2008). However, despite (a) the pervasive adoption of e-business by firms (OECD 2010), (b) the emergence of new businesses and business models (Gabrielsson & Pelkonen 2008; Loane et al. 2004); and (c) the corresponding shifts in firm architecture (Rangan & Sengul 2009) and internationalisation processes (Arenius et al. 2005; Morgan-Thomas & Jones 2008), a review of top journals shows there is limited research which investigates empirically the relationship between ICT and the internationalisation of business. The nascent nature of the field and lack of consensus over concepts to describe the phenomenon, key definitions or research questions may be hampering research efforts (Edmondson & McManus 2007). More integration and convergence is urgently needed to assist both the scholarly development of the field and its legitimisation. The current paper addresses these needs by providing an evidence-based state-of-the-art review, identifying, integrating and assessing the empirical research on global online entrepreneurship (GOE). We use the term GOE to capture the positioning of the field at the intersection of IB, e-business and entrepreneurship research. The definition purposely recognizes the entrepreneurial nature of GOE and its close association with technological innovation, opportunity and growth (Jones et al. 2011). By rephrasing McDougall and 3

6 Adam Smith Research Foundation. Working Papers Series Oviatt s definition (2000, p. 903), we define GOE as a combination of innovative, proactive and risk-seeking behaviour that involves using e-business technologies to cross national boundaries and create value in organizations. The definition encompasses e-business initiatives of existing international businesses as well as the internationalisation of firms that we internetbased at birth. We label these firms e-business new ventures (EBNVs). The specific objectives of the review are to identify and evaluate the most current empirical research in order to (1) inventory the theoretical and methodological approaches, research findings and key research gaps; (2) identify the key contributions; and (3) discuss the implications for future development of the field. The ultimate objective of this study is to situate the topic of global online business firmly within the domain of international business research. By integrating the literature to show patterns, connections and commonalities, we hope to assist the development of a strong research agenda to move the field towards further convergence and legitimisation. The focus on empirical articles ensures that the results capture actual phenomena and avoid unrealistic speculations (Morgan-Thomas & Bridgewater 2004). By highlighting the theoretical and methodological approaches to empirical research, our study provides practical guidance for researchers in this area. Methodology Finding articles. Following other field reviews (e.g. Jones at al., 2011), the initial search included peer reviewed journal articles, but excluded book chapters, reports and conference papers due to the lack of quality assurance (variability in their review processes). We used a three-phase search process. First, we conducted a systematic keyword search, in the Ebsco, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases, of titles and abstracts in articles published in scholarly (refereed) journals. This ensured that we were searching all peer-reviewed journals and were not limiting the scope of the search to top tier journals only. We used keywords covering e-business (e-business, online, Internet, virtual, cyberspace, marketspace, net, web, information superhighway, communications network, world wide web, WWW, electronic, networked, connected, wired, digital, digitization, web site, home page, website, e-marketing, e-entrepreneurship, e-commerce, web page, e-strategy, computer technology, information technology, IT, ICT); and international business (global, international, world, foreign, multinational, export, cross-cultural). This process generated 113 potentially relevant articles after excluding duplicates. Second, we manually searched the top tier journals in the field of entrepreneurship, IB, information management and marketing to ensure that we collected all the relevant articles that might have been missed with our search terms. Third, we used a snowball technique to check the references in articles previously identified to determine if we had missed any missing contributions. The manual search of the top journals and reference lists generated a further 19 articles, bringing the total to 132. Given our research objective, we collected only papers reporting empirical results. However, we acknowledge the contributions of conceptual papers in shaping empirical research and delineating major research themes, and we drew on the following articles in examining our results. Quelch and Klein s (1996) seminal article, on the internet and its effect on the international marketing of firms, marks the emergence of the field. The assertion that online environments provide varied opportunities for existing multinationals and internet start-ups marks the development of two research themes: the online internationalisation of non-internet firms and the internationalisation of EBNVs. Within the context of conventional enterprises, Hamill (1997) initiates the discussion of the possible outcomes of engagement in online marketing for small and medium sized exporters, emphasizing the technology-assisted reduction in barriers to exporting and speedier internationalisation. Samiee (1998) and Petersen et al. (2002) further elaborate on this notion by discussing a range of possible moderators to rapid internationalisation and the subsequent enquiry into the relationship between online internationalisation, information, knowledge and performance can be traced to these discussions. Within the new venture context, Singh and Kundu (2002) explore the foreign market entry choices of e-commerce corporations building on ownership, location, and internalisation theory and initiating an enquiry into the foreign market entry choices by EBNV. International entrepreneurship scholars including Bell et al. (2001), Coviello and Chandra (2009) and Reuber and Fischer (2011) contribute to the literature by conceptualizing engagement in online business as entrepreneurial activity. Screening Articles. Each of the 132 papers was read and evaluated to confirm its eligibility using the following criteria. Criteria for inclusion are: (a) the paper is published in English in an academic, peer reviewed journal; (b) the results are based on qualitative or quantitative empirical data; (c) the unit of analysis of 4

7 Global Online Entrepreneurship. Morgan-Thomas & Reuber the study is the firm and not the consumer (Caruana & Ewing 2006; Cyr et al. 2008; Sia et al. 2009) or the industry (Javalgi et al. 2005); (d) the paper explicitly integrates IB theory and online business. Criteria for exclusion are: (a) single country studies and noninternational contributions (e.g. Bollen et al. 2006; Chung et al. 2004; Hsieh et al. 2006); (b) studies where online activities do not represent the focal construct of investigation are also excluded (Gabrielsson et al. 2004); and (c) studies which examine the general effects of ICTs on internationalisation but not internetrelated technologies (Chari et al. 2007; Lal 2004; Nahar et al. 2006; Rangan & Sengul 2009; Santangelo 2001). In total, 73 articles met these inclusion criteria. Coding procedure. We closely followed coding and analytical procedures established in other studies (see Jones at al., 2011; Thorpe et al. 2005). Two researchers coded each article independently following a coding scheme that included elements of the conceptual domain (key objectives of the study, theory, principal concepts, key findings) and aspects of the research design (study location, research sample, data collection method). The two coders almost perfectly agreed on items that could be unambiguously assessed such as the study location or the sample size. However, it was relatively more difficult to assess what the key concepts or theories or the key findings were (Braun & Clarke 2006). The average interrater agreement was initially 96% (LeBreton et al. 2008) and after discussion, all discrepancies were resolved. Results Main research themes Table 1 displays the main themes and subthemes within the reviewed literature. As can be seen from the table, Table 1: Thematic areas within empirical research on global online entrepreneurship (GOE) Thematic area Second order theme Theme description Studies GOE in new venture firms Internationalisation of e-business new ventures (EBNVs) Examines speed, entry modes and international performance of EBNVs Bell & Loane 2010; Chen 2006; Colton et al. 2010; Gefen & Carmel 2008; Kim 2003; Kotha et al. 2001; Loane 2006; Loane et al. 2004; Loane et al. 2006; Lou et al. 2005; Murphy & Scharl 2007; Rothaermel et al GOE assisted internationalisation of new venture firms Explores supporting role of GOE in internationalisation Arenius et al. 2006; Berry & Brock 2004; Fortune & Aldrich 2003; Gabrielsson & Pelkonen 2008; Ramsey & Ibbotson International performance Examines effects of GOE on firm performance, export perfromance and internationalisation Bennett 1997; Carpano & Rahman 1998; Clarke 2008; Farhoomand et al. 2000; Hamill & Gregory 1997; Hinson & Adjasi 2009; Hinson & Sorensen 2006; Hsu et al. 2008; Kraemer et al. 2005; Moenet al. 2002; Moodley 2003; Moodley & Morris 2004; Mostafa et al. 2006; Morgan-Thomas 2009; Morgan-Thomas & Bridgewater 2004; Morgan-Thomas & Jones 2009; Nguyen & Barrett 2006; Prasad et al. 2001; Raymond et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2011; Yip & Dempster GOE in established firms Adoption Focuses on antecedents and aspects of GOE adoption including levels of adoption and website optimization Chen 2006; Eid et al. 2006; Gregory et al. 2007; Haugh & Robson 2005; Hinson & Abor 2005; Jaw & Kaynak et al. 2005; Lewis & Cockrill 2002; Lituchy & Rail 2000; Lohrke et al. 2006; Moini & Tesar 2005; Moon & Jain 2007; Nieto & Fernandez 2006; Pitis & Vloksy 2000; Saban & Rau 2005; Servais et al. 2007; Sincovics et al. 2007; Singh et al. 2005; Tiessen et al. 2001; Winklhofer et al Relationships, learning and knowledge Considers interactions between GOE adoption and external partners and their implications for performance and learning Axinn et al. 2006; Burgers et al. 2010; Chang & Wang 2008; Ching & Ellis 2006; Houghton & Winklhofer 2004; Jean et al. 2010a; Jean et al. 2010b; Johnston & Wright 2000; Mathews et al. forthcoming; Nguyen & Barrett 2006; Yamin & Sinkovics 2006; Jean et al. 2010; Piscitello & Sgobbi 2004; Yamin & Sinkovics,

8 Adam Smith Research Foundation. Working Papers Series there are two distinct strands of research on GOE. The first strand focuses on the internationalisation of recently established firms and is further subdivided into EBNV and other new ventures. This distinction captures the significance of e-business activities to the existence of the firm. In EBNVs, ICTs play an enabling role where the existence of the business and its key functions evolve around the exploitation of ICTs (Quelch & Klein 1996). In other new ventures, e-business plays a supportive role and is subsidiary to the core business model. The second theme within GOE research is the online internationalisation of existing international ventures. This theme is subdivided into studies focusing on performance outcomes of GOE, issues of adoption and the effects of GOE and relationships and external partners. E-business new venture (EBNV) research is a key thematic area to emerge in the GOE literature. The EBNV signifies a new type of entrepreneurial firm: a new venture that derives its existence from opportunities created by a subset of ICTs (Bell & Loane, 2010; Kim 2003; Kotha et al. 2001; Rothaermel et al. 2006). The empirical research within this theme examines the internationalisation of EBNVs and addresses several objectives. For example, there is an interest in the speed, patterns and internationalisation strategies of EBNVs (Fortune & Aldrich 2003; Kim 2003; Loane et al. 2004; Luo et al. 2005), the degree of internationalisation and its antecedents (Kotha et al. 2001) and foreign market entry decisions (Kim 2003; Luo et al. 2005; Rothaermel et al. 2006). A second theme within the new venture context focuses on the supportive role of ICTs in the internationalisation of new venture firms (Gabrielsson & Pelkonen 2008; Ramsey & Ibbotson 2006). Originating in international entrepreneurship research and the notion of barriers to internationalisation, these studies typically explore the outcomes of e-business for the internationalisation of a knowledge intensive firm (Arenius et al. 2005; Berry & Brock 2004). Interestingly, the paucity of contributions here highlights a stark contrast between the practical importance of ICTs in internationalisation and the marginalization of e-business technology within IE research (Jones et al. 2011). The main thrust of empirical research on GOE concerns existing international ventures and their exploitation of e-business opportunities. Initial enquiries within this theme focused on the implications of e-business adoption for the perception of barriers to internationalisation in SMEs (Bennett 1997; Hamill & Gregory 1997; Litchy & Rail 2001; Moen et al. 2003). More recent contributions reflect distinctive themes focusing on the adoption of e-business, its outcomes and antecedents. Considering e-business adoption, research efforts address the delineation and capture of different forms of e-business (Eid et al. 2006; Houghton & Winklhofer 2004; Mathews et al. forthcoming; Servais et al. 2006; Wang et al. 2011). The concepts of assimilation (Raymond et al. 2005; Saban & Rau 2005), website sophistication (Winklhofer et al. 2006), integration (Lohrke et al. 2006; Gregory et al. 2007) and e-business model (Morgan- Thomas & Bridgewater, 2004) depict these efforts. Several studies explicitly explore the antecedents of e-business adoption in internationalizing firms (Farhoomand et al. 2000; Moini & Tesar 2005; Moon & Jain 2007). There is also significant interest in the outcomes of e-business for the internationalizing firm (Gregory et al. 2007; Moon & Jain 2007) and some progress had been made in quantifying the contribution of e-business to firm performance (Colton et al. 2010; Morgan-Thomas 2009). Theoretical frameworks The ontological roots of GOE are diverse and include several scholarly disciplines. Not surprisingly, IB theories feature prominently and internationalisation theory (Johnansson & Vahne 1997) has received significant attention. Internationalisation theory informs research examining barriers to international growth (Bennett 1997; Gabrielsson & Pelkonen 2008; Hamill & Gregory 1997), the speed of online internationalisation (Kim 2003), and the patterns of international growth of EBNVs (Loane et al. 2004; Kotha et al. 2001) including the question of whether these patterns are global or regional (Chen 2006). In terms of specific theoretical constructs, the liability of foreignness (Arenius et al. 2006) and the concept of psychic distance (Kim 2003; Yamin & Sincovics 2006) have been examined. In addition to internationalisation theory, the entry mode perspective within IB is applied either explicitly (Rothaermel et al. 2006) or implicitly (Luo et al. 2005) to explain internationalisation patterns of e-commerce corporations (Kotha et al. 2001; Rothaermel et al. 2006). Finally, the exporting literature has received some attention and several studies build on export performance-based models to examine the antecedents of e-commerce integration and its outcomes for the exporting firm (Prasad et al. 2001; Gregory et al. 2007; Moini & Jain 2007). Entrepreneurial theories are also evident in several studies (Arenius et al. 2006; Bell & Loane 2010; 6

9 Global Online Entrepreneurship. Morgan-Thomas & Reuber Loane et al. 2004). For example, the concepts of entrepreneurial orientation, risk taking, the identification of opportunities, market orientation, networks and social capital feature in analyses addressing the antecedents of GOE (Colton et al. 2010; Houghton & Winklhofer 2004; Mostafa et al. 2006). In addition, the importance of open innovation and consumer relationships has been recognized recently (Bell & Loane 2010). Indeed, the relationship paradigm has given rise to a growing number of contributions (Burgers et al. 2010; Colton et al. 2010; Ching & Ellis 2006). For example, the explorative study by Houghton and Winklhofer (2004) frames the problem of channel conflict within the authoritative control and relationship paradigms. Recent studies by Jean and Sinkovics (2010) and Jean et al. (2010a) explore the relationship between technological innovation, relationship learning and performance. Finally, general management theories are also evident in GOE research. For example, studies examining the question of adoption of e-commerce and levels of adoption (Eid et al. 2006; Haugh & Robson 2005; Johnston & Wright 2004; Raymond et al. 2005) draw on the innovation diffusion theory and Rogers (1983). The resource-based view and capability perspective has received some attention (Gregory et al. 2007) as has the knowledge perspective (Nguyen & Barrett, 2006). Transaction cost analysis has also been applied (Lohrke et al. 2006; Niento & Fernandez 2006), which is not surprising given the widely discussed effects of online internationalisation on the cost of transactions. Methodological approaches in GOE Research designs. We organize contributions into three categories of methodological approaches: descriptive, theory building and theory testing. Our sample includes 12 descriptive papers, 20 theory building papers and 39 theory testing studies papers. In addition, there are 2 papers which include both case studies and hypothesis testing (Chang & Wang 2008; Jaw & Chen 2006). Given the emergent nature of GOE as a field of study and the urgent need for better understanding of the phenomenon in its institutional context (Edmondson & Mcmanus 2007), it is surprising that qualitative studies, theory-building studies are few in number. collected through web-content analysis and searches of secondary information from firms reports, press etc. (Kim 2003; Luo et al. 2005). In addition, some authors relied on secondary data from panel surveys of industry and used proxy measures from data collected for other purposes (Clarke 2008; Haugh & Robson 2005; Niento & Fernandez 2006). Primary quantitative data, either in the form of survey questions or interviews, is typically collected from key groups of individuals (e.g., managing directors, export managers), usually those in charge of internationalisation/export processes. The use of multiple respondents represents an encouraging development (Colton et al. 2010). Research samples vary in size ranging from 1 to 1,347 firms in quantitative studies based on primary data. There is evidence of progress in sampling from cross-sectional designs to purposeful samples (Burgers 2010; Jean et al. 2010b) and probability samples (Colton et al. 2010). Reuber and Fischer (2009) use archival online data collected from an e-market website. In qualitative studies, interviews and case studies predominant: multiple cases are used (Houghton & Winklhofer 2004, Loane et al. 2004), as are longitudinal case studies (Gabrielsson & Pelkonen, 2008). A study by Loane et al. (2006) using the multi-stage method is worth noting for its protocols of case selection and reliance on secondary data. In terms of the coverage of different industries, empirical evidence is derived from either crosssectional studies of many industries (Gregory et al. 2007; Moon & Jain 2007; Morgan-Thomas & Bridgewater 2004) or from knowledge-intensive or high-tech sectors (Jean et al. 2010a; Kim 2003; Loane 2004). With few exceptions (Burgers et al. 2010; Chung et al. 2004), there has been little interest in sectoral studies beyond high-tech firms and the evidence seems biased towards high-tech industries. Data collection. Most quantitative studies use primary data collected via surveys or interview. Exceptions to this general pattern are studies where the data were 7

10 Adam Smith Research Foundation. Working Papers Series Turning to the geographical locus of research, empirical research on GOE has been conducted in a number of diverse country environments and within a broad spectrum of cultures and languages. Although the majority of studies examine North American, UK or other English-speaking countries (notably Australia, Ireland and New Zealand), there is some representation of continental Europe (Italy, Germany, Spain) and other parts of the world including Asia (Jaw & Chen 2006; Nguyen & Barrett 2006), Latin America (Johnston & Wright 2000) and Africa (Hinson & Sorensen 2005; Moodley 2003). A closer inspection of the studies reveals, however, that when EBNVs are the subjects of analysis (Kotha et al. 2001; Loane et al. 2004; Luo et al. 2005), the geographical focus narrows to reflect only the English-speaking world with a significant bias towards US firms. To an extent, this bias might reflect the digital divide, with a disproportionately large representation of US-based enterprises in global e-commerce and having firstmover advantages. However, this focus on the USA could obscure possible sources of advantage related to the country of origin (e.g., the use of the English language) and reflect cultural biases. Measurement and data analysis. There is evidence of growing sophistication in empirical measurement. There is also a growing trend towards the use of multiple indicators (Gregory et al. 2007; Moon and Jain. 2007; Nguyen & Barrett 2006), and single indicator measures evident in earlier studies are being replaced by tightly defined scaled responses often validated by previous research (Colton et al. 2010; Jean et al. 2010a; Moen et al. 2008). Techniques for data analysis provide further evidence of the ongoing development of the field with a clear progression from descriptive approaches based on frequency analysis (Bennett 1997, Lituchy and Rail 2001), to comparative approaches using t-tests or ANOVA (Servais et al. 2007). More recently, multivariate techniques and SEM are increasingly being deployed on larger research samples (Colton et al. 2010; Jean et al. 2010b). Key findings The following section highlights the key empirical findings on GOE research. The structure of the discussion reflects the latest thinking on entrepreneurial business models (George & Bock 2011; Teece, 2010) and includes GOE outcomes, antecedents, e-business models. GOE outcomes The association between ICTs and firm performance have received much attention in the empirical literature. In fact, GOE research is largely driven by the assumption of a strong positive link between ICT and performance and the expectations of performance gains resulting from e-business adoption (Hamill 1997). In broad terms, the studied outcomes of GOE comprise the consequences of the adoption (or non-adoption) of a particular online tool, i.e. the website, for the internationalisation of a firm. Much of the current empirical effort to capture the effects of GOE revolves around static cross-sectional designs and empirical tests of association between adoption and performance (Gregory et al. 2007; Moon & Jain 2007). To measure performance, studies tend to employ subjective indicators and perceptual measures of satisfaction with performance (Morgan-Thomas 2009) and objective measures, such as growth in international sales (Clarke 2008; Raymond et al. 2005), are rarely used. The most compelling performance-related evidence concerns the positive relationship between GOE and international growth. For example, the research on EBNVs reports an internationalisation process that is faster and more condensed in terms of multiple foreign entries into multiple markets in a very short time, with entries separated by months rather than years (Chen 2006; Kim 2003; Kotha et al. 2001). GOE seems conducive to rapid internationalisation strategies, specifically those associated with international entrepreneurship and the born global phenomenon (Gabrielsson & Pelkonen 2008; Loane et al. 2004). These effects are not limited to EBNVs: the evidence of faster and more widespread ICT-assisted internationalisation is also found within the context of other new ventures (Loane et al. 2007) and established exporting firms (Morgan-Thomas & Jones 2009). Several mechanisms explain the international growth associated with GOE. The evidence points to lower resource requirements for online internationalisation resulting from a decreased cost of international communications, international promotions, transactions and market research (Arenius et al. 2006; Moon & Jain 2007; Yamin & Sinkovics 2006). The associations between GOE and relational trust, knowledge and learning have also received some attention (Jean et al. 2010a; Moen et al. 2008; Nguyen & Barrett 2006), as well as implications for relationships, trust and relationship performance (Chang & Wang, 2008; Houghton & Winklhofer, 2004; Jean & Sinkovics 2010). 8

11 Global Online Entrepreneurship. Morgan-Thomas & Reuber Beyond international growth, conclusive evidence on GOE s association with firm performance is more difficult to find, although some tentative evidence based on secondary data from African countries shows a positive relationship between internet adoption and exports (Hinson & Adjasi 2009). This positive relationship is confirmed in other studies (Moon & Jain 2007; Morgan-Thomas & Bridgewater 2004) but these findings are based on cross-sectional designs and subjective measures of performance, and so causality is yet to be confirmed. Some authors argue that the relationship between GOE and performance is more likely to be indirect than direct, and moderated by other factors such as learning (Jean et al. 2010a; Moen et al. 2008). channels and the concepts of commitment, conflict, opportunistic behaviours and closeness (Ching & Ellis 2006; Houghton & Winklhofer 2004). The evidence shows that business partners within supply channels (Burgers et al. 2010) or sales channels (Wang et al. 2011) represent important facilitators of GOE adoption and play an important role in the formation of other resources, namely knowledge (Jean et al. 2010a). In fact, external demands for e-commerce seem to be a significant moderator of the adoption and effectiveness of GOE (Gregory et al. 2007; Hinson & Sorensen 2006). Within the broader environment, the implications of competitive intensity and environmental turbulence have been acknowledged (Gregory et al. 2007; Moon & Jain 2007). Antecedents of a firm s participation in GOE This body of research suggests variations in the range and the nature of benefits associated with online internationalisation (Moen et al. 2008; Morgan-Thomas & Bridgewater 2004) and significant progress has been made in explaining these differences. Initially this research concerned barriers to the adoption of GOE (Bennett 1997; Moini & Tesar 2005). More recently, the inquiry has moved towards more theoretically grounded explanations based on the theoretical notions of resources, capabilities, learning or relationships. Several GOE antecedents concern the firm itself. For example, ICT capabilities and resources, including staff and management commitment, seem to represent important antecedents of GOE (Moini & Tesar 2005; Morgan-Thomas 2009; Winklhofer et al. 2006). GOE coincides with entrepreneurial capabilities including innovativeness (Lou etal. 2005; Loane et al Moon & Jain 2007) entrepreneurial orientation (Colton et al. 2010; Mostafa et al. 2006) marketing orientation (Prasad et al. 2001) or learning innovation (Moen et al. 2008; Nguyen & Barrett 2006). Intangible resources such as brand strength and reputation (Colton et al. 2010; Reuber & Fischer 2009) or trust (Burgers et al. 2010; Jean et al. 2010a) are also associated with online success. Moreover, research shows that international capabilities including international orientation (Colton et al. 2010) and experience (Morgan-Thomas & Bridgewater 2004; Wang et al. 2011) shape GOE adoption and outcomes. Forms of GOE Past research recognizes differences in the levels and forms of a firm s participation in GOE. These variations, or e-business models, capture the online activities in which a firm engages and its technological platform as the foundation of GOE (Teece, 2010). Initially, empirical enquiries captured these variations in terms of the adoption or non-adoption of or a website (Bennett 1997). Later, the differences between websites were recognized and captured typically in terms of transactional/non-transactional websites (Lohrke et al. 2006). In fact, the thrust of research in this area concerns websites and the problem of their optimization for internationalisation (Wang et la. 2011; Houghton & Winklhofer 2004) including the accommodation of national culture (Sinkovics et al. 2007). Recent developments show refinement in the treatment of models, with studies focusing on specific subsets that are tightly defined by business function and technological platform. For example, several studies focus on inter-organizational-systems within supply relationships (Axinn et al. 2006; Burgers et al. 2010; Jean et al. 2010b). Independently, transactional A number of factors external to the firm influence GOE adoption. Within the immediate environment, attention has been paid to existing marketing 9

12 Adam Smith Research Foundation. Working Papers Series e-commerce within the sales function has also received some attention (Colton et al. 2010). Implications and avenues for future research Although significant progress has been made in incorporating GOE into IB theory, further research is urgently needed. Firstly, there is a need for more research into the internationalisation of EBNVs. Limited enquiries have begun to focus on patterns of internationalisation including spread, speed and entry modes (Kotha et al.2001; Loane et al. 2004; Rothaermel et al. 2006). The results demonstrate rapid patterns of internationalisation that seem to be facilitated by intangible resources and capabilities including entrepreneurial and technological capabilities (Arenius et al. 2005; Ramsey & Ibbotson 2005). Given their phenomenal global emergence, EBNVs potentially offer important lessons on rapid internationalisation and an interesting context for testing IB theory, e.g., our understanding of foreign entry choices (Kotha et al. 2001) or the internalization debate (Chen 2006; Kim 2003; Luo et al. 2005). More research is needed to explain why, how and when rapid online internationalisation is possible. Considering the paucity of academic enquiries in this area, the importance of context and the complexity of the phenomenon, more qualitative studies are needed. Given the US-bias in existing studies (Kim 2003; Kotha et al. 2001; Chen 2006) research efforts could be devoted to identifying cases outside the USA and beyond the English speaking world. If ENBVs are to enrich our understanding of rapid internationalisation, then more research is needed to show how online and conventional internationalisation differ and where the similarities lay. For example, existing evidence tentatively indicates that certain lessons from IB theory do apply to the online context, for example, cultural or psychic distance seem to matter in foreign entry choices of e-commerce corporations (Rothaermel et al. 2006) or online marketplaces (Gefen & Carmel 2008), and the regionalization thesis seems valid (Chen 2006). Other aspects of IB theory seem less relevant, for example, there is little support for the progressive accumulation of international experience or the link between firm resources and the speed of internationalisation (Kim 2003). However, anecdotal evidence suggests that the spectacular growth of the EBNV is underpinned by equally unprecedented resources (see Forbes 2010). The ability to acquire the necessary resources might explain how ENBVs overcome the conventional barriers to internationalisation suggesting that the relationship between firm resources and internationalisation still holds for the online context. Unfortunately, given the very limited number of studies, firm conclusions cannot be drawn as yet. The extant evidence identifies a number of resources and capabilities that comprise antecedents and moderators of online internationalisation within and beyond the EBNV context. This research is still in its infancy and the relationship between intangible assets and online internationalisation is worthy of further examination. An empirical test of the conceptual model proposed by Singh and Kundu (2002) represents one possible direction for future research. Enquiry into the role of entrepreneurial capabilities and other intangibles, e.g. brand and the role of online reputation, represents another promising avenue (Reuber & Fisher 2009). The role of learning and the complex interactions between information, knowledge and internationalisation also provide an alternative direction (Jean et al. 2010a, Moen et al. 2008) and the question of relational resources and capabilities and their role in GOE adoption and implementation deserves closer examination (Ching & Ellis 2006; Jean et al. 2010a). Finally, inconclusive findings concerning the relationship between a firm s international capabilities and GOE require further explanation. Whilst some studies show that international capabilities and e-business adoption go hand-in-hand (Clarke 2008; Jaw & Chen 2008; Kraemer et al. 2005) others find no such association (Hinson & Sorensen 2006; Niento & Fernandez 2006). There is an interesting open question as to whether international capabilities represent an important precondition for online internationalisation as suggested by some (Morgan-Thomas & Bridgewater 2004; Yamin & Sinkovics 2006) or whether the online context accelerates learning and diminishes the requirement for prior knowledge (Quelch & Kline 1996). The relationship between GOE and firm performance clearly requires more attention. Although progress has been made in capturing GOE and its effects on growth, important gaps remain. The link between successful GOE and international performance has only partially been explored and extant evidence concerns association between GOE and subjective measures of performance (Moon & Jain 2007; Moen et al. 2008). Objective measures of performance are needed and causation is yet to be confirmed. Thus, longitudinal studies based on objective data are required to provide conclusive evidence of 10

13 Global Online Entrepreneurship. Morgan-Thomas & Reuber the link between GOE and performance, including international performance. Although research shows a growing recognition of different forms of GOE, with their underlying technological platforms and business functions, more effort could be devoted to defining and capturing e-business models. A more detailed representation of practical business models is needed and recent discussions of models in strategic management and entrepreneurship literature might provide some guidance in that respect (Casadesus-Masanell and Ricart 2010; George & Bock 2011; Teece 2010). Concurrently and in parallel with the business model, technological platforms other than the internet might be examined: there has been only very limited interest in other subsets of ICT that might form the technological backbone of business activity. Websites represent the key focus and other platforms, such as mobile applications, remain absent from the empirical research. How to best accommodate GOE within IB theory continues to pose a challenge (Karavdic & Gregory, 2005). Compared to the successful efforts to adapt general management theories to GOE context, finding a well-grounded theoretical framework within IB theory seems less straightforward. One reason for the difficulty is that it is not straightforward to reconcile the IB focus on existing transactions and the static notions of firm structure, architecture and governance (Rangan & Sengul 2009) with the dynamic nature of GOE and its emphasis on new business opportunity, new/potential transactions and the entrepreneurial growth (Loane et al. 2004). While the implications of GOE for firm governance can be relatively easily accommodated within IB theory and its focus on MNE governance (Rangan & Sengul 2009), it remains to be seen whether the equally relevant issue of capturing opportunities, change and dynamic growth can be addressed within IB theory. New theories might be needed to resolve this conundrum and such theory building represents an urgent priority. Two emerging research streams might offer some guidance in this respect: the developing research on business models (Casadesus-Masanell & Ricart 2010; George & Bock 2011; Teece 2010) and international entrepreneurship theory (Jones et al. 2011). and firm internationalisation. Building on international entrepreneurship research, we delineated and defined a new field of academic enquiry, global online entrepreneurship (GOE) and positioned this research agenda at the intersection of the IB, e-business and entrepreneurship research. We searched the literature for empirical contributions that met strict inclusion criteria and analysed 74 papers to provide a critical assessment of empirical evidence to date. The results demonstrate a rich and varied research domain that builds on a number of theoretical approaches to address a set of problems related to the adoption and implications of GOE for the internationalisation and performance of firms. The field shows clear signs of progress as evidenced by increasing conceptual and methodological development. The empirical results reveal important findings concerning GOE antecedents, moderators and outcomes. This review identifies possible avenues for future enquiry which include further research on the exploration and explanation of online internationalisation, the role of firm resources in the adoption of GOE, the relationship between GOE and performance and the forms and implications of e-business models in firms internationalisation. Given the importance of GOE phenomenon for business, the overarching intention behind our efforts to show patterns, connections and commonalities among the empirical evidence was to assist the development of a strong research agenda within the domain of international business. By highlighting and integrating theoretical and methodological approaches to empirical research, this study provides practical guidance for future research efforts. We acknowledge that our analysis is subject to limitations. The review is a reflection of the literature analysed. We recognise that the search criteria adopted here introduce bias by excluding Conclusion The purpose of this paper was to identify, integrate and assess current empirical research on e-business 11

14 Adam Smith Research Foundation. Working Papers Series contributions that have not been published in peer reviewed journals or that were not deemed to integrate e-business and IB theory. By changing the search parameters, future studies may refine our results. Although strict coding procedures were adopted, it is possible that other codes would produce different coding schemes and interpret the papers differently, providing a somewhat different map of this emerging field. The overall conclusion of this study is that the collective quality of GOE research needs to improve to make a powerful contribution to the IB field. It is always the case that analyses of cutting-edge business practices such as GOE can only be expected to appear in top academic journals after a fairly long process of assimilation, as the new subject finds its niche within existing established academic disciplines and theories. This process may be accelerated, however, if researchers can adopt the latest methodological developments from underlying disciplines such as IB, information systems and marketing. Above all, GOE research must be solidly theory-based, with theory driving the choice of both research questions and methods, so that new knowledge is persuasive. References Andersen, P. H. (2005). Export intermediation and the internet: an activity-unbundling approach. International Marketing Review, 22(2), pp Andersen, T. J. & Foss, N. J. (2005). Strategic opportunity and economic performance in multinational enterprises: The role and effects of information and communication technology. Journal of International Management, 11(2), pp Arenius, P., Sasi, V., & Gabrielsson, M. (2005). Rapid internationalisation enabled by the internet: the case of a knowledge intensive company. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 3 (4), pp Axinn, C. N., Deeter-Schmelz, D. R., Straley, B. T., & Zavoral, E. Jr. (2007). How do the Internet and Internationalisation Affect the Buying Center? An exploratory case study. Advances in International Marketing, 17, pp Bell, J., Deans, K., Ibbotson, P., & Sinkovics, R. (2001). Towards the internetalization of international marketing education. Marketing Education Review, 11(3), pp Bell, J. & Loane, S. (2010). New-wave global firms: Web 2.0 and SME internationalisation. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(3/4), pp Bennett, R. (1997). Export marketing and the Internet. International Marketing Review, 14(4/5), pp Berry, M. M. J. & Brock, J. K.-U. (2004). Marketspace and the Internationalisation Process of the Small Firm. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 2(3), pp Bollen, L., Hassink, H., & Bozic, G. (2006). Measuring and explaining the quality of Internet investor relations activities: a multinational empirical analysis. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 7(4), pp Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, pp Burgers, W., Padgett, D., & Concha, V. (2010). Local Dealer Adoption of a Foreign Manufacturer-Sponsored Internet-Based Information System. Journal of Global Marketing, 23(5), pp Carpano, C. & Rahman, M. (1998). Information technology, international marketing and foreign subsidiaries market share. Multinational Business Review, 6(1), pp. 36. Caruana, A. & Ewing, M. T. (2006). The psychometric properties of etail quality: An international investigation across product categories. International Marketing Review 23(4), Casadesus-Masanell, R. & Ricart, J. E. (2010). From Strategy to Business Models and onto Tactics. Long Range Planning, 43(2/3), pp Cerotti, P. R. & Clifton, J. (1998). How Australian organizations use global communications. Group Decision and Negotiation, 7(5), pp Chandra, Y. & Coviello, N. (2010). Broadening the concept of international entrepreneurship: Consumers as International Entrepreneurs. Journal of World Business, 45(3), pp Chang, H. H. & Wang, I. C. (2008). The relationship between network structure and international channel performance: a moderating effect of E-business activity. Service Industries Journal, 28(2), pp Chari, M. D. R., Devaraj, S., & David, P. (2007). International diversification and firm performance: Role of information technology investments. Journal of World Business, 42(2), pp Chen, S. (2006). Are Internet firms global? Advances in International Marketing, 17, pp Ching, H. L. & Ellis, P. (2006). Does Relationship Marketing Exist in Cyberspace? Management International Review (MIR), 46(5), pp Clarke, G. R. G. (2008). Has the internet increased exports for firms from low and middle-income countries. Information Economics and Policy, 20(1), pp Colton, D. A., Roth, M. S., & Bearden, W. O. (2010). Drivers of International E-Tail Performance: The Complexities of Orientations and Resources. Journal of International Marketing, 18(1), pp Cumming, D. & Johan, S. (2010). The Differential Impact of the Internet on Spurring Regional Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(5), pp Cyr, D. (2008). Modeling Web Site Design Across Cultures: Relationships to Trust, Satisfaction, and E-Loyalty. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24(4), pp de La Torre, J. & Moxon, R. W. (2001). Introduction to the Symposium E-Commerce and Global Business: The Impact of the Information and Communication Technology Revolution on the Conduct of International Business. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(4), pp Edmondson, A. C. & Mcmanus, S. E. (2007). Methodological fit in management field research. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), pp Eid, R., Elbeltagi, I., & Zairi, M. (2006). Making Business-to- Business International Internet Marketing Effective: A Study of Critical Factors Using a Case-Study Approach. Journal of International Marketing, 14(4), pp Farhoomand, A. F., Tuunainen, V. K., & Yee, L. W. (2000). Barriers to Global Electronic Commerce: A Cross-Country Study of Hong Kong and Finland. Journal of Organizational Computing & Electronic Commerce, 10(1), pp Financial Times (2009). Global brands: Special report. April 29 th (accessed May 2010 at global-brands-2009). Forbes (2010). Meet the Fastest Growing Company Ever. August 12 th (accessed June 2011 at 12

15 Global Online Entrepreneurship. Morgan-Thomas & Reuber forbes/2010/0830/entrepreneurs-groupon-facebook-twitter-next-web-phenom.html). Fortune, A. & Aldrich, H. E. (2003). Acquiring Competence at a Distance: Application Service Providers as a Hybrid Organizational Form. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1(1), pp Gabrielsson, M., Gabrielsson, P., & Kirpalani, V. H. M. (2004). Born globals: how to reach new business space rapidly. International Business Review, 13(, pp Gabrielsson, M. & Pelkonen, T. (2008). Born internationals: Market expansion and business operation mode strategies in the digital media field. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 6 (2), pp Gefen, D. & Carmel, E. (2008). Is the world really flat? A look at offshoring in an online programming marketplace. MIS Quarterly, 32(2), pp George, G. & Bock, A. J. (2011). The Business Model in Practice and its Implications for Entrepreneurship Research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), pp Gregory, G., Karavdic, M., & Zou, S. (2007). The Effects of E-Commerce Drivers on Export Marketing Strategy. Journal of International Marketing, 15(2), pp Hamill, J. & Gregory, K. (1997). Internet Marketing in the Internationalisation of UK SMEs. Journal of Marketing Management, 13(1-3), pp Hamill, J. (1997). The Internet and international marketing. International Marketing Review, 14(5), pp Haugh, H. M. & Robson, P. J. A. (2005). Are Scottish firms meeting the ICT challenge? Results from a National Survey of Enterprise. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 17(3), pp Hinson, R. & Sorensen, O. (2006). E-business and small Ghanaian exporters. Online Information Review, 30(2), pp Hinson, R. & Abor, J. (2005). Internationalizing SME Nontraditional Exporters and Their Internet Use Idiosyncrasies. Perspectives on Global Development & Technology, 4(2), pp Hinson, R. E. & Adjasi, C. K. D. (2009). The Internet and Export: Some Cross-Country Evidence from Selected African Countries. Journal of Internet Commerce, 8(3/4), pp Houghton, K. A. & Winklhofer, H. (2004). The Effect of Website and E-Commerce Adoption on the Relationship between SMEs and their Export Intermediaries. International Small Business Journal, 22(4), pp Hsieh, C. T., Lai, F. J., & Shi, W. H. (2006). Information orientation and its impacts on information asymmetry and e-business adoption - Evidence from China s international trading industry. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 106(5-6), pp Hsu, L.-L., Chou, T.-C., & Hsu, T.-H. (2008). Factors that impact on the perceived benefits of internet international marketing in Taiwanese SMEs. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 16(4), pp Javalgi, R., Todd, P. R., & Scherer, R. F. (2005). The dynamics of global e-commerce: an organizational ecology perspective. International Marketing Review, 22(4), pp Jaw, Y.-L. & Chen, C.-L. (2006). The influence of the Internet in the internationalisation of SMEs in Taiwan. Human Systems Management, 25(3), pp Jean, R. J., Sinkovics, R. R., & Daekwan, K. (2008). Information technology and organizational performance within international business to business relationships. International Marketing Review, 25(5), pp Jean, R. J., Sinkovics, R. R., & Kim, D. (2010a). Drivers and Performance Outcomes of Relationship Learning for Suppliers in Cross-Border Customer-Supplier Relationships: The Role of Communication Culture. Journal of International Marketing, 18(1), pp Jean, R. J., Sinkovics, R. R., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2010b). Enhancing international customer-supplier relationships through IT resources: A study of Taiwanese electronics suppliers. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(7), pp Jean, R. J. & Sinkovics, R. R. (2010). Relationship learning and performance enhancement via advanced information technology: The case of Taiwanese dragon electronics firms. International Marketing Review, 27(2), pp Johnston, D. A. & Wright, L. (2004). The e-business capability of small and medium sized firms in international supply chains. Information Systems and E-Business Management, 2(2), pp Jones, M. V., Coviello, N., & Tang, Y. K International Entrepreneurship research ( ): A domain ontology and thematic analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, 26, 6: Karavdic, M. & Gregory, G. (2005). Integrating e-commerce into existing export marketing theories: A contingency model. Marketing Theory, 5(1), pp Kim, D. (2003). The internationalisation of US Internet portals: does it fit the process model of internationalisation? Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 21(1), pp Kotha, S., Rindova, V. P., & Rothaermel, F. T. (2001). Assets and Actions: Firm-Specific Factors in the Internationalisation of U.S. Internet Firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(4), pp Kozinets, R. V., de Valck, K., Wojnicki, A. C., & Wilner, S. J. S. (2010). Networked Narratives: Understanding Word-of-Mouth Marketing in Online Communities. Journal of Marketing, 74(2), pp Kraemer, K. L., Gibbs, J., & Dedrick, J. (2005). Impacts of Globalization on E-Commerce Use and Firm Performance: A Cross-Country Investigation. Information Society, 21(5), pp Lal, K. (2004). E-Business and Export Behavior: Evidence from Indian Firms. World Development, 32(3), pp LeBreton, J. M. & Senter, J. L. (2008). Answers to 20 Questions About Interrater Reliability and Interrater Agreement. Organizational Research Methods, 11(4), pp Lewis, R. & Cockrill, A. (2002). Going global--remaining local: the impact of e-commerce on small retail firms in Wales. International Journal of Information Management, 22(3), pp Lituchy, T. R. & Rail, A. (2000). Bed and Breakfasts, Small Inns, and the Internet: The Impact of Technology on the Globalization of Small Businesses. Journal of International Marketing, 8(2), pp Loane, S., Bell, J. D., & McNaughton, R. (2007). A cross-national study on the impact of management teams on the rapid internationalisation of small firms. Journal of World Business, 42(4), pp Loane, S. & Bell, J. (2002). A cross-national comparison of the internationalisation trajectories of internet start-ups. Irish Journal of Management, 23(2), pp

16 Adam Smith Research Foundation. Working Papers Series Loane, S., McNaughton, R. B., & Bell, J. (2004). The Internationalisation of Internet-Enabled Entrepreneurial Firms: Evidence from Europe and North America. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences (Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences), 21(1), pp Loane, S., Bell, J., & McNaughton, R. (2006). Employing information communication technologies to enhance qualitative international marketing enquiry. International Marketing Review, 23(4), pp Lohrke, F. T., Franklin, G. M., & Frownfelter-Lohrke, C. (2006). The Internet as an Information Conduit: A Transaction Cost Analysis Model of US SME Internet Use. International Small Business Journal, 24(2), pp Luo, Y., John, H. Z., & Jianjun, D. (2005). The internationalisation speed of e-commerce companies: an empirical analysis. International Marketing Review, 22(6), pp Mathews, S., Healy, M., & Wickramasekera, R. (Forthcoming). The Internetalisation of information, knowledge, and interaction components of the firm s internationalisation process. Journal of Marketing Management. McDougall, P. P. & Oviatt, B. M. (2000). International entrepreneurship: the intersection of two research paths. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), pp Moen, Ø., Endresen, I., & Gavlen, M. (2003). Use of the Internet in International Marketing: A Case Study of Small Computer Software Firms. Journal of International Marketing, 11(4), pp Moen, Ø., Madsen, T. K., & Aspelund, A. (2008). The importance of the internet in international business-to-business markets. International Marketing Review, 25(5), pp Moini, H. & Tesar, G. (2005). The Internet and Internationalisation of Smaller Manufacturing Enterprises. Journal of Global Marketing, 18(3-4), pp Moodley, S. (2003). E-commerce and export markets: Small furniture producers in South Africa. Journal of Small Business Management, 41(3), pp Moodley, S. (2002). Connecting to global markets in the Internet age: the case of South African wooden furniture producers. Development Southern Africa, 19(5), pp Moodley, S. & Morris, M. (2004). Does e-commerce fulfil its promise for developing country (South African) garment export producers? Oxford Development Studies, 32(2), pp Moon, B. J. & Jain, S. C. (2007). Determinants and Outcomes of Internet Marketing Activities of Exporting Firms. Journal of Global Marketing, 20(4), pp Morgan-Thomas, A. & Bridgewater, S. (2004). Internet and exporting: determinants of success in virtual export channels. International Marketing Review, 21(4-5), pp Morgan-Thomas, A. (2009). Online activities and export performance of the smaller firm: a capability perspective. European Journal of International Management, 3(3), pp Morgan-Thomas, A. & Jones, M. V. (2009). Post Entry Internationalisation Dynamics: Differences Between SMEs In the Development Speed of their International Sales. International Small Business Journal, 27(1), pp Mostafa, H. A. R., Wheeler, C., & Jones, M. V. (2006). Entrepreneurial orientation, commitment to the internet and export performance in small and medium sized exporting firms. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 3(4), pp Nguyen, T. D. & Barrett, N. J. (2006a). The Knowledge-Creating Role of the Internet in International Business: Evidence from Vietnam. Journal of International Marketing, 14(2), pp Nguyen, T. D. & Barrett, N. J. (2006b). Internet-based knowledge internationalisation and firm internationalisation in transition markets. Advances in International Marketing, 17, pp Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2010). OEDC key ICT indicators. (accessed May 2011 at oecd.org/topic/0,3699,en_2649_37441_1_1_1_1_37441,00. html). Petersen, B., Welch, L. S., & Liesch, P. W. (2002). The Internet and Foreign Market Expansion by Firms. Management International Review (MIR), 42(2), pp Pezderka, N. & Sinkovics, R. R. (2011). A conceptualization of e-risk perceptions and implications for small firm active online internationalisation. International Business Review, 20(4), pp Piscitello, L. & Sgobbi, F. (2004). Globalisation, E-business and SMEs: Evidence from the Italian District of Prato. Small Business Economics, 22(5), pp Pitis, O. T. & Wallsten, S. J. (2000). Forest products exporting and the internet: current use figures and implementation issues. Forest Product Journal, 50(10), pp Prasad, V., Ramamurthy, K., & Naidu, G. M. (2001). The influence of internet-marketing integration on marketing competencies and export performance. Journal of International Marketing, 9(4), pp Quelch, J. A. & Klein, L. R. (1996). The internet and international marketing. Sloan Management Review, 37(3), pp Ramsey, E. & Ibbotson, P. (2005). E-entrepreneurial SMEs: An Irish study of micro and macro influences. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 3(4), pp Rangan, S. & Sengul, M. (2009). Information technology and transnational integration: Theory and evidence on the evolution of the modern multinational enterprise. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(9), pp Raymond, L., Bergeron, F., & Blili, S. (2005). The Assimilation of E-business in Manufacturing SMEs: Determinants and Effects on Growth and Internationalisation. Electronic Markets, 15(2), pp Reuber, A. R. & Fischer, E. (2009). Signaling reputation in international online markets. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(4), pp Reuber, A.R. & Fischer, E. (2011). International entrepreneurship in internet-enabled markets. Journal of Business Venturing, 26 (6), pp Rothaermel, F. T., Kotha, S., & Steensma, H. K. (2006). International Market Entry by U.S. Internet Firms: An Empirical Analysis of Country Risk, National Culture, and Market Size. Journal of Management, 32(1), pp Saban, K. A. & Rau, S. E. (2005). The Functionality of Websites as Export Marketing Channels for Small and Medium Enterprises. Electronic Markets, 15(2), pp Samiee, S. (1998). Exporting and the Internet: a conceptual perspective. International Marketing Review, 15(5), pp Santangelo, G. D. (2001). The impact of the information and communications technology revolution on the internationalisation of corporate technology. International Business Review, 10(6), pp Servais, P., Madsen, T. K., & Rasmussen, E. S. (2006). Small Manufacturing Firms Involvement in International E-business Activities. Advances in International Marketing, 17(, pp Sharma, V. M. (2005). Export management companies and e-business: impact on export services, product portfolio, and global market coverage. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 13(4), pp Sia, C. L., Lim, K. H., Leung, K., Lee, M. K. O., Huang, W. W., & Benbasat, I. (2009). Web Strategies to Promote Internet Shopping: Is Cultural-Customization Needed? MIS Quarterly, 33(3), pp Singh, N. & Kundu, S. (2002). Explaining the Growth of E-Commerce Corporations (ECCs): An Extension and Application of the Eclectic Paradigm. Journal of International Business Studies, 33(4), pp

17 Global Online Entrepreneurship. Morgan-Thomas & Reuber Sinkovics, R. & Penz, E. (2006). Empowerment of SME websites Development of a web-empowerment scale and preliminary evidence. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 3, pp Sinkovics, R., Yamin, M., & Hossinger, M. (2007). Cultural adaptation in cross border e-commerce: A study of German companies. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 8(4), pp Sinkovics, R. R., Jean, R. J., Roath, A. S., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2011). Does IT Integration Really Enhance Supplier Responsiveness in Global Supply Chains? Management International Review (MIR), 51(2), pp Teece, D. J. (2010). Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation. Long Range Planning, 43(2/3), pp Thorpe, R., Holt, R., MacPherson, A., & Pittaway, L. (2005). Using knowledge within small and medium-sized firms: a systematic review of the evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(4), pp Tiessen, J. H., Wright, R. W., & Turner, I. (2001). A model of e-commerce use by internationalizing SMEs. Journal of International Management, 7(3), pp Wang, M. C.-H., Khalil, S., Blankson, C., & Cheng, J. M.-S. (2011). The Influence of the Provision of Online Channel Functions on Exporting Channel Performance: The Moderating Effect of International Experience. Journal of Global Marketing, 24(2), pp Winklhofer, H., Houghton, K., & Chesney, T. (2007). How advanced are websites of SME exporters? An investigation into drivers and inhibitors. Advances in International Marketing, 17(, pp Yamin, M. & Sinkovics, R. R. (2006). Online internationalisation, psychic distance reduction and the virtuality trap. International Business Review, 15(4), pp Yip, G. & Dempster, A. (2005). Using the Internet to Enhance Global Strategy. European Management Journal, 23 (1), pp

18 Adam Smith Research Foundation College of Social Sciences University of Glasgow 66 Oakfield Avenue Glasgow G12 8LS Tel: +44 (0) / University of Glasgow 2013 The University of Glasgow, charity number SC004401

This is the submitted version of this conference paper:

This is the submitted version of this conference paper: QUT Digital Repository: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/ This is the submitted version of this conference paper: Mathews, Shane & Bianchi, Constanza C. (2010) Internet usage, internet marketing intensity and

More information

The empirical link between the internet, firmspecific characteristics, market characteristics, export marketing strategy and performance

The empirical link between the internet, firmspecific characteristics, market characteristics, export marketing strategy and performance Southern Cross University epublications@scu Southern Cross Business School 2007 The empirical link between the internet, firmspecific characteristics, market characteristics, export marketing strategy

More information

Determinants of Sophistication of Exporters Corporate Websites in Transition Environment.

Determinants of Sophistication of Exporters Corporate Websites in Transition Environment. Cieślik, J., & Kaczmarek-Kurczak, P. (2011). Determinants of sophistication of exporters corporate s in transition environment. In E. Kaynak & T. D. Harcar (Eds.), Challenges and opportunities of global

More information

INTERNATIONAL MASTER S PROGRAM IN DEPARTMENT OF JOURNALISM

INTERNATIONAL MASTER S PROGRAM IN DEPARTMENT OF JOURNALISM INTERNATIONAL MASTER S PROGRAM IN DEPARTMENT OF JOURNALISM ABOUT THE PROGRAM The Department of Journalism has a long and distinguished tradition of excellence in undergraduate and graduate educations.

More information

Master s Level Module (10 credits 20 hours) INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Master s Level Module (10 credits 20 hours) INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Master s Level Module (10 credits 20 hours) INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Developed by Carole Couper, PhD Researcher, Adam Smith Business School, The University of Glasgow Background This International

More information

ROMANIAN - AMERICAN UNIVERSITY. School of Domestic and International Business, Banking and Finance

ROMANIAN - AMERICAN UNIVERSITY. School of Domestic and International Business, Banking and Finance Invest in People! Project co-financed by European Social Fund through the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resource Development 2007 2013 Priority Axis: 1. Education and training in support for growth

More information

Msc(ECom&IComp) List of modules offered in 2015-2016

Msc(ECom&IComp) List of modules offered in 2015-2016 Msc(ECom&IComp) List of modules offered in 2015-2016 (The below list is NOT finalized) ECOM6004. Legal aspects of I.T. and e-commerce This module provides an introduction to some of the main legal problems

More information

USE OF ICT IN SMES MANAGEMENT WITHIN THE SECTOR OF SERVICES

USE OF ICT IN SMES MANAGEMENT WITHIN THE SECTOR OF SERVICES USE OF ICT IN SMES MANAGEMENT WITHIN THE SECTOR OF SERVICES Plumb Ion Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of Management, 6 th Piata Romana RO 030173 Bucharest Romania, ionplumb@yahoo.com, +4021.319.19.00/287

More information

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership/information Systems And Technology. DM/IST 004 Requirements

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership/information Systems And Technology. DM/IST 004 Requirements School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership/information Systems And Technology The mission of the Information Systems and Technology specialization of the Doctor of Management

More information

Doctor of Education - Higher Education

Doctor of Education - Higher Education 1 Doctor of Education - Higher Education The University of Liverpool s Doctor of Education - Higher Education (EdD) is a professional doctoral programme focused on the latest practice, research, and leadership

More information

Masters in Business Administration, Kent State University Received May 1995 Concentration: International Business and Information Systems

Masters in Business Administration, Kent State University Received May 1995 Concentration: International Business and Information Systems DAEKWAN KIM, Ph.D. Department of Marketing College of Business Florida State University Tallahassee, FL 32306 Tel: (850) 644-7890 Fax: (850) 644-4098 E-mail: dkim@cob.fsu.edu EDUCATION Doctor of Philosophy,

More information

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Health Administration. DHA 003 Requirements

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Health Administration. DHA 003 Requirements School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Health Administration The mission of the Doctor of Health Administration degree program is to develop healthcare leaders by educating them in the areas of active inquiry,

More information

Tunis, 5-6 June 2014

Tunis, 5-6 June 2014 Three decades of Strategic Human Resource Management: Complex research and ironic outcomes Dr. Nizar Mansour Assistant Professor of HRM Director of Institutional Research and QA Emirates College of Technology-

More information

Developmental Patterns of Offshore IT Service Companies

Developmental Patterns of Offshore IT Service Companies DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS OF OFFSHORE IT SERVICE COMPANIES: APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN George Mangalaraj, College of Business, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019

More information

Market validation in the context of new high-tech ventures

Market validation in the context of new high-tech ventures Market validation in the context of new high-tech ventures Morgan P. Miles, Georgia Southern University, mmiles@georgiasouthern.edu Victoria Little, University of Auckland, v.little@auckland.ac.nz Richard

More information

Courses September 2016 entry MSc International Business and Management (Management)

Courses September 2016 entry MSc International Business and Management (Management) Courses September 2016 entry MSc International Business and Management (Management) Course structure All taught course units are 15 credits. Semester 1 Comparative Business Management This course introduces

More information

INTERNATIONAL MASTER IN INDUSTRIAL

INTERNATIONAL MASTER IN INDUSTRIAL POLITECNICO DI MILANO GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS INTERNATIONAL MASTER IN INDUSTRIAL Management Courses Description A joint program with POLITECNICO DI MILANO SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT First semester (Universidad

More information

ROMANIAN - AMERICAN UNIVERSITY School of Domestic and International Business, Banking and Finance

ROMANIAN - AMERICAN UNIVERSITY School of Domestic and International Business, Banking and Finance Invest in People! Project co-financed by European Social Fund through the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resource Development 2007 2013 Priority Axis: 1. Education and training in support for growth

More information

Courses and Registration There are two types of courses available: English Courses at the Business School.

Courses and Registration There are two types of courses available: English Courses at the Business School. Courses and Registration There are two types of courses available: English Courses at the Business School. These courses include: stock markets and financial systems around the world, business entrepreneurship,

More information

Benefits Realization from IS & IT, and Change Management of roles and the working practices of individuals and teams.

Benefits Realization from IS & IT, and Change Management of roles and the working practices of individuals and teams. : Delivering Value from IS & IT Investments John Ward and Elizabeth Daniel John Wiley & Son Ltd ISBN: 9780470094631, 399 pages Theme of the Book This book explores a process and practical tools and frameworks

More information

Courses and Registration There are two types of courses available: English Courses at the Business School.

Courses and Registration There are two types of courses available: English Courses at the Business School. Courses and Registration There are two types of courses available: English Courses at the Business School. These courses include: stock markets and financial systems around the world, business entrepreneurship,

More information

Considering the Cultural Issues of Web Design in Implementing Web-Based E-Commerce for International Customers

Considering the Cultural Issues of Web Design in Implementing Web-Based E-Commerce for International Customers Considering the Cultural Issues of Web Design in Implementing Web-Based E-Commerce for International Customers Kyeong. S. Kang The First International Conference on Electronic Business, Faculty of Information

More information

E-tailing: Analysis of Customer Preferences towards Online Shopping in Pune Region

E-tailing: Analysis of Customer Preferences towards Online Shopping in Pune Region E-tailing: Analysis of Customer Preferences towards Online Shopping in Pune Region *Prof. Vishal Raut Associate Professor-Trinity Institute of Management & Research Pune, Maharashtra, India **Prof. Dr.

More information

OULU BUSINESS SCHOOL. Elina Jokinen ENTREPRENEUR S INFLUENCE ON START UP OPPURTUNITY EXPLOITATION IN BORN GLOBAL HIGH TECH CONTEXT

OULU BUSINESS SCHOOL. Elina Jokinen ENTREPRENEUR S INFLUENCE ON START UP OPPURTUNITY EXPLOITATION IN BORN GLOBAL HIGH TECH CONTEXT OULU BUSINESS SCHOOL Elina Jokinen ENTREPRENEUR S INFLUENCE ON START UP OPPURTUNITY EXPLOITATION IN BORN GLOBAL HIGH TECH CONTEXT Master s Thesis Management August 2013 UNIVERSITY OF OULU Oulu Business

More information

London School of Commerce. Programme Specification for the. Cardiff Metropolitan University. Bachelor of Arts (Hons) in Business Studies

London School of Commerce. Programme Specification for the. Cardiff Metropolitan University. Bachelor of Arts (Hons) in Business Studies London School of Commerce Programme Specification for the Cardiff Metropolitan University Bachelor of Arts (Hons) in Business Studies 1 Contents Page 1. Aims and Objectives 3 2. Programme Learning Outcomes

More information

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Education In Educational Leadership With A Specialization In Educational Technology. EDD/ET 003 Requirements

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Education In Educational Leadership With A Specialization In Educational Technology. EDD/ET 003 Requirements School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Education In Educational Leadership With A Specialization In Educational Technology The mission of the Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership degree program

More information

2015 South African Cloud Based Solutions to the Contact Centre Product Leadership Award

2015 South African Cloud Based Solutions to the Contact Centre Product Leadership Award 2015 2015 South African Cloud Based Solutions to the Contact Centre Product Leadership Award Contents Background and Company Performance... 3 Industry Challenges... 3 Implementation Excellence... 4 Product

More information

All available Global Online MBA routes have a set of core modules required to be completed in order to achieve an MBA.

All available Global Online MBA routes have a set of core modules required to be completed in order to achieve an MBA. All available Global Online MBA routes have a set of core modules required to be completed in order to achieve an MBA. Those modules are: Building High Performance Organisations Management and Organisational

More information

Internationalization Process of Buying Houses in Bangladesh: An Evaluation

Internationalization Process of Buying Houses in Bangladesh: An Evaluation ASA University Review, Vol. 6 No. 2, July December, 2012 Internationalization Process of Buying Houses in Bangladesh: An Evaluation Mohibul Islam Masum * Abstract The article focuses on the internationalization

More information

Born Globals and Active Online Internationalization

Born Globals and Active Online Internationalization UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Department of Business Studies Master Thesis Spring Semester 2013 Born Globals and Active Online Internationalization A closer look on the effects of active online internationalization

More information

The University of Texas at Austin - Portugal An international partnership in graduate education, research, and technology commercialization

The University of Texas at Austin - Portugal An international partnership in graduate education, research, and technology commercialization The University of Texas at Austin - Portugal An international partnership in graduate education, research, and technology commercialization Technical Appendix to the Memorandum of Understanding toward

More information

School of Management MSc in Entrepreneurship Postgraduate Student Handbook Section 1

School of Management MSc in Entrepreneurship Postgraduate Student Handbook Section 1 School of Management MSc in Entrepreneurship Postgraduate Student Handbook Section 1 2015-2016 i Contents Page MSC IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AT THE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT 1 PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION 2 PROGRAMME

More information

THE IMPACT OF E-COMMERCE ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES(SME) IN AUSTRALIA

THE IMPACT OF E-COMMERCE ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES(SME) IN AUSTRALIA THE IMPACT OF E-COMMERCE ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES(SME) IN AUSTRALIA Maruf Hasan and Indra Muljadi School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052,

More information

Advancing with e-commerce

Advancing with e-commerce Advancing with e-commerce September 2001 A summary of 34 case studies of small business e-commerce ventures. Introduction Early in 2001 the National Office for the Information Economy (NOIE) commissioned

More information

The Umbrella Concept. Results of the SME and Start-up Survey 2012. Prof. Dr. R.-Dieter Reineke Andrew Mpeqa, MSc, MA Michael Sitte, MSc, MA

The Umbrella Concept. Results of the SME and Start-up Survey 2012. Prof. Dr. R.-Dieter Reineke Andrew Mpeqa, MSc, MA Michael Sitte, MSc, MA The Umbrella Concept Results of the SME and Start-up Survey 2012 Prof. Dr. R.-Dieter Reineke Andrew Mpeqa, MSc, MA Michael Sitte, MSc, MA Institut für Unternehmensführung Olten, November 2012 Agenda THE

More information

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership. DM 004 Requirements

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership. DM 004 Requirements School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership The mission of the Doctor of Management in Organizational Leadership degree program is to develop the critical and creative

More information

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Business Administration. DBA 003 Requirements

School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Business Administration. DBA 003 Requirements School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Business Administration The mission of the Doctor of Business Administration degree program is to empower business administration practitioners to become business subject

More information

and responding to the concerns of their constituents and of the general public in order to take advantage of new opportunities and to anticipate and

and responding to the concerns of their constituents and of the general public in order to take advantage of new opportunities and to anticipate and introduction For more than a century the business corporation has been a successful and widely adopted institutional arrangement for creating and distributing wealth. But the power and purpose of corporations

More information

Identifying & Prioritizing of Electronic Commerce Factors in B2B Relationships using Fuzzy ANP (Case study: Nanotechnology High tech Organizations)

Identifying & Prioritizing of Electronic Commerce Factors in B2B Relationships using Fuzzy ANP (Case study: Nanotechnology High tech Organizations) Identifying & Prioritizing of Electronic Commerce Factors in B2B Relationships using Fuzzy ANP (Case study: Nanotechnology High tech Organizations) Zahra Javidian Department Of Engineering, Darab Branch,

More information

HKFRS / IFRS UPDATE 2016/02

HKFRS / IFRS UPDATE 2016/02 ISSUE 2016/02 JUNE 2016 WWW.BDO.COM.HK s HKFRS / IFRS UPDATE 2016/02 IFRS INTERPRETATIONS COMMITTEE - AGENDA REJECTIONS (NOVEMBER 2015) Background This Update summarises issues that the IFRS Interpretations

More information

A study of application of information technology using e-crm in bank in rural area with special reference to SBI Bank, Sangamner

A study of application of information technology using e-crm in bank in rural area with special reference to SBI Bank, Sangamner Feb., 2012 Marketing management A study of application of information technology using e-crm in bank in rural area with special reference to SBI Bank, Sangamner Dr. Kirti Gulati (Ass Prof) Institute of

More information

ADDENDUM D: NEW COURSES: THEIR DESCRIPTIONS AND LEARNING GOALS

ADDENDUM D: NEW COURSES: THEIR DESCRIPTIONS AND LEARNING GOALS ADDENDUM D: NEW COURSES: THEIR DESCRIPTIONS AND LEARNING GOALS Applicable to All New Courses: 1. All courses will be offered primarily for business majors. 2. All courses will have a one-unit value. 3.

More information

95% of asset management CEOs say they re very or somewhat confident about growth over the coming three years

95% of asset management CEOs say they re very or somewhat confident about growth over the coming three years 18th Annual Global CEO Survey Redefining competition in a world without boundaries 95% of asset management CEOs say they re very or somewhat confident about growth over the coming three years 82% of asset

More information

The Australian Public Service Big Data Strategy

The Australian Public Service Big Data Strategy The Australian Public Service Big Data Strategy Improved understanding through enhanced data-analytics capability AIIA response March 2014 Contact for this submission: Suzanne Roche 39 Torrens St Braddon

More information

Best Connected Software from Ireland

Best Connected Software from Ireland Best Connected Software from Ireland A strategy for development of the indigenous software industry 2009-2013 Irish Software a Modern Success Story Over the past thirty years, Ireland has built an international

More information

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND W&OP Acc criteria May 09 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND CUMANN SÍCEOLAITHE ÉIREANN GUIDELINES FOR THE ACCREDITATION OF POSTGRADUATE ACADEMIC COURSES IN WORK AND ORGANISATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY DATE: MAY

More information

Teaching and Learning Methods

Teaching and Learning Methods Programme Specification (Postgraduate) Date amended: 1. Programme Title (EdD) 2. Awarding body or institution University of Leicester 3. a) Mode of Study part time b) Type of Study postgraduate research

More information

Executive Summary: Navigant Research Leaderboard Report: Smart City Suppliers

Executive Summary: Navigant Research Leaderboard Report: Smart City Suppliers RESEARCH REPORT RESEARCH REPORT Executive Summary: Navigant Research Leaderboard Report: Assessment of Strategy and Execution for 15 NOTE: This document is a free excerpt of a larger report. If you are

More information

BOOK REVIEWS. Managing the Global Supply Chain

BOOK REVIEWS. Managing the Global Supply Chain BOOK REVIEWS Managing the Global Supply Chain Tage Skjott-Larsen, Philip B. Schary, Juliana H. Mikkola and Herbert Kotzab (Gylling, Copenhagen Business School Press, 2007), 459 pages, third edition Supply

More information

MBA COURSES MBA-ACC 501: Managerial Accounting Required, Finance certificate requirement MBA-STAT 505: Applied Statistics for Business Decisions

MBA COURSES MBA-ACC 501: Managerial Accounting Required, Finance certificate requirement MBA-STAT 505: Applied Statistics for Business Decisions MBA COURSES MBA-ACC 501: Managerial Accounting This course introduces the use and analysis of accounting data so that managers may better conduct planning, controlling, and decision-making. In the first

More information

THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON E-COMMERCE ADOPTION

THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON E-COMMERCE ADOPTION THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON E-COMMERCE ADOPTION David W. Nickels University of North Alabama, Box 5210 University of North Alabama Florence, AL 35632 Phone: (256) 765-4819 Fax: (256) 765-4811

More information

Executive Summary In light of the i2010 initiative, the Commission has adopted initiatives to further develop the Single European Information Space a Single Market for the Information Society. However,

More information

Home Economics Education

Home Economics Education Subject Area Syllabus and Guidelines Home Economics Education (Part 2 of 4) Level 4 to Beyond Level 6 Note: The PDF version of this document has been split into sections for easier download. This file

More information

British Council Zambia Shaping our Future Conference (26 & 27 March 2013) Ways of Growing SME Innovation and Finance

British Council Zambia Shaping our Future Conference (26 & 27 March 2013) Ways of Growing SME Innovation and Finance British Council Zambia Shaping our Future Conference (26 & 27 March 2013) Ways of Growing SME Innovation and Finance Presenter: Mr.Trevor Simumba, MD Sub-Saharan Consulting Group Zambia Limited Sub-Saharan

More information

FACULTY OF COMMERCE, LAW AND MANAGEMENT GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

FACULTY OF COMMERCE, LAW AND MANAGEMENT GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Faculty of Commerce, Law and 1 FACULTY OF COMMERCE, LAW AND MANAGEMENT GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSA5000 Marketing BUSA5001 Analytical Decision Making BUSA5002 Strategic Industrial Relations

More information

Factors for the Acceptance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems and Financial Performance

Factors for the Acceptance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems and Financial Performance Factors for the Acceptance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems and Financial Performance Ayman Bazhair and Kamaljeet Sandhu Abstract The purpose of this research paper to present the synthesized

More information

Kauffman Dissertation Executive Summary

Kauffman Dissertation Executive Summary Kauffman Dissertation Executive Summary Part of the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation s Emerging Scholars initiative, the Kauffman Dissertation Fellowship Program recognizes exceptional doctoral students

More information

The Effect of Specific Intra-Firm Characteristics Regarding Internet Use on Export Profitability: The Case of Greece

The Effect of Specific Intra-Firm Characteristics Regarding Internet Use on Export Profitability: The Case of Greece The Effect of Specific Intra-Firm Characteristics Regarding Internet Use on Export Profitability: The Case of Greece Abstract In their effort to compete more efficiently with other companies, as well as

More information

Master in International Business

Master in International Business Master in International Business Offered jointly with Introduction Welcome to Barcelona Welcome to UPF Barcelona, located in the Northeastern coast of Spain, is one of Europe s most cosmopolitan cities

More information

Professional Diploma. in Mobile Marketing. www.digitalmarketinginstitute.com

Professional Diploma. in Mobile Marketing. www.digitalmarketinginstitute.com Professional Diploma in Mobile Marketing www.digitalmarketinginstitute.com Contents Professional Diploma in Mobile Marketing 1. Welcome 2. Course overview 3. Course content 4. Supporting your online learning

More information

ECTS equivalent. Any special criteria PGDip International Marketing 120 60 Students undertake 120 credits from taught modules 4. Exit award.

ECTS equivalent. Any special criteria PGDip International Marketing 120 60 Students undertake 120 credits from taught modules 4. Exit award. PROGRAMME APPROVAL FORM SECTION 1 THE PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION 1. Programme title and designation International Marketing 2. Final award Award Title Credit value ECTS equivalent MSc International Marketing

More information

STRATEGIC POLICY FORUM ON DIGITAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Fuelling Digital Entrepreneurship in Europe. Background paper

STRATEGIC POLICY FORUM ON DIGITAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Fuelling Digital Entrepreneurship in Europe. Background paper EUROPEAN COMMISSION ENTERPRISE AND INDUSTRY DIRECTORATE-GENERAL Service Industries Key Enabling Technologies and Digital Economy Introduction STRATEGIC POLICY FORUM ON DIGITAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Fuelling

More information

EMBA CURRICULUM - FIRST YEAR

EMBA CURRICULUM - FIRST YEAR EMBA CURRICULUM - FIRST YEAR EMBA 0010 Professional Development Activities This required non-credit course is intended to provide opportunities to understand management skills and achieve a greater understanding

More information

Internationalization Process of SMEs: Strategies and Methods.

Internationalization Process of SMEs: Strategies and Methods. MASTER THESIS Internationalization Process of SMEs: Strategies and Methods. Authors Mohibul Islam Masum & Alejandra Fernandez Group: 1964 Master Thesis EFO705 Mälardalen University School of Sustainable

More information

Exploiting software supply chain business architecture: a research agenda

Exploiting software supply chain business architecture: a research agenda Exploiting software supply chain business architecture: a research agenda Barbara Farbey & Anthony Finkelstein University College London, Department of Computer Science, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT,

More information

Impact Investing TAILORED, TRANSPARENT SOLUTIONS

Impact Investing TAILORED, TRANSPARENT SOLUTIONS We set the standard for Impact Investing and are the first-choice partner for asset owners seeking to understand and control their global impact. Build your impact strategy with us - see inside for details.

More information

Kea Influencer Relations and Marketing for High-Tech & Technology Providers

Kea Influencer Relations and Marketing for High-Tech & Technology Providers Kea Analyst Relations Industry analysts play a key role in defining markets and educating buyers. We work with clients to identify and track the most influential and relevant industry analysts, and advise

More information

Having undertaken a general discussion on the basis of Report IV, Small and medium-sized enterprises and decent and productive employment creation,

Having undertaken a general discussion on the basis of Report IV, Small and medium-sized enterprises and decent and productive employment creation, International Labour Conference Provisional Record 104th Session, Geneva, June 2015 11-1 Fourth item on the agenda: Small and medium-sized enterprises and decent and productive employment creation Reports

More information

All available Global Online MBA routes have a set of core modules required to be completed in order to achieve an MBA. Those modules are:

All available Global Online MBA routes have a set of core modules required to be completed in order to achieve an MBA. Those modules are: All available Global Online MBA routes have a set of core modules required to be completed in order to achieve an MBA. Those modules are: Management and Organizational Change (P.4) Leading Strategic Decision

More information

Deakin Research Online

Deakin Research Online Deakin Research Online This is the published version: Ramsey, Elaine, Martin, Lynn M., Ibbotson, Patrick and Parker, Craig M. 2009, Small business and information systems, Australiasian journal of information

More information

First Call/Visit Resolution Getting It Fixed the First Time

First Call/Visit Resolution Getting It Fixed the First Time RTM Consulting First Call/Visit Resolution Getting It Fixed the First Time Randy Mysliviec Managing Partner RTM Consulting 2 2015 All rights reserved. OVERVIEW Every field services or support services

More information

Experienced Benefits and Barriers of e-business Technology Adoption by SME suppliers

Experienced Benefits and Barriers of e-business Technology Adoption by SME suppliers BIMA Publishing http://www.ibimapublishing.com/journals/cibima/cibima.html Vol. 2011 (2011), Article ID 791778, 11pages DOI: 10.5171/2011.7917780 Experienced Benefits and Barriers of e-business Technology

More information

ALLIANCE MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES OR HELPING SMES TO THRIVE THROUGH

ALLIANCE MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES OR HELPING SMES TO THRIVE THROUGH ALLIANCE MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES OR HELPING SMES TO THRIVE THROUGH The complexity and dynamics inherent to alliances and any type of network arrangements has determined that the kernel of their success

More information

MASTERS IN ENTREPRENEURIAL MANAGEMENT

MASTERS IN ENTREPRENEURIAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL OFFICE MASTERS IN ENTREPRENEURIAL MANAGEMENT YEAR 1 - FOUNDATION/ CORE - 80 CREDITS SEMESTER 1 SEMESTER 2 The entrepreneurial business (12) This module introduces you to the field of entrepreneurship,

More information

Role and impact of TEKES

Role and impact of TEKES Role and impact of TEKES Presentation at the presentation of the final report on the evaluation of Tekes Helsinki, 6 June 2012 Geert van derveen (Technopolis Group) Mission of Tekes Tekes promotes the

More information

Study programme profile:

Study programme profile: International Business Maastricht Study programme profile: Focus The central theme of the International Business (IB) study programme is doing business across borders. IB prepares its students for an international

More information

Executive Summary: Navigant Research Leaderboard Report: Smart City Suppliers

Executive Summary: Navigant Research Leaderboard Report: Smart City Suppliers RESEARCH REPORT Executive Summary: Navigant Research Leaderboard Report: Assessment of Strategy and Execution for 16 NOTE: This document is a free excerpt of a larger report. If you are interested in purchasing

More information

MBA students develop, or already possess,

MBA students develop, or already possess, Master MBA Leadership of Business Specialisation Administration MBA students develop, or already possess, strong management skills; however the practice of effective leadership is essential for dedicated

More information

Master s Programme in International Administration and Global Governance

Master s Programme in International Administration and Global Governance Programme syllabus for the Master s Programme in International Administration and Global Governance 120 higher education credits Second Cycle Confirmed by the Faculty Board of Social Sciences 2015-05-11

More information

Abstract COLLABORATION COMMERCE AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT. Wilson Tang. C-Globe Technology Inc.

Abstract COLLABORATION COMMERCE AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT. Wilson Tang. C-Globe Technology Inc. COLLABORATION COMMERCE AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICAL E-COMMERCE APPLICATION IN GREATER CHINA Wilson Tang C-Globe Technology Inc. Abstract This paper describes an observation to the recent development

More information

CALL FOR PAPERS Special Issue of the Journal of International Business Studies

CALL FOR PAPERS Special Issue of the Journal of International Business Studies CALL FOR PAPERS Special Issue of the Journal of International Business Studies THE CREATION AND CAPTURE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES ACROSS NATIONAL BORDERS Special Issue Editors: Gary Knight (Willamette

More information

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN BUSINESS BBA 920: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR BUSINESS DECISIONS. Course Description

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN BUSINESS BBA 920: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR BUSINESS DECISIONS. Course Description DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN BUSINESS BBA 920: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR BUSINESS DECISIONS Basic concepts and techniques of microeconomic analysis; Utility and demand; Theory of Production and costs; Market structures

More information

2015 2018 Business Plan. Building Scotland s International Competitiveness

2015 2018 Business Plan. Building Scotland s International Competitiveness 2015 2018 Business Plan Building Scotland s International Competitiveness CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 INTRODUCTION 1 A COMPETITIVE ECONOMY 2 DRIVERS OF GROWTH 3 TRACKING OUR PROGRESS 14 BUDGET 2015-18 18 Scottish

More information

Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i

Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology Demonstrate familiarity with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, and historical

More information

COURSES OFFERED IN ENGLISH ACADEMIC YEAR 2015-2016 DEPARTMENT SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES

COURSES OFFERED IN ENGLISH ACADEMIC YEAR 2015-2016 DEPARTMENT SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES DEPARTMENT COURSES OFFERED IN ENGLISH ACADEMIC YEAR 2015-2016 SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES ENGLISH FRENCH TURKISH AND MIDDLE EASTERN All courses offered in English https://www.ucy.ac.cy/eng/en/# FRENCH : All courses

More information

SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING TRENDS IN TURKEY

SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING TRENDS IN TURKEY SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING TRENDS IN TURKEY June 2012 About the Authors AYŞEGÜL TOKER is a professor of Information Systems at the Department of Management, and the Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Administrative

More information

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. EU Multi Stakeholder Forum on Corporate Social Responsibility 3-4 February, 2015 Brussels, Belgium

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. EU Multi Stakeholder Forum on Corporate Social Responsibility 3-4 February, 2015 Brussels, Belgium EXECUTIVE SUMMARY EU Multi Stakeholder Forum on Corporate Social Responsibility 3-4 February, 2015 Brussels, Belgium The Multi Stakeholder Forum on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) was held in Brussels

More information

BANGLADESH INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT 4 Sobhanbag, Mirpur Road, Dhaka-1207 SYLLABUS FOR PART-I

BANGLADESH INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT 4 Sobhanbag, Mirpur Road, Dhaka-1207 SYLLABUS FOR PART-I BANGLADESH INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT SYLLABUS FOR PART-I Evaluation Criteria: Class Attendance : 10% Class Test : 20% Final Examination : 70% Name of Subject : 1. Principles of Marketing 2. Consumer Behaviour

More information

Context and Objective

Context and Objective Edna dos Santos-Duisenberg (edna.dos.santos@unctad.org) Chief, Creative Economy Programme Euro-African Campus for Cultural Cooperation, Maputo, June 2009 1 Context and Objective First UN multi-agency report

More information

ETI PERSPECTIVE 2020: A FIVE YEAR STRATEGY

ETI PERSPECTIVE 2020: A FIVE YEAR STRATEGY ETI PERSPECTIVE 2020: A FIVE YEAR STRATEGY Introduction This document is the final and Board approved version of ETI s strategic directions based on the ETI Board meeting discussion of 12 th March 2015.

More information

Electronic Commerce Research in Latest Decade: A Literature Review

Electronic Commerce Research in Latest Decade: A Literature Review International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies Vol.1, No.1, pp.1-14, 2010 Electronic Commerce Research in Latest Decade: A Literature Review Chih-Chien Wang National Taipei University, Taipei County,

More information

Summary of a review of literature on the impact of working context and support on the postgraduate research student learning experience

Summary of a review of literature on the impact of working context and support on the postgraduate research student learning experience Summary of a review of literature on the impact of working context and support on the postgraduate research student learning experience Diana Leonard Institute of Education, University of London Who is

More information

Turku School of Economics: Strategy for 2010 2015

Turku School of Economics: Strategy for 2010 2015 Turku School of Economics: Strategy for 2010 2015 Appendix A TURKU SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS STRATEGY FOR 2010 2015 1 The strategic position of the Turku School of Economics... 1 1.1 Operating environment...

More information

Strategic Human Resource Management Catherine Truss, David Mankin & Clare Kelliher

Strategic Human Resource Management Catherine Truss, David Mankin & Clare Kelliher Catherine Truss, David Mankin & Clare Kelliher Oxford University Press (2012) ISBN: 978-0199583065 Theme of the Book What makes a good HR strategy and how does one develop it? These are just two of the

More information

Programme Specification

Programme Specification Programme Specification Title: Globalising Justice Final Award: Master of Arts (MA) With Exit Awards at: Postgraduate Certificate (PG Cert) Postgraduate Diploma (PG Dip) Master of Arts (MA) To be delivered

More information

Master of Science (MSc) International Business Programme Code: BSMIB Table 2: Outline Programme Structure

Master of Science (MSc) International Business Programme Code: BSMIB Table 2: Outline Programme Structure Master of Science (MSc) Programme Code: BSMIB Table 2: Outline Programme Structure Compulsory Taught Modules Module Title Core Modules Finance for Supply Chain Managmt Semester of delivery 1 1 Module Code

More information

Bridging Micro and Macro Domains: Workforce Differentiation and Strategic Human Resource Management

Bridging Micro and Macro Domains: Workforce Differentiation and Strategic Human Resource Management Special Issue: Bridging Micro and Macro Domains Journal of Management Vol. 37 No. 2, March 2011 421-428 DOI: 10.1177/0149206310373400 The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permission: http://www. sagepub.com/journalspermissions.nav

More information

STUDENT THESIS PROPOSAL GUIDELINES

STUDENT THESIS PROPOSAL GUIDELINES STUDENT THESIS PROPOSAL GUIDELINES Thesis Proposal Students must work closely with their advisor to develop the proposal. Proposal Form The research proposal is expected to be completed during the normal

More information