# Physics 2102 Lecture 19. Physics 2102

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1 Physics 2102 Jonathan Dowling Physics 2102 Lecture 19 Ch 30: Inductors and RL Circuits Nikolai Tesla

2 What are we going to learn? A road map Electric charge Electric force on other electric charges Electric field, and electric potential Moving electric charges : current Electronic circuit components: batteries, resistors, capacitors Electric currents Magnetic field Magnetic force on moving charges Time-varying magnetic field Electric Field More circuit components: inductors. Electromagnetic waves light waves Geometrical Optics (light rays). Physical optics (light waves)

3 Inductors: Solenoids Inductors are with respect to the magnetic field what capacitors are with respect to the electric field. They pack a lot of field in a small region. Also, the higher the current, the higher the magnetic field they produce. Capacitance how much potential for a given charge: Q=CV Inductance how much magnetic flux for a given current: Φ=Li Using Faraday s law: EMF =!L di dt Units : [ L] = Tesla " m Ampere 2! H (Henry) Joseph Henry ( )

4 Self -Inductance of a solenoid Solenoid of cross-sectional area A, length l, total number of turns N, turns per unit length n Field inside solenoid = µ 0 n i Field outside ~ 0 i! 0 B = NAB = NAµ ni = Li L = inductance = µ NAn = 0 µ 0 N l 2 A

5 EMF =!L di dt The current in a 10 H inductor is decreasing at a steady rate of 5 A/s. Example If the current is as shown at some instant in time, what is the magnitude and direction of the induced EMF? i (a) 50 V (b) 50 V Magnitude = (10 H)(5 A/s) = 50 V Current is decreasing Induced emf must be in a direction that OPPOSES this change. So, induced emf must be in same direction as current

6 Set up a single loop series circuit with a battery, a resistor, a solenoid and a switch. Describe what happens when the switch is closed. Key processes to understand: What happens JUST AFTER the switch is closed? What happens a LONG TIME after switch has been closed? What happens in between? The RL circuit Key insights: If a circuit is not broken, one cannot change the CURRENT in an inductor instantaneously! If you wait long enough, the current in an RL circuit stops changing! At t=0, a capacitor acts like a wire; an inductor acts like a broken wire. After a long time, a capacitor acts like a broken wire, and inductor acts like a wire.

7 RL circuits In an RC circuit, while charging, Q = CV and the loop rule mean: charge increases from 0 to CE current decreases from E/R to 0 voltage across capacitor increases from 0 to E In an RL circuit, while charging (rising current), emf = Ldi/dt and the loop rule mean: magnetic field increases from 0 to B current increases from 0 to E/R voltage across inductor decreases from E to 0

8 Example Immediately after the switch is closed, what is the potential difference across the inductor? (a) 0 V (b) 9 V (c) 0.9 V 9 V 10 Ω 10 H Immediately after the switch, current in circuit = 0. So, potential difference across the resistor = 0! So, the potential difference across the inductor = E = 9 V!

9 Example 3 V 40 Ω Immediately after the switch is closed, what is the current i through the 10 Ω resistor? (a) A (b) 0.3 A (c) 0 Long after the switch has been closed, what is the current in the 40Ω resistor? (a) A (b) 0.3 A (c) A 10 Ω Immediately after switch is closed, current through inductor = 0. Hence, current trhough battery and through 10 Ω resistor is i = (3 V)/(10Ω) = 0.3 A Long after switch is closed, potential across inductor = 0. Hence, current through 40Ω resistor = (3 V)/(40Ω) = A 10 H

10 Charging an inductor How does the current in the circuit change with time? i! ir + E! L di dt = 0 E & i \$ 1 ' R % Rt ' = e L #! " i(t) E/R Small L/R Time constant of RL circuit = L/R Large L/R t

11 Discharging an inductor The switch is in a for a long time, until the inductor is charged. Then, the switch is closed to b. i What is the current in the circuit? Loop rule around the new circuit: ir i di + L dt! = 0 Rt L i(t) E/R = E e R t Exponential discharge.

12 Inductors & Energy Recall that capacitors store energy in an electric field Inductors store energy in a magnetic field. i E = ir + L di dt di 2 d & Li ( i E ) = ( i 2 R) + Li dt ( ie ) = ( i R ) + \$ dt! % 2 " Power delivered by battery = power dissipated by R + (d/dt) energy stored in L 2 #

13 Example The switch has been in position a for a long time. It is now moved to position b without breaking the circuit. What is the total energy dissipated by the resistor until the circuit reaches equilibrium? 9 V 10 Ω 10 H When switch has been in position a for long time, current through inductor = (9V)/(10Ω) = 0.9A. Energy stored in inductor = (0.5)(10H)(0.9A) 2 = 4.05 J When inductor discharges through the resistor, all this stored energy is dissipated as heat = 4.05 J.

14 E=120V, R 1 =10Ω, R 2 =20Ω, R 3 =30Ω, L=3H. 1. What are i 1 and i 2 immediately after closing the switch? 2. What are i 1 and i 2 a long time after closing the switch? 3. What are i 1 and i 2 1 second after closing the switch? 4. What are i 1 and i 2 immediaately after reopening the switch? 5. What are i 1 and i 2 a long time after reopening the switch?

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Phil Sherrod W4PHS Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC) Voltage Voltage (peak, RMS) Current Current (peak, effective) Power True power, Apparent