Less Crime at Lower Costs Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform for Georgians. Public Safety Performance Project October 2, 2012

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1 Less Crime at Lower Costs Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform for Georgians Public Safety Performance Project October 2, 2012

2 Agenda Background State Examples: Less Crime at Lower Costs GA Juvenile Corrections: High Cost, Low Returns

3 Public Safety Performance Project Protect public safety Hold offenders accountable Control corrections costs Goal: Help states get a better public safety return on their corrections dollars

4 Special Council : Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform for Georgians created by General Assembly Council undertook:» data-driven analysis of the adult system» development of policy options and recommendations HB 1176 passed the General Assembly unanimously Gov. Nathan Deal signed legislation into law Gov. Deal: a model of how the legislative process should work.

5 HB 1176 Passed General Assembly unanimously. Averts projected 8 percent increase in prison population and associated cumulative cost of $264 million over five years. Budget reinvests more than $17 million of the prison savings in into measures designed to reduce reoffending. Focus of HB 1176: Focus Prison Space on Serious Offenders Reduce Recidivism by Strengthening Probation and Alternative Sentencing Options Relieve Local Jail Crowding Improve Performance Measurement

6 Special Council: Governor extends the Special Council through Executive Order and expands the membership. The state requests technical assistance from the Pew Center on the States and the Annie E. Casey Foundation. State leaders charge the Special Council with identifying ways to:» improve outcomes in the juvenile system» develop fiscally sound, data-driven juvenile justice policies» ensure Georgia s tax dollars are used effectively and efficiently

7 Phase I: Bipartisan, Inter-branch Process Data Analysis / System Assessment Policy Development Stakeholder Engagement Consensus Building

8 State Examples: Less Crime at Lower Costs

9 Case Study: Ohio Challenges: 40% increase in the state s juvenile custody population spanning the 13 years leading up to 1992 State s juvenile institutions operated at 180% of capacity Many counties did not have the resources to supervise juveniles locally

10 Case Study: Ohio Solution: RECLAIM Ohio Provides incentives to counties to develop and utilize communitybased alternatives Counties receive a formula based allotment, which is reduced for each juvenile committed to an institution Counties receive the remaining funds to use in the community on a monthly basis Targeted RECLAIM provides additional incentives for the six counties that commit the most youth to the state

11 Case Study: Ohio Total average daily facility population Commitment rate for felony adjudicated youth

12 Case Study: Ohio 4 facility closures save As of 2009 in operational expenses in RECLAIM funds provided to local counties allocated to counties in FY2012 plus $16.7M through Youth Services Grant funded programs in 88 counties in FY2011

13 Case Study: Ohio Cost Benefit Analysis spent on a RECLAIM-funded local program instead of placement saves the state

14 Subsequent commitment rate Case Study: Ohio Recidivism rates by risk and placement type in Ohio Low Moderate Risk level High Very High RECLAIM community supervision programs Community Corrections Facility (CCF) Department of Youth Services (DYS) release Department of Youth Services (DYS) discharge Lowenkamp & Latessa (2005). Evaluation of Ohio s RECLAIM Funded Programs

15 Case Study: Texas New funding to counties ( ) Total average daily facility population ( ) Juvenile arrests ( )

16 Georgia Juvenile Corrections: High Cost, Low Returns

17 Georgia's Historical Juvenile Disposed Population: Out-of-Home Youth 3,500 3,000 2,973 2,500 2,000 1,917 1,500 1,

18 High Cost $100,000 $90,000 $80,000 $70,000 $60,000 $50,000 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 $0 Annual State Cost of Juvenile Placement vs. Education 1 $91,126 $88,155 YDC (per bed) RYDC (per bed) $28,955 Non-Secure Residential (per child) $3,139 $4,326 $5,408 Community Supervision (per child) K-12 (per child) UGS (per child)

19 Low Return on Investment Recidivism Rate: All Committed Youth = Youth Development Campuses = GA Department of Juvenile Justice

20 Key Findings Trends in Out-of-Home Youth Greater concentration of felons Increase in number of juveniles awaiting a long-term bed High percentage of low risk juveniles Non-Secure Residential: majority non-felony and non-violent, nearly half are low risk Recidivism remains high, half are re-adjudicated within three years Regardless of setting, public safety outcomes for out-of-home not improving Community-based options vary across the state DJJ spends more than 60% of its budget on out of-home Community based options are dependent upon location and funding

21 Youth Out-of-Home: Offense Class Status 3% Status 15% Misd 28% Misd 21% Felony 57% Felony 76% n = 2,652 n = 1,870

22 Who is in the YDC? Status 10% 2002 Misd 1% 2011 Misd 22% Felony 68% Felony 99% n = 1,236 n = 619

23 Youth Out-of-Home: Legal Status 1,400 1,200 1,000 1,182 1,154 76% Increase in DF Out-of-Home DF Regular Commit STP

24 Youth in YDC: Offense Types Violent (30.8%) Violent (49.3%) Property (29.8%) Property (26.2%) Public Order (10.0%) Violent Sex (11.5%) Violent Sex (8.4%) Public Order (6.9%) VOP/VOAC/VOAP (8.2%) Weapons (3.1%) Drug Use (4.7%) VOP/VOAC/VOAP (1.9%) Weapons (3.4%) Drug Use (0.5%) Drug Selling (2.0%) Drug Selling (0.5%) Status (1.6%) Traffic (0.2%) Sex Non-Violent (0.6%) Traffic (0.5%)

25 Georgia's Juvenile Population: Youth Out-of-Home on June 30 1,600 1,450 1,400 1,200 1, YDC Non-Secure Resid RYDC

26 Youth Out-of-Home: Risk Level Low 42% High 16% Low 40% High 19% Medium 42% Medium 41% n = 2,367 n = 1,777

27 Youth in YDC: Risk Levels In 2011: High = 25% Medium = 37% Low = 39% High Medium Low

28 Designated Felons in the YDC: Risk Levels In 2011: High = 24% Medium = 37% Low = 39% High Medium Low

29 Who is in the Non-Secure Residential Placements? 2002 Status 8% 2011 Status 20% Felony 45% Felony 47% Misd 35% Misd 45% n = 863 n = 584

30 Non-Secure Residential: Risk Levels In 2011: High = 11% Medium = 40% Low = 49% High Medium Low

31 Recidivism for all Released Youth Percent 90 All Youth

32 Recidivism: Youth at the YDCs Percent YDC 6 percentage point increase since 2003 YDC

33 System Assessment: Key Finding on Community- Based Options Community-based options vary across the state DJJ spends more than 60% of its budget on out of-home. Community based options are dependent upon location and funding

34 Less Crime at Lower Costs Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform for Georgians Public Safety Performance Project October 2, 2012

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