1 Reinsurance 101: How it Works and the Impact on the Marketplace Kathleen A. McCullough Associate Professor and State Farm Professor Florida State University 2012 Oklahoma Domestic Conference May 23, 2012
2 What You Need to Know What is reinsurance? How big is the marketplace? Who buys reinsurance and why? Are there different types of reinsurance? What is the impact of reinsurance beyond insurance companies? What about catastrophes and reinsurance? What are the regulatory issues?
3 What is Reinsurance? Classic definition: Insurance for insurance companies The transfer of insurance risk from one insurer to another through a contractual agreement under which one insurer (the reinsurer) agrees, in return for a reinsurance premium, to indemnify another insurer (the primary insurer) for some or all of the financial consequences of certain loss exposures covered by the primary insurer s policies. Harrison, 2006
4 Size of the Reinsurance Market 3% World Non-Life Reinsurance Market (USD 152B) 21% 33% 39% North America Latin America Europe Asia and Oceania Africa 4% Swiss Re 2011
5 Who are the Largest Reinsurers?
6 Who are the Largest Reinsurers of U.S. Business?
7 The Largest Reinsurance Brokers?
8 Who Buys Reinsurance? Primary insurers Other reinsurers (retrocession) Primary Insurer (Cedant) Reinsurer(s) Reinsurer(s) Reinsurance Retrocession
9 Why Buy Reinsurance? Reduce the risk of catastrophe exposure Help spread risk Stabilize loss experience
11 Why Buy Reinsurance? (cont.) Withdraw from a market Gain reinsurers expertise
12 Who Do Insurers Buy Reinsurance From? Affiliated Reinsurers Domestic Foreign Unaffiliated Reinsurers Domestic Foreign Other Pools
13 Premiums Ceded by US P&C Industry 25% 4% 33% Domestic Affiliated Foreign Affiliated Domestic Unaffiliated 8% Pools Foreign Unaffiliated 30% SNL Financial 2010 data
14 Where do US P&C Firms Cede to?
15 Types of Reinsurance Treaty or Obligatory Reinsurance Reinsurer agrees to cover all losses that fall within the treaty An entire portfolio of risks is involved Often the basis of a reinsurance program
16 Types of Reinsurance (cont.) Facultative Specific Exposure Case by case Individual offer and acceptance of risks
17 Types of Reinsurance (cont.) Pro-rata (proportional reinsurance) Insurance, premium, and losses are divided between the primary insurer and reinsurer in agreed proportions Quota share vs. surplus share
18 Types of Reinsurance (cont.) Excess of loss (non-proportional) Reinsurer pays portion of a loss that exceeds the primary insurer s retention up to the reinsurance limit Ex. $900,000 xs $100,000 for each and every loss Per risk vs Per occurrence vs Aggregate excess
19 Sorting out Types of Reinsurance Type of Reinsurance Stabilize Loss Experience Improve Large-Line Capacity Provide Catastrophe Protection Provide Surplus Relief Main Purpose Pro rata quota share Pro rate surplus share No Yes No Yes Surplus relief No Yes No Yes Large-line capacity and some surplus relief Excess of loss per risk or per policy Yes Yes Yes, but not purchased for this No Large-line capacity and stabilize losses Excess of loss per occurrence Yes (to an extent) No Yes No Protect against single event cat losses Aggregate excess of loss Yes Yes, but not purchased for this Yes No To stabilize loss experience Harrison, 2006
20 Impact of Reinsurance Allows insurance to be offered more broadly Provides long-term capital to the economy Information
21 Reinsurance and Catastrophes
22 Reinsurance and Catastrophes
23 Reinsurance and Catastrophes
24 Reinsures and Catastrophes
25 Key Regulatory Issues Collateralization of Foreign Reinsurance Credit for Reinsurance Model Law What is it? Model Law that allows state regulators flexibility regarding collateral requirements for foreign reinsurers Prior requirements were 100% collateralization Arguments for and against?
26 Key Regulatory Issues (cont.) Collateralization of Foreign Reinsurance (cont.) What are the key changes? State authority to certify reinsurers or recognize certification States ability to assign rating and vary collateralization requirements Now 0 to 100% based on security rating Requires Insurer notify state commissioners when the amount they expect to recover hits certain thresholds Continued evaluation and support from NAIC
27 Key Regulatory Issues (cont.) National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Recent extension of NFIP Increased use of private reinsurance Implications of Dodd-Frank Act Non-admitted and Reinsurance Reform Act (NRRA) NRRA preempts the extraterritorial application of state credit for reinsurance laws
28 Key Regulatory Issues (cont.) International Regulatory and Accounting Standards Securitization Cat Bonds, Sidecars, and more
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