Title: Renewable and Non- Renewable Power Resources for 5th Grade Science. Date: February 21, Unit Introduction

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1 Title: Renewable and Non- Renewable Power Resources for 5th Grade Science Date: February 21, 2013 Unit Introduction This mini- unit is a subsection of a larger unit encompassing the studies of renewable and non- renewable energy resources. In this larger unit, students study the principles of energy transfer and how we as humans tap into that energy to produce electricity. Students study nonrenewable energy resources (coal, oil) and renewable resources (solar, wind, hydro). This particular mini- unit introduces students to hydropower. This mini- unit assumes that students have already interacted with the other four energy resources. The lessons provided in this unit are intended to provide a basic understanding of how hydropower works, what risks and benefits are associated with hydropower production, and how hydropower compares and contrasts with other renewable and non- renewable energy resources. The over arching goal is that students become educated about the risks and benefits of each power source so that they may be able to participate in innovation and make informed decisions as citizens. 0

2 Contents I. Lesson 1 What is Hydropower? (Engage and Explore)..p. 2 II. III. IV. Lesson 2 Hydropower in Action (Explain).p. 5 Lesson 3 Power Play, A Town Hall Meeting (Evaluate) p. 7 Personal reflection.p. 10 V. Grading rubric p. 12 1

3 Lesson Title: What is Hydropower? Subject Area: Science (Engage and Explore) Grade: 5th I. Rationale This is lesson 1 of 3 in the mini-unit on hydropower. This lesson is intended to expose students to the phenomenon of converting the kinetic energy of moving water into electrical current that powers our cities. Students will research the basic principles of dams and hydropower as well as the environmental risks and benefits of hydropower. This lesson is intended to provide students with a basic understanding of how hydropower functions. This will allow students to have a richer experience visiting the Leaburg dam. In addition, students will use this research along with their field trip experience to develop a fuller understanding of how renewable and non-renewable energy resources compare in terms of environmental impact, effectiveness, and overall societal value. IIA. Content Objectives Students will be able to explain in basic terms how a hydropower plant converts kinetic energy (moving water) into electrical current. Students will research the benefits and risks associated with hydropower. IIB. Language Objectives Student groups will create pictorial charts depicting hydropower benefits and risks they discover in their research findings. Groups will orally present their charts to the class. Key Vocabulary Magnetism Electrical current Kinetic energy (moving energy) Leaburg Dam components (turbine, canal, fish screen, fish ladders, penstock, dam plates) III. Assessment Methods Student groups will record inquiries conducted with the class hydropower model in a discovery log sheet. Explorations conducted, discoveries made, and questions remaining will be recorded and assessed for thoroughness and engagement. Student groups will also create a pictorial chart of the benefits and risks associated with hydropower per their research on the internet. Students will be expected to explain at least two benefits and two risks on their chart to the class. Completion of the pictorial chart and chart presentation will be counted as complete or incomplete. IV. Achieved Oregon Core Standards 5.2 Interaction and Change: Force, energy, matter, and organisms interact within living and nonliving systems. 5.2P.1 Describe how friction, gravity, and magnetic forces affect objects on or near Earth. 2

4 5.3 Scientific Inquiry: Scientific inquiry is a process of investigation based on science principles and questioning, collecting, describing, and examining evidence to explain natural phenomena and artifacts. 5.3S.1 Based on observations and science principles, identify questions that can be tested, design an experiment or investigation, and identify appropriate tools. Collect and record multiple observations while conducting investigations or experiments to test a scientific question or hypothesis. TESOL Standard 4: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of science. V. Time Requirement 1 to 2 hours VI. Materials Internet/library access Hydropower plant model (see attached documents) Magnets Coiled copper wire Mini light bulb Poster board Markers VII. Beginning of Lesson The teacher will begin the lesson by referring back to other forms of renewable energy resources the class has studied so far (solar and wind). The teacher will then ask students, Given that Eugene does not have lots of sun or wind, what are some other renewable ways we can utilize our natural climate or resources to produce power? The teacher will explain that hydropower is a renewable resource that provides almost 60% of the Northwest United State s power. Hydropower is taking the energy of water moving down a stream and converting it into electricity. Now the teacher will ask the students, How do you think we could take water moving down a stream and convert it into electricity for our light bulbs? How is it done? The teacher may record student ideas on the board under a title such as How is it done? VIII. Middle of the Lesson - Central Activity The teacher will then introduce that the class is going to research and investigate hydropower as a renewable energy resource. Students will be grouped so that one group of students can be investigating the principles of hydropower with the hydropower model while other groups are researching dams and hydropower on the internet. Each group will have a number so that the teacher can keep track of which group is next. A new group will rotate to the hydropower model every 15 minutes so that all students have a chance to research hydropower and explore the hydropower model. Before sending the students off to get busy, the teacher will explain the expectations for the discovery log sheet and demonstrate the process of creating a pictorial benefits/risks poster. The teacher will use the board to create a sample poster as students volunteer benefits and risks they learned about of a different power production type (i.e. wind power). 3

5 Once these instructions are given, the teacher will ask the first group to proceed to the model and the other groups to begin researching and creating their posters. IX. End of Lesson Once every group has visited the hydropower model, students will be given a limited time to finish their posters. Before groups present their posters, the teacher will ask for volunteers to briefly share with the whole class some of the discoveries their groups made in their research and at the hydropower model. After students have shared, the teacher will demonstrate how a magnet and copper wire coil with attached bulb interact. Students will be asked to touch the magnet and see if there is any energy they feel in the magnet. Students will be asked to touch the wire and check to see if they feel any energy. The teacher will demonstrate several times that by moving either the magnet or the coiled wire, energy is somehow passed on to illuminate the light bulb. The teacher will ask students, Where do you think the energy comes from? We already determined it does not come from the magnet or the wire. So where do you think it comes from? The teacher will eventually explain how the energy comes from his or her hand moving the magnet or coil. This is called kinetic energy, or the energy of movement. The energy is transferred as a magnet moves near a wire that can carry current. This is the same principle behind how a hydropower dam works moving water has kinetic energy which turns a turbine. This spinning turbine has magnets in it that are passed by coiled wires that are able to pick up the energy. This energy is then captured and sent out as electrical current. Before ending the lesson, student groups will share their benefit/risks of hydropower posters with the class. The teacher will close by asking students to keep the magnet/ wire coil demonstration, hydropower model, and their research in mind as the class visits the Leaburg dam. 4

6 Lesson Title: Hydropower in Action Subject Area: Science (Explain) Grade: 5th I. Rationale This is lesson 2 of 3 in the mini-unit studying hydropower. This lesson is intended to be presented in conjunction with a class field trip to Leaburg dam (or other hydropower dam). Students will observe the different parts of the dam, the dam and river in action, evaluate the mitigation techniques for salmon migration, and examine the factors that affect the efficiency and output of hydropower. These components of the field trip will help students develop a thorough understanding of hydropower, its pros and cons, and be able to then compare and contrast it with the other forms of energy production. IIA. Content Objectives Students will observe the parts of the hydropower dam (canal, turbine, plates, fish screen, fish ladders) and understand the function of each part. Students will learn about how the engineers designed ways for salmon to pass through on their migrations up and down the Mackenzie River. IIB. Language Objectives Students will write a reflection article in their journal about their field trip thoughts, what they learned or found interesting, and what questions they still have. Key Vocabulary Fish ladder Canal Fish screen Turbine Salmon migration Ecosystem III. Assessment Methods The teacher will evaluate student participation by checking reflections for inclusion of the three parts (1) thoughts about the field trip, (2) what they learned or found interesting, (3) and outstanding questions. Students outstanding questions may provide a place for further investigation in follow up lessons. IV. Achieved Oregon Core Standards 5.2 Interaction and Change: Force, energy, matter, and organisms interact within living and nonliving systems. 5.2P.1 Describe how friction, gravity, and magnetic forces affect objects on or near Earth. TESOL Standard 4: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of science. 5

7 V. Time Requirement 45 minutes (lesson), 2 hours (travel and lesson) VI. Materials Cameras for taking pictures Student notebooks Portable dry erase board for drawing diagrams (optional) VII. Beginning of Lesson Students will be brought to the Leaburg Dam shelter for an initial lesson introduction. The teacher will begin by asking students to join with a partner. The teacher will then review a few safety rules and limits for student exploration. The teacher will encourage students to look for features and components that they researched in the previous lesson (such as fish ladders, the canal, etc.) and other features they may not recognize. The teacher will ask that each student pick one structure that they find interesting or strange and draw a quick sketch of that structure in their notebook. The teacher will also ask students to jot any questions they may have while they walk around and explore the dam. The teacher will then release the student pairs to walk around and explore the dam. Students should be aware of the time limit (15-20 minutes recommended). VIII. Middle of the Lesson - Central Activity Once students have explored the dam site and sketched in their notebooks, the teacher will summon everyone to gather under the shelter. The teacher will ask students to share some of the initial features they noticed, structures they observed, and questions they jotted down. The teacher will then begin the dam scavenger hunt (tour) with students. During the tour, students will be asked to jot down new questions they have or ideas they want to research as they see the dam components. The first structure to observe will be the large turbine that lies near the shelter. The teacher will describe how the water passing through the penstock turns this large drum. Concepts of how a turbine works will be reviewed (as covered in lesson 1). This would be a helpful time to bring out the magnet, coiled wire, and light bulb from lesson 1 to remodel how a turbine works to produce electricity. The tour will proceed to the dam s diverter. The teacher will point out how the dam still allows water through in order to keep the river flowing as naturally as possible. This continual flow permits a continuance of the natural river ecosystem and annual salmon migration. The tour will then proceed to the canal where students will see the fish screen and small salmon return route. The tour will continue down to the fish ladder viewing area. The teacher will discuss how the ladders allow adult salmon to swim upstream around the dam, whereas the fish screen directs the young baby salmon back into the river and away from the power plant downstream. IX. End of Lesson Once the tour concludes, the class will gather again at the dam shelter. The teacher will share a diagram to show how the water progresses down the canal to the penstock, where it drops 89 feet to the turbines. Inside the power room are the electromagnets, coiled wire, and turbines that convert the kinetic energy of the rushing water into electricity, just as students studied in lesson 1. The teacher will ask students to share any closing realizations or epiphanies they discovered that day. Before boarding the bus, students will be asked to spread out and write a paragraph reflection on (1) their thoughts about the field trip, (2) what they discovered or found interesting, and (3) questions they still have that they would like to research further. 6

8 Lesson Title: Power Play A Town Hall Meeting Subject Area: Science (Evaluate) Grade: 5th I. Rationale This is lesson 3 of 3 of the hydropower mini-unit. This lesson serves as a conclusion for the hydropower mini-unit as well as a conclusion for the overall unit on renewable and non-renewable energy resources. This lesson gives students the opportunity to synthesize everything they have discovered about the different resources for electricity production (solar, wind, hydro, coal, oil). Students will compare and contrast each of the renewable and non-renewable energy resources in terms of environmental, financial, and sustainable features. Student groups will prepare presentations surrounding their energy resource and present before the town hall why the citizens of [Mr. Daniel s class] should select their form of electricity production to power the town. After all forms of energy have been presented, a moderator will facilitate a class debate amongst the citizens about which power source to choose and why. At the end of the town meeting, the class will vote on what resource to use. IIA. Content Objectives Students will synthesize everything they have learned about the benefits, risks, and implications of each form of power production to decide on the best path to take as a class for powering their town. IIB. Language Objectives Students will present a persuasive presentation about why the town should approve using their form of power production. Students will write a concurring or dissenting reflection based on the outcome of the town hall s vote. Key Vocabulary Students will be expected to use key vocabulary learned and reviewed throughout the unit in their presentations and/or reflections III. Assessment Methods Student groups will deliver a 5-7 minute presentation on their power resource. Presentations will be checked for inclusion of the following parts: how the benefits of the particular power resource outweigh the risks and how the power resource is better (environmentally, financially, or sustainably) when compared to three other power resources. In addition, students will write a concurring or dissenting reflection based on the town hall s vote. In this reflection, students will be expected to describe whether they agreed or disagreed with the majority vote and why. For those who disagreed with the town vote, the students will describe what their ideal solution would like and how it is better than the one decided by the town. For those who agreed with the majority vote, the students will explain how they will make sure the risks associated with their chosen resource are mitigated. IV. Achieved Oregon Core Standards 5.4 Engineering Design: Engineering design is a process of using science principles to make modifications in the world to meet human needs and aspirations. 7

9 5.4D.1 Using science principles describe a solution to a need or problem given criteria and constraints. 5.2 Interaction and Change: Force, energy, matter, and organisms interact within living and nonliving systems. 5.2L.1 Explain the interdependence of plants, animals, and environment, and how adaptation influences survival. TESOL Standard 4: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of science. V. Time Requirement One class period for 1.5 hours VI. Materials Educational magazines for each power resource Poster board Scissors Markers Glue or tape VII. Beginning of Lesson The teacher will begin the lesson by asking students to share final reflections or thoughts they have from the field trip to the Leaburg dam. After students have shared, the teacher will introduce the day s lesson. He or she might say, Well citizens, we now have a big decision before us. As we talked about on day one when we started this unit on types of power production, we are going to decide as a class what form of energy resource to use to power our town. Each of you will be in a group that is going to present a power resource to the class, then we as a class will debate on the best option, and then we will vote. When your group presents your power resource, you are going to try to persuade us as to why we should choose your resource. The teacher should ask a volunteer to remind the class what persuade means to make sure everyone understands the purpose of the presentations. The teacher will then write the essential presentation elements on the board (1) how the benefits of your power resource outweigh the risks and (2) how your resource is better sustainably, financially, or environmentally than three other power resources the class has studied. Students will be randomly assigned a power resource to present with a group. VIII. Middle of the Lesson - Central Activity Once student groups are formed, students will be asked to get materials so that they may create an illustrative poster to support their presentation. Students can use magazine pictures, text, or drawings to decorate a supporting poster for their presentations. Students will be given minutes to create their posters and prepare for their presentations. Once groups are ready, the teacher will create the town hall environment by having students sit in rows facing the presenters. The teacher will ask students to help him or her in establishing a few town hall rules for acceptable behaviors and questions. The student groups will then take turns presenting their posters to the class while a student moderator keeps time. 8

10 After each group, the class will have the chance to ask up to three questions of the group. After all groups have presented, the teacher will moderate a class debate about what power resource to choose and why. For example, when a student states why the class should choose a particular power resource, the teacher will ask if someone else has a different idea. The debate should last for at least minutes. Once the debate has ended and all have made their closing comments, students will produce a blind vote for which power resource they want. The teacher will then write the number of votes for each power resource under each corresponding heading on the board. If time permits, the teacher may ask a couple students from each power resource to volunteer why they voted for the power resource they chose. IX. End of Lesson Before closing the lesson, students will be asked to write a concurring or dissenting opinion in their notebooks. The teacher will outline that students are to state (1) if they agreed or disagreed with the majority vote and (2) why. Finally, students will (3a) describe what their ideal solution would like and how it is better than the one decided by the town or (3b) explain how they will make sure the risks associated with their chosen resource are mitigated (a or b dependent on their vote). The teacher will close the lesson by acknowledging the students hard work and engagement in the unit. The teacher will connect the learning and exploring the students have accomplished to allowing the students to make informed decisions as active citizens of society. This will not only benefit them as people, but it will also benefit the fish in the streams, the birds in the air, and the world in which we live. 9

11 Personal Reflection Completing this mini-unit assignment proved challenging and highly insightful. Before beginning this unit, I did not understand how hydropower worked. I had heard of turbines and dams but did not understand how rushing water translated into electricity. The EWEB website happened to be one of the first resources I found online. They have a tab labeled Education Resources that provides a wealth of classroom-ready resources. I contacted John Femal, EWEB Community Education Coordinator, and met with him to learn about hydropower at the Leaburg dam. John spent over two hours with me, showing me demonstrations of magnetism and kinetic energy and describing how the Leaburg dam works. I was so fascinated! I learned about EWEB s history and how it came into being. I also learned about the risks and benefits associated with hydropower. Fish ladders and fish screens still interest me now I would love to visit the dam when the salmon are migrating. I just think it so remarkable that a salmon would choose a man-made ladder with rushing water in order to reach the place of its birth. Before meeting with John, I did not really understand the potential environmental impacts of damming a river. This is a complex matter. I learned that hydropower is not the only impact on our rivers. Deforestation, agriculture, even fish restocking can all greatly impact salmon survivability. Thus, even though hydropower is an energy resource that has been used for many years, it is still developing today. There is still plenty of room for innovation and discovery. Our students will be the ones to lead in this innovation in the days to come. I chose this topic not only because I was interested to learn how dams function but also because I think it is important that citizens are informed. Oftentimes, I feel we do not give thought to how energy is collected and spent to burn a light bulb or light a computer screen. The only times I think about power are when I am billed for it or when the power goes out. Regardless of my awareness, power is always being produced somewhere. This means a resource somewhere is being spent to make my life more convenient. Significant questions to consider include: What is our local power resource? How is using that resource impacting the local, regional, and global environment? How can use of this resource be made more efficient? How am I wasting this resource by thinking of it only in terms of a monthly utility bill? Having learned about how hydropower works and how it can influence the natural ecosystem, I am more informed to compare it to other forms of power production. If there is a chance to express my concerns or vote on a measure that relates to power resources and sustainability, I will be able to make a more informed decision. Our students need to be informed as well. They need to be active participants in innovation and sustainability. 10

12 The most valuable experience I take away from this assignment is realizing that even a simple dam that slows water flow on the Mackenzie river can impact the greater ecosystem. All creatures in nature are connected. If salmon populations decrease, there is a ripple effect throughout the local, even global, ecosystem. The Leaburg dam is built to make my life and others lives more productive and convenient. The Mackenzie river is such a great resource that I often take for granted. It is essential that I no longer think of electricity as a bill or a blackout, but as a use of a natural resource somewhere. I can do a better job saving energy in my home. I can be a better steward of such a precious commodity. I can make more informed decisions when participating in a vote or community decision. I believe our society can as well. It starts with us and then our students. They are the leaders of tomorrow. Let us lead by example. 11

13 Mini-Unit Assignment Rubric This rubric evaluates the assignment based on three measures: (1) Unit completeness, (2) Unit quality, and (3) Reflection paper quality. Measure 1: Mini-unit Completeness Measure 1 evaluates successful inclusion of all requested assignment items. (5) Mastery Mini-unit includes three, UO Teach template lesson plans Mini-unit includes picture, grade level, and title page Mini-unit identifies the 5E s as applicable Mini-unit includes a rubric and reflection (3) Developing Mini-unit includes two or three of the features above (1) Emerging Mini-unit includes one of the features above Measure 2: Mini-unit quality Measure 2 evaluates the thoroughness and thoughtful creation of the mini-unit topic and lessons. (5) Mastery Mini-unit is relevant and appropriate for the age-group selected Lessons are challenging, yet not too difficult for the age-group Lessons require students to practice inquiry science often Mini-unit is thorough, exhibiting thoughtful preparation and creativity (3) Developing Mini-unit is somewhat relevant and appropriate for the age-group selected Lessons are slightly too difficult or easy for the age-group Lessons require students to practice inquiry science sometimes Mini-unit exhibits some thoughtful preparation and creativity (1) Emerging Mini-unit is not relevant or appropriate for the age-group selected Lessons are too difficult or easy for the age-group Lessons do not require students to practice inquiry science Mini-unit does not exhibit thoughtful preparation and creativity 12

14 Measure 3: Reflection Paper Quality Measure 3 evaluates the quality and thoughtfulness of the associated reflection paper. (5) Mastery Reflection paper explains why the topic chosen is significant for students to explore and understand Reflection paper includes what the author found most valuable about the assignment Reflection paper describes the process of creating the mini-unit, including any challenges or discoveries (3) Developing Reflection paper includes two of the three features described above (1) Emerging Reflection paper includes one of the three features described above 13

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