Protocol Architecture

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1 Protocol Architecture ed Protocol Architectures OSI Reference Model TCP/IP Protocol Stack Need for Protocols The task of exchanging information between devices requires a high degree of cooperation between the involved parties can be quite complex Protocols are a set of rules and conventions. By enforcing that communicating parties adhere to a common protocol, communication is made possible. The complexity of the communication task is reduced by dividing it into subtasks: Each subtask is implemented independently. Each subtask provides a service to another subtask. 1

2 Example: Subtasks of Communications Example: The purchasing director of the Italian company Vendetta, located in Milan, Italy, wants to ask the Sales Director of the US company Crash, with headquarters in Mobile, AL, about the price of the Ultimo 6000 Supercomputer which is produced by Crash. When we divide the described communication task into subtasks we see that: Separate entities in a company perform certain subtasks Company entities provide services to other entities An entity responsible for a certain subtask performs the task by following a protocol Example: Subtasks of Communications Purchasing Director Quanta costa l Ultimo 6000? Milan Mobile Sales Director How much for the Ultimo 6000? Administrative Assistant: Translates message and prepares a letter Administrative Assistant: no action Shipping Manager: Packs shipment Assigns shipping number Geneva New Orleans Shipping Manager: Call Italy to confirm arrival of letter Shipping Clerk: Determines route of the shipment Shipping Clerk: Determines route of the shipment Shipping Clerk: Determines route of the shipment Shipping Clerk: Determines route of the shipment Mailroom Worker Attaches label Loads mailbag Mailroom Worker Attaches label Loads mailbag Mailroom Worker Attaches label Loads mailbag Mailroom Worker Attaches label Loads mailbag 2

3 Architecture Protocol: A set of rules and conventions used for communication of entities in different systems System: Object that contains several entities (e.g., the company). : Anything capable of sending or receiving information (e.g, the secretary in a company) A Architecture is a structured set of protocols that implement the exchange of information between computers ed Architecture In a ed Architecture, the services are grouped in a hierarchy of layers. An entity of layer N uses only services of layer N-1. An entity of layer N provides services only to layer N+1. Example: Architecture not layered layered A B A B layer 3 C C layer 2 E D E D layer 1 3

4 ed Communications Each entity of a system is assigned to a layer An entity of a particular layer can only communicate with: 1. adjacent layer entities via Service Interfaces above - to provide service below - to receive services 2. peer layer entity using a common protocol (Peer Protocol) ed Communications A communication layer is completely defined by (a) The peer protocol between peer entities at the same layer (b) The service interface used to offer/provide services between adjacent layers Note: When talking about two adjacent layers, (a) the higher layer is a service user, and (b) the lower layer is a service provider 4

5 ed Communications N+1 N+1 N+1 Protocol N+1 layer N+1/N interface N N N Protocol N layer N/N-1 interface N-1 N-1 N-1 Protocol N-1 Note: interfaces define physical data flow. Peer protocols describe exchange of logical messages between peer layer entities Service Access Points A service user accesses services of the service provider at Service Access Points (SAPs) A SAP has an address that uniquely identifies where the service can be accessed N layer N/N-1 service interface N-1 -N - N-1 N-1 SAP 5

6 Exchange of Data Assume a layer-n entity at A wants to send data to a layer-n peer entity to B. The unit of data send between peer entities is called a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) For now, let us think of a PDU as a single packet A N PDU (at layer N) N B What actually happens: N passes the PDU to one of A s SAPs at layer N-1. The layer N-1 entity (at A) then constructs its own PDU which it sends to the layer N-1 entity at B. Note: PDU at layer N-1 = Header + PDU at layer N Exchange of Data A B -N control N PDU When passed to the SAP, the PDU is called a Service Data Unit (SDU) (-N PDU = - N-1 SDU) -N SAPs - N-1 - N-1 control N PDU Header (of layer N-1) N PDU PDU of -N-1 6

7 Service Primitives Communication between adjacent layers is done via function calls. The functions are called service primitives Almost all communication is done with only four types of service primitives: REQUEST: entity wants service provider to do work INDICATION: service provider informs entity about an event RESPONSE: entity wants to respond to an event CONFIRM: response to an earlier request has come back Service Primitives Assume the name of a service is called X. N+1 N+1 Protocol N+1 X. Request X. Confirm X. Indication X. Response N N 7

8 Service Primitives Recall: A layer N+1 entity sees the lower layers only as a service provider N+1 N+1 Protocol N+1 X. Request X. Confirm X. Indication X. Response Service Provider Example: Sending a Letter Bob sends a letter to Alice Bob Logical flow of information Alice Bob s mailbox Alice s mailbox Postman 8

9 Putting the Example into our Context Identify the entities? Identify layers? What is the service? Who is a service user? Who is a service provider? What are the SAPs? What are the PDUs? Describe the peer protocol between Bob and Alice? Which service primitives are invoked? Bob, Alice, Postman 2: Bob, Alice 1: Postman Deliver_Letter ( L ) Bob and Alice Postman Mailboxes Letter (at 2) The protocol is actually complicated: When Bob sends a letter to Alice, the letter must identify Alice as the recipient. The letter must be written in a language that Alice can read. Bob must be able to write, and Alice must be able to read. Both need to know where their respective mailboxes are, and they must be able to operate a mailbox, etc. Letter is dropped off by Bob (L.Request); Letter is delivered to Alice s mailbox (L.Indicate) (Un-)Acknowledged Service The example showed only two service primitives: L.Request, L.Indicate A service which uses these two primitives is called unconfirmed service L.Request US Mail L.Indicate If Bob asks for a certificate of delivery we would need: L.Request, L.Indicate, L.Response, L.Confirm The resulting service is called acknowledged service L.Request L.Confirm US Mail L.Indicate L.Indicate 9

10 Protocol Architectures There are only few protocol architectures that are relevant today: OSI Reference Model Defined as a big effort in the 1970 s by ISO to specify a comprehensive set of protocols for networking. The effort failed, in that the defined protocols are not widely used. However, the concepts and terminology defined in the OSI model are the lingua franca of many networkers TCP/IP Protocols Suite The Internet protocol architecture is not the result of a design effort, but has evolved over several decades ATM Protocol Stack An example that protocols can be designed by a committee. Future relevance will depend on the success of ATM OSI Reference Model In 1977 the International Standardization Organization (ISO) developed a model for a layered network architecture This effort was completed in 1983 and is known as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model The OSI model defines seven layers: 7: 6: Presentation 5: Session 4: 3: 2: 1: ( 0: Interconnection Media) 10

11 OSI s HOST HOST Presentation Presentation Session Session NODE NODE OSI s and Encapsulation Data Header of AH Data Data Presentation PH AH Data Presentation Session SH PH AH Data Session TH SH PH AH Data NH TH SH PH AH Data DH NH TH SH PH AH Data Bits 11

12 OSI Model in a Switched Communication Node (Router) Presentation Session Presentation Session Station (Host) A Tour of the OSI s ( 1): Service: Transmission of a raw bit stream over a communication channel Functions: Conversion of bits into electrical or optical signals Examples: X.21, RS-232-C ( 2): Service: Reliable transfer of frames over a link Functions: synchronization, error Control, flow control Examples: HDLC, CCITT LAP-D 12

13 A Tour of the OSI s ( 3): Service: Moves packets inside the network. Functions: Routing, Addressing, Switching, Congestion Control. Examples: IP, X.25, CLNP. ( 4): Service: Controls delivery of data between hosts. Functions: Connection establishment/management/termination, Error Control, Flow Control, Multiplexing. Examples: TCP, UDP, ISO TP0 - TP4. A Tour of the OSI s Session ( 5): Service: Support the dialog between cooperating application programs Functions: Session establishment/management/termination, Synchronization, Recovery Examples: ISO session protocol, RPC Presentation ( 6): Service: Provides freedom from compatibility problems Functions: Virtual device support, syntax conversion, encryption Examples: ISO presentation protocol ( 7): Service: Provides network access to application programs Functions: Everything is application specific Examples: File Transfer, Electronic Mail 13

14 TCP/IP Protocol Suite The TCP/IP protocol suite was first defined in 1974 The TCP/IP protocol suite is the protocol architecture of the Internet The TCP/IP suite has four layers:,, Internet, and Interface Internet Interface telnet, ftp, TCP, UDP IP, ICMP, IGMP Device Drivers Example: File Transfer Host A Router Host B FTP program FTP protocol FTP program TCP TCP protocol TCP IP IP protocol IP IP protocol IP Ethernet Driver Ethernet protocol Ethernet Driver Ethernet Driver Ethernet protocol Ethernet Driver 14

15 Encapsulation in the TCP/IP Suite As data is moving down the protocol stack, each protocol is adding layer-specific control information. User data TCP Header User data TCP Header data IP TCP segment Ethernet Driver Ethernet Header IP Header IP Header TCP Header TCP Header IP datagram data data Ethernet Trailer Ethernet frame TCP/IP Protocol Suite The complete TCP/IP protocol suite contains many protocols. The following graph is far from complete User Process User Process User Process User Process TCP UDP ICMP IP IGMP ARP Hardware Interface RARP Link Media 15

16 Comparison of OSI Model and TCP/IP Suite OSI Presentation Session TCP/IP Internetwork Access The B-ISDN ATM Reference Model ATM technology has its own protocol architecture Control Plane User Plane Upper Upper ATM Adaptation (AAL) ATM End-to-end layer Transfer of Cells Same as in OSI 16

17 s of ATM Host A ATM Switch Host B Upper s Upper Protocol Upper s AAL AAL Protocol AAL ATM l ATM ATM ATM The ATM is responsible for the transport of 53 cells across an ATM network The ATM can provide a variety of services for cells from an ATM virtual connection: Constant Bit Rate (CBR) guarantees a fixed capacity, similar to circuit switching guarantees a maximum delay for cells Variable Bit Rate (VBR) guarantees an average throughput can guarantee maximum delay Available Bit Rate (ABR) guarantees fairness with respect to other traffic Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) service is on a best effort basis 17

18 ATM Adaptation (AAL) AAL provides services which are between upper layers and ATM layers. An important service is the segmenation and reassembly of upper layer data Data Data AAL segmentation AAL reassembly Cells ATM Cells AAL Service Classification AAL has 4 different protocols: AAL 1, AAL 2, AAL 3/4, AAL 5 Each protocol provides a different service Timing information in data? Class A Class B Class C Class D Required Not required Bit rate of data: Constant Variable Mode of connection Connection-oriented Connectionless AAL protocol to be used AAL 1 AAL 2 AAL 3/4 AAL 5 18

19 ATM Services and AAL Protocols CBR rt-vbr nrt-vbr ABR UBR AAL 1 AAL 2 AAL 3/4 AAL 5 19

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