GS6 Climatic changes and landscape evolution TS6.2. Stato dell arte e prospettive della cartografia geomorfologica in Italia

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1 GS6 Climatic changes and landscape evolution TS6.2 Stato dell arte e prospettive della cartografia geomorfologica in Italia (State-of-art and perspectives of geomorphological mapping in Italy) CONVENERS Domenico Guida (Università di Salerno) Francesco Muto (Università della Calabria)

2 Rend. Online Soc. Geol. It., Vol. 21 (2012), pp , 2 figs. Società Geologica Italiana, Roma 2012 Thematic mapping of the Tyrrhenian coast between Villa San Giovanni and Palmi (Reggio Calabria, Italy) G. BIANCHI FASANI (*), F. BOZZANO (*), A. BRETSCHNEIDER, C. ESPOSITO (*), S. MARTINO (*), P. MAZZANTI (*), A. MONTAGNA (*), A. PRESTININZI (*) & G. SCARASCIA MUGNOZZA (*) Key words: Calabria, thematic maps. INTRODUCTION In this paper we present some thematic maps referred to a strip about 30 km long and 3.5 km wide along the coastal area between Villa San Giovanni and Palmi (Reggio Calabria, Italy): 1. the geological map (1:10,000 scale) (fig. 1); 2. the landslide inventory map (1:10,000 scale) (fig.1); 3. some engineering-geological detailed maps (up to 1:10,000 scale) (fig. 2); 4. the landslide susceptibility map (1:10,000 scale) All the above mentioned maps are the result of several scientific projects (PRIN 2006: Integration of in-shore and off-shore geological and geophysical innovative techniques for coastal landslide studies, Principal Investigator F.L. Chiocci - Research Unit: The engineering-geology model as a tool for the dimensioning of gravity-induced coastal instability, responsible F. Bozzano; POR Calabria : Studio e sperimentazione di metodologie e tecniche per la mitigazione del rischio idrogeologico, Principal Investigator G. Scarascia Mugnozza - task 3: Movimenti di massa e sismotettonica ) and consulting activities, which have been carried out by the authors affiliation structures in the period Each activity, both research and consulting, has been carried out with a specific aim such as, for example, engineeringgeological support to planning activities of some infrastructures, slope stability studies, managing and monitoring of unstable slopes. (*) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra; Centro di Ricerca CERI Sapienza Università di Roma. THEMATIC MAPPING: CRITERIA AND RESULTS The geological map and the landslide inventory map derive from the collection of single spot maps realized in different periods, in some cases with the collaboration of other researchers, framed in different activities, finally unified based on uniform criteria. The final scale of such maps is that of the smaller scale spots, that have to be considered the lower limit and, thus, the reference point for a unified map. In addition, some related maps have been produced by other authors such as the Map of slope instability evidences along the coastal seafloor between Scilla and Palmi at 1:50,000 scale, and the Landslide inventory map of the coastal area between Scilla and Palmi at 1:10,000 scale. (by RU3 and RU2, respectively, of PRIN 2006, see reference above). Datasets of in-site geological, geomorphological and geomechanical surveys, aerial photo interpretation, borehole stratigraphies, results of geotechnical laboratory test were collected, stored and used in a GIS environment. Beyond the production of the above listed thematic maps, GIS geoprocessing utilities allowed us to combine different kind of information in order to elaborate derived maps, the main one being the landslide susceptibility map. The latter is the result of an analysis performed in order to point out the relationships among the high occurrence of falls and roto-translational slope instabilities and the potential predisposing environmental factors. Use was made of the Frequency Ratio model, whose reliability has been proved for susceptibility assessment purposes (e.g.: YILMAZ 2009, LEE & SAMBATH 2006). The main advantage of this method relies on its complete implementation within a GIS environment. Ten different types of factors were used to calculate the frequency ratios: lithologic units, land-cover units, distance from faults, morphometric (slope, aspect and curvature) and hydraulic (topographic wetness index) parameters derived from an available 20m resolution DEM. Subsequently the landslide susceptibility index (LSI= FR) was evaluated. A validation of the prediction results was performed by partitioning the total area into two separated subareas, using the space partition criterion defined by CHUNG & FABBRI (2003). 1144

3 Fig. 1 Simplified sketch derived from the geological map and landslide inventory map. Specific experimental activities have been devoted to the geomechanical characterization of jointed gneiss, largely outcropping in the studied area and often involved in landslides. Due to the limited accessibility of significant rock mass outcrops, the geomechanical data, acquired according to standard I.S.R.M. methodology, are clustered in some sectors of the whole study area. An original approach (namely I.S.D. classification of rock mass) has been developed in order to make a zonation of the rock mass quality mainly in terms of jointing density. Such a method has been experimented astride the above mentioned clusters, where the interpolation of geomechanical data is reasonable if the geological setting is taken into account. It allowed to realize very detailed (up to 1:1,000 scale) engineering-geology maps. An example of such type of map is reported in fig. 2. The rock mass zonation according to the I.S.D. classification system is a crucial approach to the slope stability analyses by means of finite difference numerical methods, such in the case of Scilla (BOZZANO et alii, 2011) and S. Trada slopes (BOZZANO et alii, 2012), affected by large landslides in 1783 (seismically triggered landslide) and 2008 (rainfall triggered landslide) respectively. All the thematic maps, that are going to be published, as well as the scientific papers (MAZZANTI & BOZZANO, 2011; BONAVINA et alii, 2005; BOZZANO et alii, 2009; 2011) and technical reports referred to the study area represent a powerful tool for supporting land-use planning analyses at different scales 1145

4 REFERENCES BONAVINA M., BOZZANO F., MARTINO S., PELLEGRINO A., PRESTININZI A. & SCANDURRA R. (2005) - Le colate di fango e detrito lungo il versante costiero tra Bagnara Calabra e Scilla (Reggio Calabria): valutazioni di suscettibilità. Giornale di Geologia Applicata, 2, BOZZANO F., CHIOCCI F., MARTINO S., MAZZANTI P. & PRIN PROJECT RESEARCH GROUP (2009) - Coastal landslides and their tsunamigenic potential: the 1783 Scilla rock avalanche as a reference case study. Rendiconti on line della Soc. Geol., 7, BOZZANO F., CIPRIANI I., MAZZANTI P. & PRESTININZI A. (2011): Displacement patterns of a landslide affected by human activities: insights from ground-based insar monitoring. NAT HAZARDS, 59, 3, BOZZANO F., LENTI L., MARTINO S., MONTAGNA A., PACIELLO A. (2011) - Earthquake triggering of landslides in highly jointed rock masses: reconstruction of the 1783 Scilla avalanche (Italy). Geomorphology, 129, BOZZANO F., MARTINO S., MONTAGNA A. & PRESTININZI A. (2012) - Rheological parameters inferred from a backanalysis of a rock landslide. Engineering Geology, DOI: /j.enggeo CHUNG C. & FABBRI F. (2003) - Validation of spatial prediction models for landslide hazard mapping. Natural Hazards, 30, LEE S. & SAMBATH T. (2006) - Landslide susceptibility mapping in the Damrei Romel area, Cambodia using frequency ratio and logistic regression models. Environmental Geology, 50, MAZZANTI P. & BOZZANO F. (2011) - Revisiting the February 6 th 1783 Scilla (Calabria, Italy) landslide and tsunami by numerical simulation. Marine Geophysical Research, DOI: /s YILMAZ I. (2009) - Landslide susceptibility mapping using frequency ratio, logistic regression, artificial neural networks and their comparison: A case study from Kat landslides (Tokat Turkey). Computer Geosciences, 35, Fig. 2 Engineering-geology map and cross section of the slope affected by the Feliciusu landslide. 1146

5 Rend. Online Soc. Geol. It., Vol. 21 (2012), pp , 1 fig. Società Geologica Italiana, Roma 2012 Geomorphological mapping in Italy from the first essays to present ALBERTO CARTON (*) Key words: Geomorphological mapping. The geomorphological mapping provides a overview of landscape forms and tells as about their genesis and evolution. The geomorphological mapping is also used as an essential tool for territorial study. Systematically used for a long time in other countries, in Italy has not yet found an "official" use by the management of territory. However the many initiatives promoted by regional and local authorities and many experiences in the context of geomorphological research, have emphasized the importance of the geomorphological map as other thematic maps normally used. Aim of this work is a trip along the main stages of geomorphological mapping evolution in Italy, from the early essays. It s important to note that the evolution of Italian geomorphological mapping was "experienced" by the entire scientific community of the physical geographers. The experience of everyone in different geographical and morphogenetic areas were, from time to time, made available to the community. They were compared to each other, with the aim of identifying common principles for the realization of geomorphological maps, to be used for basic and applied research. A highly innovative period that brought to a qualitative leap in geomorphological mapping in the whole world is that of the sixties. At that time also in Italy were published the first examples of geomorphological maps like that of Bosco del Cansiglio (Castiglioni, 1960), of the Bressanone basin (Castiglioni ), of a territory of Calabria and Lucania (Panizza 1966, 1968) and Olona valley (Nangeroni, 1967). Among the many issues discussed about these and subsequent geomorphological maps the use of colors and the scale of the map long engaged the researchers. The choice of color in particular followed different criteria from time to time. In the early essays (Panizza 1966, 1968) the colour had a chronological significance, later (Panizza, 1972) it was used to distinguish the processes. In some cases it was used to distinguish the forms of erosion from the forms of accumulation (Tessari, ). Important stages, in the evolution of geomorphological mapping in Italy, were the meetings that took place within the group "Geomorphology" of the National Council of Research, the Working Group on Physical Geography and the "Gruppo Nazionale Geografia Fisica e Geomorfologia. Researches carried out in small areas of Alps and northern Apennine and on the whole Po Valley, conducted by a team of (*)Department of Geosciences, University of Padua - Via Gradenigo 6, 35131, Padova (Italy) researchers of several Italian universities, have enabled to refine the methods of study of several issues. Even today the geomorphological maps then produced are taken for example and especially the acquired experiences have brought to a considerable unification in the graphic language. In particular, the implementation of the geomorphological map of the Po Valley, has resolved many problems related to the medium scale representation. The increased costs of printing, which preceded the advent of computer graphics, the need to produce correct maps from the scientific point of view, and the growing demand from institutions and professionals to produce geomorphological maps useful for application pushed the Italian researchers to produce in the beginning of the 90s geomorphological maps simplified to two colors that enhanced the hazard of morphogenetic processes (GNGFG, 1993). Outside these common experiences, many researchers developed a geomorphological mapping for special issues. So were published geomorphological maps that describe particular environments or individual categories of forms and processes such as maps of coastal evolution, of volcanic areas, of karst, of landslides, of the submarine geomorphology, of glacial forms, of Antarctic areas etc. Given the peculiarities of the subjects time by time dealt, peculiar legends were often set up, aligned with the basic principles, but with a greater availability of symbols as for example the legend for karst areas (Bini et alii, 1986). With the start of the program of survey and mapping for the Geomorphological Map of Italy, in 1994 the Sector Geomorphology of the National Geological Service along with the "Gruppo Nazionale Geografia Fisica e Geomorphologia of the National Council of Research prepared the guidelines for the survey and mapping at scale 1: to be used in the whole country. The document included all the experiences hitherto made. However, only four geomorphological maps of Italy (1: scale), are printed (fig.1). The advent of GIS has finally produced a great qualitative leap forward as regards both the scientific and technical aspects. Overlapping LIDAR images, or simply orthophotos, on the topographic map has made much faster and more precise the operation of carryover of the symbols. The wide database that can be associated with digital mapping, return in full all the information that a geomorphological map should give and, if necessary, it can present the data unbundled. Data loaded into a GIS can also be corrected and updated, so the complex operations for the realization of a geomorphological map, do not end with the press of the paper, but become points of start for other uses. Finally, informatic maps are less expensive and can be diffused to a greater number of users. 1147

6 Fig. 1 Geomorphological map of Italy (1:50.000) F. 063 Belluno (Costa et alii, 1996). Of this type, only four geomorphological maps are printed. REFERENCES CASTIGLIONI G.B. ( ) Osservazioni morfologiche nella conca di Bressanone. Mem. Acc. Patavina di Sc. Lett. E Arti, Cl di Sc. Mat. e Nat. (LXXVI), 88 pp, 1 carta geom. Padova COSTA V., DOGLIONI C., GRANDESSO P., MASETTI D., PELLEGRINI G.B. & TRACANELLA E. (1996) - Carta geologica d Italia alla scala 1: F 063 Belluno Serv. Geol. d It. Roma. CASTIGLIONI G.B. a cura di (1960) Atlante internazionale dei fenomeni carsici, F.2, Bosco del Cansiglio (Prealpi Venete). Novara, Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara. GRUPPO NAZIONALE "GEOGRAFIA FISICA E GEOMORFOLOGIA" (1986).- Carta Geomorfologica dell alta Val di Pejo (Gruppo del Cevedale). Geogr. Fis. Din. Quat., 9(2), Genova GRUPPO NAZIONALE GEOGRAFIA FISICA E GEOMORFOLOGIA (1993) Proposta di legenda geomorfologica ad indirizzo applicativo. Geogr. Fis. e Din. Quat., 16 (2), , Genova. NANGERONI G. (1967)- Carta geomorfologica del territorio Malnate-Tradate, 1:25.000, LAC, Firenze. PANIZZA M. (1966) Carta ed osservazioni geomorfologiche del territorio di Calopezzati (Calabria). Riv. Geogr. It. LXXIII, fasc. I. Firenze. PANIZZA M. (1968) Carta e lineamenti geomorfologici del territorio di S. Giorgio Lucano e Colobraro (Lucania orientale). Riv. Geogr. It., LXXV, fasc. IV, Firenze. PANIZZA M. (1972) Schema di legenda per carte geomorfologiche di dettaglio. Boll. Soc. Geol. It., (91), Roma. TESSARI F. ( ) Geomorfologia del bacino di Lamon, Val Cismon, Alpi Dolomitiche. Mem. Mus. Trid. Sc. Nat., Trento, XIX, , Trento. 1148

7 Rend. Online Soc. Geol. It., Vol. 21 (2012), pp , 3 figs. Società Geologica Italiana, Roma 2012 Geological and geomorphological model for wide area monitoring of environmental risk SABATINO CIARCIA (*), LUCIO AMATO ( ), ANTONELLO CESTARI (*) & DAVIDE SALA (**) Key words: wide area monitoring, SAR, Strait of Messina. INTRODUCTION In the Strait of Messina has been defined a wide area monitoring project related to environmental risk by Società Stretto di Messina. Within this project has been defined a geological/geomorphological model for supporting measurement locations and defining landscape evolution scenarios. In particular, we referred to the past landslides, bibliographic data derived but in situ checked, and to a landscape evolution model for slope instability of surface coverage. The first data were used to check the previous instability, by means the latters, instead, we tried to evaluate, through a physically model, certain areas of territory where there were geological and geomorphological conditions for the neoformation landslides input. The used geomorphological model is based on shape recognition through DTM and detailed aerial images grid analysis. The aim of the proposed model was to provide a tool that allows to monitor the present status of the territory and replicate it, semiautomatically, where significant anthropogenic morphological changes occur (Fig. 1). GEOLOGICAL SETTING The main geological elements that characterize the Strait of Messina area, are related to the Sicilian-Maghrebian Chain deposits and Calabria-Peloritani successions. The Maghrebian-Sicilian Chain is formed by a SE verging thrust system comprising tectonic elements originating, starting (*) TECNOIN S.p.A. Consultant ( ) TECNOIN S.p.A. Technical Manager (**) TECNOIN S.p.A. General Manager from the Middle Miocene, by the deformation of Neotetide oceanic realm, related to Mesozoic-Tertiary sedimentary covers belonging to the Apulian continental margin, including shallowwater platform carbonates as well as pelagic basin successions. The Calabria-Peloritani Arc constitutes the connection between the Maghrebian-Sicilian chain and the southern Fig. 1 study area an topographic map. Apennines, representing the innermost orogenic element, and is formed by several tectonic units, representative of different portions of a former continental crust, associated to its Meso- Cenozoic sedimentary covers, encompassing ophiolite bodies. In the examined area, the substrate is represented by a Hercynian crystalline basement, covered by Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary successions. The oldest outcrops rocks, of Paleozoic age, widely exposed throughout the Calabria-Peloritani Arc, are mainly metamorphic source (gneisses, amphibolites, etc..), comprising more or less rare granitoid. The pile is topped by unconformably Tortonian-lower Messinian coarse clastic sediments, mainly deriving from the crystalline source-rocks. The succession passes, upward and discontinuously, to 1149

8 Messinian evaporitic deposits (evaporite limestones, gypsum, diatomites, etc.) followed by Lower Pliocene limestones and whitish marls ("Trubi"), in turn overlayed by Middle Pleistocene sandy-pelitic and calcarenites alternances. The stratigraphic framework upwards provides the widespread presence of a ubiquitous unit on both sides of the Messina Strait; these are the Messina Gravels, a Middle Pleistocene detrital succession. The sedimentary series is capped by clastic deposits related to the Upper Pleistocene marine and river terraces, disposed on several altitude orders and, locally, by recent and current alluvial or beach deposits. LANDSCAPE EVOLUTION PROCESSES From a geomorphological point of view, the study area, at the basin scale, both for the Calabrian sector that for the Sicilian one, is defined by the substrate dislocation processes, by means of a discontinuity system, due to the tectonic lineations, mainly NE- SW directed. For the definition of landslides inventory, as already noted is perimetered, by both the Calabria and the Sicily study sector, have been used the Basin Authority "plans excerpt" elaborate, the technical bibliography, the SIA and the IFFI project data (Fig. 2). Sicily Sector In total, 141 landslide areas were identified, partly classified with the original data, in part reclassified. The landslide total area is approximately 2 km² equal to about 2% of the total geomorphological context (in part this surface is given by the superposition of landslides identified from different sources). Calabria Sector In total, 48 landslide areas were identified. Data derived from PAI of Calabria Basin Authority and IFFI inventory of APAT. The total area of the landslide is about 1 km ², equal to about 4% of the total geomorphological context. The landslide inventory was reported in fig. 2. GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MODEL The geomorphological model was built from field-surveyed, geomorphological map and a grid-based automatic landform recognition from DEM, with control of expert judgement (DRAMIS et alii. 2011, GUIDA et alii, 2009). The geomorphological map derived from model was reported in fig. 3 Fig. 2 Study area, historical landslides and monitoring points. 1150

9 Fig. 3 Landscape evolution model of hillslope and monitoring points. REFERENCES ADB DELLA CALABRIA (2001) - Piano Stralcio di Bacino per l Assetto Idrogeologico (PAI). Regione Calabria. APAT (2011) - Progetto IFFI - Inventario dei Fenomeni Franosi in Italia. IT/Progetti/IFFI_-Inventario_dei_fenomeni_franosi_in_Italia DRAMIS, F., GUIDA, D. & CESTARI, A. (2011) - Nature and aims of geomorphological mapping. In: SMITH, M.J., PARON, P. & GRIFFITHS, J.S., Eds., Geomorphological mapping. Methods and application, Developments in Earth Surface Processes, 15 (3), 39-73, Elsevier. GUIDA, D., DE PIPPO, T., CESTARI, A., SIERVO, V. & VALENTE, A. (2009): Applications of the hierarchic GIS-based geomorphological mapping system. In: MARCHETTI, M. & SOLDATI, M., EDS., The role of geomorphology in land management, 3rd AIGEO National Conference, September 13-18, Modena, Italy, abstract volume, REGIONE SICILIA (2011) - Piano Stralcio per l Assetto Idrogeologico. Assessorato del territorio e dell'ambiente - Dipartimento dell'ambiente, Servizio III - Assetto del territorio e difesa del suolo. 1151

10 Rend. Online Soc. Geol. It., Vol. 21 (2012), pp , 2 figs. Società Geologica Italiana, Roma 2012 Geomorphology and GIS analysis for mapping landslide in the Camastra basin (Basilicata, South Italy) MASSIMO CONFORTI (*, ), STEFANIA PASCALE ( ), VITTORIA PASTORE ( ), MARIANGELA PEPE ( ), FRANCESCO SDAO (**) & AURELIA SOLE ( ) Key words: Geomorphology, GIS, landslide inventory map, Basilicata, South Italy. INTRODUCTION Landslides play an important role in the evolution of landscapes. They also represent a serious geo-hazard in many areas of the world. Also, large areas of the Italian territory and, in particular, the Basilicata region, are on the whole very susceptible to landslide (POLEMIO et alii, 1996; CANIANI et alii, 2008; PASCALE et alii, 2010), due to the combination of its peculiar geological, morphological, climatic characteristics and very often by human activity, e.g. increasing urbanization, agricultural and deforestation (GULLÀ & SDAO, 2001). Landslide inventory maps are very important to document the extent of landslide phenomena in a territory, to investigate the distribution, types, pattern, frequency of occurrence and to study the spatio-temporal evolution of landscapes dominated by masswasting processes (GUZZETTI et alii, 2012). Also, a landslide database is most important information source for evaluate landslide susceptibility, hazard, vulnerability and risk (VAN DEN EECKHAUT & HERVÁS, 2012). The objectives of this study were the identification, types and mapping of the landslides in the Camastra watershed (Basilicata, South Italy), that can be assumed as representative of the morphodynamics processes typically acting in the widespread sites of the Basilicata region. The work was carried out through a geomorphological study and the collected data were processed and managed in a Geographic Information System (GIS). GEOGRAPHICAL, GEOLOGICAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK The Camastra watershed, right tributary of the Basento River, is located in the central-western sector of Basilicata (South (*) CNR - Istituto per Sistemi Agricoli e Forestali del Mediterraneo (ISAFOM), Rende (CS), Italy; ( ) Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell'ambiente, Università della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy; (**) Dipartimento di Strutture, Geotecnica, Geologia Applicata, Università della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy This work performed under the project Combined landslides and flood risk assessment along the road network of Potenza Province (Basilicata). Italy) between N and N latitude, E and E longitude (Fig. 1). The overall area of the basin is about 361 km 2, with altitude ranging from 444 to 1835 m a.s.l. The average slope gradient in the study area is about 13 but in the most places, the gradient is higher than 30. The hydrographic network in general has a sub-dendritic pattern which often is structurally controlled (Fig. 1). The climate is typical Mediterranean with average annual precipitation of about 840 mm and the rainfalls are concentrated, Fig. 1 Location of the study area and geolithologic map of the Camastra basin. in the period autumn-winter. The mean annual temperature is around 13 C. From a geological point of view, the Camastra basin is placed in the external sector of the southern Apennines chain. The southern Apennines chain consists of a stack of several tectonic units made of Mesozoic-Paleogene successions and their flyschlike Neogene cover, tectonically superposed onto the buried part of the Apulian Platform shallow-water carbonates (MOSTARDINI & MERLINI, 1986; CASERO et alii., 1988; CELLO & MAZZOLI, 1998). This complex fold and thrust belt mainly formed as a result of Neogene deformation of the former Adriatic passive margin during Europe-Africa plate collision (MAZZOLI & HELMAN, 1994, and references therein). The belt consists of 1152

11 ocean-derived units, shallow-water carbonates of the Apennine Platform Units and pelagic and hemipelagic basinal sediments of the Lagonegro Units. Another important tectonic unit widely outcropping in the area, is the Sicilide Complex (OGNIBEN, 1969). The lithologies outcropping in the Camastra basin were grouped into eight lithological complexes. On the basis of both the occurring lithotypes and of the relative abundance of each lithotype within each complex, the detected complexes were named, respectively, carbonate complex, calcareous-siliceous complex, siliceous-schists complex, pelitic-arenaceouscalcareous complex, arenaceous-conglomeratic-calcareous-pelitic complex, sandy-clayey conglomeratic complex, detrital complex and alluvial complex (Fig. 1). The geomorphological setting of the study area is strongly controlled by geological and structural conditions. The western and north-western part of the basin, where, mainly, carbonate rocks outcrop, are dominated by a mountainous landscape with high relief characterized by steep slopes, more than 30 in average, and narrow V-shaped valleys, often controlled by fault systems; steep slopes also developed along fault scarps and dissected ridges made of resistant rocks (Fig. 1). The middle and eastern sectors, where rock erodibility is higher, are characterized by a hilly morphology with low-gradient slopes; nevertheless, the presence of more competent rocks (calcareous and/or sandstone) locally determines high-gradient slopes or sub-vertical rock faces. These latter landforms notably emerge from the surrounding terrains, given their greater resistance to erosion. Also, many places of middle and eastern sector of the basin, are characterized by homoclinal ridges as hogback and cuesta landforms and often characterized by breaks in slope and strikevalley due to structural controls. The landscapes show an undulating topography, gentle slopes, wide, and slightly incised valleys, where clayey lithologies crop out. Finally, recent alluvial fans and fluvial terraces are observed along the main river valleys. In the study area, the main geomorphic processes are related to mass movements and running water processes (diffuse and/or linear) that essentially control the present-day landscape evolution (CANIANI et alii, 2008; PASCALE et alii, 2010; DE BARI et alii, 2011). The hillslopes are often deeply gullied as a result of erosion caused by ephemeral streams. In many sectors of the study area, badlands (calanchi) affect clayey sediments, producing typical stream dissected morphology, with very steep gullies separated by narrow ridges. Moreover, along badland slopes micro-piping and rilling processes operate, whereas landforms similar to small pediments are often development at foot slopes. LANDSLIDE INVENTORY MAP A detailed landslide-inventory map of the study area (Fig. 2), was carried out integrating the stereoscopic interpretation of multi-temporal aerial photographs, dating to 1954, 1990, 2006 and 2010, and detailed field survey. The mass movements were reported on the 1:25000 scale topographical map. The slope instability due to gravity consist of both landsurfaces affected by severe creep and/or solifluction and of landslides. Mass movements are widespread in the study area, and many settlements and man-made infrastructures (e.g. roads and/or houses) are periodically damaged and/or destroyed by landslides activity (Fig. 2). The spatial distribution, size and typology of landslides are largely controlled by the geological and geomorphological context, including structural factors (alternating weak and hard rocks), tectonic setting, local relief and fluvial downcutting. A total number of 949 landslides were detected an mapped in the Camastra basin (Fig. 2), which covered an area of about 85.3 km 2 and correspond to 23.7% of Fig. 2 Landslide inventory map of the Camastra basin. the total area. The minimum, mean and the maximum landslide areas are 0.004, and km 2 respectively. Multi-temporal aerial photo interpretation and field surveys provided data for distinguishing between active (25%) and dormant (75%) landslides. Additionally, this diachronic analysis showed that landslide deposits may have quickly been reworked by slope-wash processes and/or reshaped by anthropogenic activity. Some active landslides represent a reactivation of preexisting dormant landslide (Fig. 2). By simplifying the Varnes (1978) classification, the landslides were mapped on the basis of the type of movement as follows: falls (1.1%), slides (34.4%), flows (10.4%) and complex landslides (48,7%). Falls affect mainly steep slopes carved into strongly fractured and weathered hard rocks, locally leading to the development of talus slope where steep scarps grade into a straight profile 1153

12 downward. However, small rock/earth falls occur along the outer edge of fluvial valleys. Landslides mainly occur on slopes cut in the pelitic-arenaceous-calcareous complex, sandy-clayey conglomeratic complex, detrital complex, though they are relatively diffused also where the arenaceous-conglomeraticcalcareous-pelitic complex crop out. Rotational and complex landslide also affect siliceous-schists complex. Field surveys show that the flow-type landslide bodies can be affected by a series of small mudflows, particularly during heavy rainstorms. Most part of the detected landslides occur on slopes bordered downslope by streams displaying clear field evidence of ongoing downcutting processes. In addition, creep and/or solifluction correspond to about 3.2% of the unstable area. The geomorphological survey has also highlighted the occurrence, in the studied area, of hillslopes affected by a large number of small and shallow landslides mainly of the flow and/or slide type; because they were difficult to be drawn at the scale of the map, the term landslide area" was introduced. These landforms occupy to 2.2% of the slope instability recognized in the Camastra basin. Finally, the triggering landslide factors are manly represented by heavy rainfall, less frequently by earthquakes and, in many case by human activity (POLEMIO M. & SDAO F., 1996; GULLÀ G. & SDAO F., 2001). In particular, it was observed that during heavy rainstorms, many slopes can be affected by a series of small mud-flows and/or earth-slide. CONCLUSIONS This study has demonstrated that landslide are the mainly denudation processes in the Camastra basin (Basilicata, southern Italy). In fact, mass movements affect more than 23% of the study area. Due to the lithological and morphological features of the area the complex landslide are the most common type of mass movement in terms of frequency and spatial distribution. Finally, the geo-database build by means GIS software and the landslide inventory map obtained, may provide the basis for further analyses, representing a useful tool for land management as well as the initial step for the assessment of geomorphological hazard and risk. REFERENCES CANIANI D, PASCALE S, SDAO F & SOLE A (2008) - Neural networks and landslide susceptibility: a case study of the urban area of Potenza. Natural Hazards, 4, CASERO P., ROURE F., ENDIGNOUX L., MORETTI I., MÜLLER C., SAGE L. & VIALLY R., (1988) - Neogene geodynamic evolution of the Southern Apennines. Memorie della Società Geologica Italiana, 41, CELLO G. & MAZZOLI S., (1998) - Apennine tectonics in southern Italy: A review. J. Geodynamics, 27, DE BARI C., LAPENNA V., PERRONE A., PUGLISI C., SDAO F. (2011) - Digital photogrammetric analysis and electrical resistivity tomography for investigating the Picerno landslide (Basilicata region, southern Italy). Geomorphology, 133, (1-2), GULLÀ G. & SDAO F. (2001) - Dissesti prodotti o aggravati dal sisma del 9 settembre 1998 nei territori del Confine calabrolucan. Monografia del Gruppo Nazionale Difesa Catastrofi Idrogeologiche, CNR pp, Rubbettino Ed. srl, Soveria Mannelli (CZ). Pubbl. n del catalogo pubblicazioni del GNDCI, CNR. GUZZETTI F., MONDINI A. C., CARDINALI M., FIORUCCI F., SANTANGELO M. & CHANG KT., (2012) - Landslide inventory maps: New tools for an old problem. Earth-Science Reviews, 112, LENTINI F., LAZZARI S., CARBONE S., CATALANO S. & MONACO C. (1991) - Carta Geologica del Bacino del Fiume Agri. Scala 1: S.E.L.C.A., Firenze. MAZZOLI S. & HELMAN M., (1994) - Neogene patterns of relative plate motion for Africa Europe: some implications for recent central Mediterranean tectonics. Geol. Rundschau, 83, MOSTARDINI F. & MERLINI S., (1986) - Appennino centromeridionale: sezioni geologiche e proposta di modello strutturale. Memorie della Società Geologica Italiana 35, OGNIBEN, L., (1969) - Schema introduttivo alla geologia del confine calabro lucano. Memorie Società Geologica Italiana, 8, PASCALE S., SDAO F., AND SOLE A. (2010) - A model for assessing the systemic vulnerability in landslide prone areas. Nat. Hazards Earth System Science, 10, PESCATORE, T., RENDA P. & TRAMUTOLI M. (1999) - Carta geologica della Lucania centrale. Regione Basilicata. POLEMIO M. & SDAO F. (1996) - Landslide hazard and critical rainfall in Southern Italy. In: Landslides (Senneset K. Ed.), Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Landslides, 2; , 6 ff., 1 tab. TRONDHEIM, GIUGNO Balkema. Pubbl., giugno 1996, Rotterdam (Olanda). VAN DEN EECKHAUT, M. & HERVÁS, J., (2012) - State of the art of national landslide databases in Europe and their potential for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk. Geomorphology, ,

13 c o m p c o m p c o m p u n it Rend. Online Soc. Geol. It., Vol. 21 (2012), pp , 3 figs. Società Geologica Italiana, Roma 2012 Application of GmIS_Unisa geomorphological mapping system to regional planning. DOMENICO GUIDA (*), VINCENZO SIERVO (**), ANTONELLO CESTARI (**) & VINCENZO PALMIERI ( ) Key words: geomorphological mapping, regional planning, GIS, landform recognition. INTRODUCTION Geomorphological mapping provide a full objective landforms description, from which to derive landscape evolution on regional planning time scales. From DEM-based geomorphometrical analysis and objectoriented remotely sensed imagery processing are obtained landform of Montalto Uffugo (CS) municipality. Geomorphic models was built with landform ( object ) related with various kinds of class relationships (geometric, temporal, physical, geological and hierarchical). An object-oriented geomorphological mapping system, in use at Salerno University in several national and regional projects on engineering geomorphology, landscape ecology and hydrology, was applied (GmIS_UniSa). The model output thematic map, rappresentative of landscape evolution in response to depositional and erosional processes, fulfill the requirements of regional planning rules. By generalization and decomposition procedures of geomorphological objects are achieved smaller scale models (regional planning, hazard management) and large scale models (site development, process monitoring). OBJECT-ORIENTED GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING SYSTEM geomorphological conditions defined by physical and geometrical parameters (quantitative analysis). The adopted geomorphological model, derive the symbol based geomorfological map from geometrical property of landform (object boundary, centroid in a full coverage map). These models should: - increase typology, quality, quantity and combinations of manageable and representable geomorphological data. In particular, the information associated with each object should be flexible enough to allow the representation of all related attributes (e.g. the terrace edge of fig. 1, besides being a linear entity, is also part of the polygon which defines the terrace itself and the underlying river bed); - interact with the analysis and data representation of other disciplinary sectors at different scales; - conform with spatial data transfer standard (SDTS) in order to promote and facilitate the transfer of digital spatial data between dissimilar computer systems (GOODCHILD et alii 1999). The most significant efforts in geomorphological mapping can be summarized in the following aspects: data u n it unit u n it unit The geomorphological mapping model can be symbol-based or area-based: the first will indicate in symbolic form the processes and forms (qualitative analysis), with the latter defining a relief zonation in homogeneous areas characterized by unique (*) Department of Civil Engineering- University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano (SA), Italy (**) C.U.G.RI. Consorzio interuniversitario Grandi Rischi, Università di Salerno, Penta di Fisciano (SA) ( ) ARCADIS Agenzia Regionale Campana Difesa Suolo, Via Uldarigo Masoni, 12, Napoli Fig. 1 Nested hierarchic sequence of landforms (mod from DRAMIS ET AL., 2011) 1155

14 CONGRESSO SGI - ABSTRACTS interoperability, hierarchical and multiscalar; full-coverage mapping, object-oriented data management (DRAMIS et alii, 2011). Full coverage object-oriented geomorphological mapping may be performed by intercomparison between: a) expert judgment supervised e b) fully automatic un-supervised. The first procedure is based on a traditional field-surveyed, geomorphological map and a grid-based automatic landform recognition from DEM, with control of expert judgement. The second procedure is based on grid segmentation techniques, allowing the partitioning of DEMs or remotely sensed imagery, into non-overlapping regions (segments) representative of geomorphic entities, verified on field or with landscape evolution physical model. With this procedure the geomorphic map are designed with non subjective and repeatable landscape form better achieving boundaries recognition and geometric relationships. THE SALERNO UNIVERSITY GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING SYSTEM A GIS-based, full coverage, object-oriented geomorphological mapping system has been developed at the Department of Civil Engineering and at the Great Risks interuniversity Consortium (C.U.G.Ri), Salerno University (Italy), and has been applied in several projects on engineering geomorphology, landscape ecology and hydrology (CASCINI et alii, 2005; BLASI et alii, 2007, GUIDA et alii, 2009). The GmIS_UniSa adopts the "Expert Judgment supervised" procedure, the approach based on "traditional", gradually implements the results of the recognition and delineation of forms through the analysis of DEM grid or object-based, controlled by the operator's judgment expert. The different taxonomic levels is organized in terms of nested topologic entities (closed polygons, open lines, and punctual symbols) supported by an attribute list. Moving upward toward smaller scales, polygons may change to lines or symbols. Moving downward, symbols may change to lines or polygons, lines may change to polygons, while polygons may be decomposed into smaller features. The Salerno University mapping procedure includes the following steps (fig. 1). - Production of a traditional field-surveyed, symbol-based geomorphological map, normally at scales ranging between 1:5,000 and 1:25,000, in relation to the mapping project purpose, focusing on morphography, morphometry and morphogenesis. The data source is a detailed field survey supported by aerial T opogr aphic map Detailed field survey Traditional symboloriented geomorphological field map Traditional symbol-oriented geomorpho-logical legend Aerial-photo geomorphology Full coverage symbol-oriented geomorphological map Expert geomorphological delimiting & coding Primitive graphics topology Object-oriented geomorphological map Geomorphic attributes Geomorphometry analysis grid based automatic landform recognition segmentation Image processing Multiscale validation Digital Elevation Model Aerial and Satellite imagery GIS-based, hierarchic, multiscale, object-oriented geomorphological map Fig. 1 Flow diagram of the Salerno University geomorphological mapping system. The trapezoidic shapes indicate the field, laboratory and analytical data inputs; the rhomboid shapes indicate the graphical or code tools used to transfer inputs into preliminary, intermediate and final geomorphological map; the rhombus indicates the decision about the acceptance of the map into the GmIS (mod. from Dramis et al., 2011). 1156

15 CONGRESSO SGI - ABSTRACTS Fig. 3 Left: symbol-based geomorphological map, 1. active rapid earth flow; 2. active earth flow; 3. quiescent earth flow; 4. active rotational slide; 5. quiescent rotational slide; 6. colluvial-filled valley; 7. scar of quiescent rotational slide; 8. scar of active rotational slide; 9. scar of active earth flow; 10. gully; 11. shoulder; 12. river bank; 13. secondary ridge; 14. debris-alluvial fan. - Right: GIS-based, hierarchical, multiscale, object-oriented geomorphological map 1. summit ridge; 2. structural hillslope; 3. intermediate ridge or shelf; 4. trough shaped valley; 5. degraded tectonic hillslope; 6. degraded tectonic mountain slope; 7. V-shaped incision; 8. torrential stream-bed; 9. torrential terrace strongly influenced by lateral contributions; 10. complex landslide: slide-rapid earthflow; 11. soil creep; 12. complex landslide: translational slide-earth flow; 13. complex landslide: rotational slide-earth flow; 14. active earth flow; 15. quiescent earth flow; 16. landslide fan; 17. landslide scarp photo interpretation (1a); the legend is a symbol-oriented list of significant relief features (1b); - Aerial photo interpretation, at a scale close to that of the survey base toposheet, to produce a full-coverage geomorphological map from expert judgement. At this stage the geomorphological features are delimited and coded in a nested structure with boundary lines at different reliability levels. - Primitive topological transformation of the mapped units supported by attribute list. - Construction of an object-oriented, GIS-based geomorphological map. - DEM-based geomorphometrical analysis, automatic multiscale landform recognition, and object-oriented remotely sensed imagery processing. CONCLUSIONS Was built on the territory of Montalto Uffugo (CS) municipality the geomorphological model according to the specifications of the "GmIS_Unisa" mapping system. From the model was produced the full coverage geomorphological map shown in figure 2, compared with a geomorphological symbolic map. The geomorphological map has been given a summary of the thematic map required by the provisions of regional planning. REFERENCES BLASI, B., GUIDA, D., SIERVO, V., PAOLANTI, M., MICHETTI, L., CAPOTORTI, C. & SMIRAGLIA, D. (2007)- Defing and mapping the landscape of Italy. Advances and Applications of Landscape Character Mapping, Proceedings of the 7th IALE Congress- part 1, CASCINI, L., GUIDA, D., LANZARA, R. & SORBINO, G. (2005) - Il sistema informativo del presidio territoriale. Rubbettino, Cosenza, Italy. DRAMIS, F., GUIDA, D. & CESTARI, A. (2011) - Nature and aims of geomorphological mapping. In: Smith, M.J., Paron, P. & Griffiths, J.S., Eds., Geomorphological mapping. Methods and application, Developments in Earth Surface Processes, Chapter 3, vol. 15, pp , Elsevier. GOODCHILD, M.F., EGENHOFER, M.J, FEGEAS, R. & KOTTMANN, C.A., EDS. (1999) - Interoperating geographic information systems, Kluwer, New York, USA. GUIDA, D., DE PIPPO, T., CESTARI, A., SIERVO, V. & VALENTE, A. (2009): Applications of the hierarchic GIS-based geomorphological mapping system. In: Marchetti, M. & Soldati, M., Eds., The role of geomorphology in land management, abstract volume, 3rd AIGEO National Conference, September 13-18, Modena, Italy, pp

16 Rend. Online Soc. Geol. It., Vol. 21 (2012), pp , 2 figs. Società Geologica Italiana, Roma 2012 Oro-Hydrographic Map of Western Europe DOMENICO GUIDA (*), ALBINA CUOMO (*), ANTONELLO CESTARI (**), FRANCESCO DRAMIS ( ), PAOLO PARON ( ), VINCENZO PALMIERI ( *) & VINCENZO SIERVO (**) Key words: orography, geomorphometry, mountain ordering, Europe. INTRODUCTION Mountains are recognized as land sectors with elevation generally higher and with more prominent geographic features than their surroundings (SMITH & MARK, 2003) and their importance derives by the worldwide distribution, human occupation and environmental influences. Historically, the scientific disciplines studying mountains are qualitative orography and quantitative orometry or mountain geomorphometry (HENGL & EVANS, 2009). In this paper, as in the previous one by CUOMO et alii (2011), orography will be used in a broader geomorphological meaning, as the landscape spatial expression resulting from the balance between relief creation and sculpting by constructive and destructive processes, working over different spatial/temporal scales. Many disciplines, such as topoclimatology (CUOMO & GUIDA, 2010a), regional hydrology (CUOMO & GUIDA, 2010b) and landscape ecology, request objective and quantitative approaches to detect and map orography in order to support landscape analysis and environmental modelling. This abstract, referring to the definition and mapping method of CUOMO et alii (2011), illustrates the obtained orographic map of Western Europe and describes the resulting analysis from an original procedure to regionalize ordered orography by critical lines (channels) connecting selected key saddles. MATERIALS AND METHODS The method used to build-up the map is based on the orographic parameters, describing the mountain terrain as a whole: mountain prominence and order, and their parent (*) Department of Civil Engineering- University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano (SA), Italy (**) C.U.G.RI. Consorzio interuniversitario Grandi Rischi, Università di Salerno, Penta di Fisciano (SA), Italy ( ) Department of Geological Sciences, Roma Tre University, Largo San Leonardo Murialdo, 1, Rome, Italy ( ) UNESCO-IHE-Institute for Water Education, Westvest, Delft, Netherland ( *) ARCADIS Agenzia Regionale Campana Difesa Suolo, Via Uldarigo Masoni, 12, Napoli, Italy relationship (Fig. 1). Mountain prominence is a first-order derivative of elevation representing the height above all surrounding terrains or the relative elevation of a summit; more precisely, the elevation difference between a peak and the saddle connected to the lowest contour that encircles it and does not contain higher peaks. One of more used methods is based on the well known Fig. 1 Scheme of order, prominence, area and parent relationship of the ordered mountains (modified from Yamada, 1999). concepts of key saddle and key contour. Mountain order, as proposed by YAMADA (1999), is defined by the contour lines on a topographic map in which each mountain is represented as sets of closed contour lines. These sets include only a single closed contour line for each elevation unless a saddle (or pass) that divides the mountain has a height that exceeds the contour interval (YAMADA, 1999). Yamada definition of mountain orders is similar and complementary to that defined for stream orders by STRAHLER (1952). The mountain parent relationship establishes a partonomic relation between topographic points and lines; the parent of each peak is the higher peak whose base contour surrounds the given peak and no other peak. Such peak is referred to as the topographic parent. The two other systems of defining parent peaks are called "line parent" and "source parent", and both are used more often than the topographic parent. One of the more used procedures to partonomically aggregate nested mountain orders is the island parentage or encirclement parentage. The procedure proposed by CUOMO et alii (2011) automatically provides the identification of those contour lines or groups of contour lines encircling any positive (mountains) or negative (depressions) orographic volumes, using and processing polygons instead of polylines. Once the procedure has derived the polygon set, it identifies all the polygons that are not encircled by any other polygon, calling them base 1158

17 polygons and, starting from these, it derives the relative parent relationship. In other words, adopting a bottom-up procedure, any specific base polygon is the parent of all the enclosed polygons; if out of all these there are two or more polygons at the same elevation, the procedure marks them as linked polygons. At this point, the procedure considers that these are the parents of all the enclosed polygons, until there are again more than one polygon at the same elevation. Obviously, between the linked polygons there are n-1 saddle where n is the number of polygons (Fig. 1). The map (at the 1:3,500,000 scale) is based on a CGIAR- CSI DEM with a 250 m horizontal resolution (http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/) (JARVIS et alii, 2006). Based on the above background, concepts and materials, the applied methodology works with a GIS-based procedure, including five computer routines and several operational steps. The 1 st outine provides the contour generation from the source DEM and the related contour lines table, comprising the contour line type and the contour line level fields. The 2 nd routine provides the polygon generation and related polygons table following four steps: the 1 st step consists of a nested polygonization of those contour lines that surround an orographic volume; the 2 nd step works on the previous nested polygons to construct the polygon parent relationships; the 3 rd step extracts the summit polygons from nested polygons. Finally, the 4 th step localizes and extracts the summit or peak points within the summit polygons and creates the peak points table. The 3 rd routine manages the same steps for those contour lines that don t surround an orographic volume, allowing to identify the hollow contour polygonization and depression polygons, to recognize the immit polygons and, finally, to localize and extract the immit or pit points within the immit polygons creating the pit points table. By means of the 4 th routine, various types of saddle points were localized and extracted. Finally, the 5 th routine provides the mountain orders from the polygons and calculates the mountain prominence by difference from contour value of each linked polygon and the elevation of the highest peak point within it. As described in CUOMO et alii (2011), the above method was addressed to derive the mountain ordering and prominence and, then, their parent relationship in order to perform the digital orographic map of peninsular Italy. Actually, the hierarchical mountain ordering and related orographic dataset and mapping are only one consequence of the adopted methodology. More generally, it is an attempt to give a logical systematization and practical finality to a series of orographic entities, as contour lines, polygons, peak points, saddles, pits, etc, by using the Morse Theory as reference, concerning the study of the relationship between a function s critical points and the topology of its domain (RANA, 2004). So, the simplified procedure seeks to extract and select only those critical points (pit, peak and saddle points) with orographic relevance in the real world, represented by a DEM. Following the Morse Theory, over a generic surface between these points, the relation: peaks - saddles + pits = 2 (Euler- Poincarè formula) is valid. This formula holds (only) if the given surface is topologically equivalent to a sphere (without boundary) and if there are no degenerate critical points over it. Over a surface with boundary (as a DEM) it is also necessary to introduce a global virtual minimum (vm) outside of the boundary, so that the outgoing directions from surface boundary are only descending. With these assumption for a generic DEM, if all the critical points are non-degenerate, the given formula can be written as: peaks - saddles + pits = 1. Once obtained these critical points referred to in physical geography as the fundamental topographic features (RANA, 2004), it is possible to derive the critical lines that are special lines which connect critical points. There are two types of critical lines: ridge lines, that start from peaks and terminate at saddles; channel lines, that originate from saddles and terminate at pits. In the procedure proposed in CUOMO et alii (2011), the contour lines were used to distinguish the polygonal features and, consequentially, the point features too. In that way, not all the critical points present over the surface were extracted, but only those considered as significant, because their prominence is greater than the contour interval. Following the previous considerations, notwithstanding the adopted simplifications, the method ensures the topological integrity and, then, the validity of the above formula for each base polygon. The effort is to give a hierarchical organization to these critical points and lines in order to obtain a simplified version of topological network for surface zoning or landscape regionalization. CONCLUSIONS The method extracts the parent relationships of the ordered mountains, by integrating the concepts of mountain prominence and extension from a 250 m cell grid digital elevation model (DTM) from CGIAR-CSI. The resulting orographic entities are hierarchically codified into a proposed orographic taxonomy, derived by a multiscale comparison analysis at continental, national and regional scale, including six nested orders: orographic unit, complex, group, range, chain system and chain block. These orographic entities are bounded by an original procedure of regionalization, starting from a simplified application of the topological data structure analysis of RANA (2004). These nested orographic entities are shown on a general oro-hydrography map at the 1: 3,500,000 scale, obtained by intersecting nested orography boundaries, selected hydrography as critical lines connected to key saddles, as critical points. The resulting map is a prototypal, objective, hierarchical oro-hydrographic regionalization at continental scale of the Western Europe (Fig. 2). The orographic entities are hierarchically termed into an original taxonomy modified from CUOMO & GUIDA (2010a), and CUOMO et alii (2011). 1159

18 Fig 2: Simplified oro-hydrographic map of Western Europe (without first and second order mountains) The oro-hydrographic map of Western Europe can have applications in regional topo-climatology (Cuomo & Guida, 2010b) to point out the role of the multi-scale orographic barriers in controlling the distribution, frequency and intensity of extreme orographic precipitations as well as the orographic signature of relief in disciplinary, multi-scale eco-regional researches. REFERENCES CUOMO A. & GUIDA D. (2010a) - Definizione GIS-based delle barriere orografiche dell Appennino Campano-Lucano (Italia Meridionale). XXXII Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche, Palermo, ISBN , 288 pp. CUOMO A. & GUIDA D. (2010b) - Orographic barriers GISbased definition of the Campania-Lucanian Apennine range (Southern Italy). Session Poster Complex System in Geomorphology, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 12, ISSN 5846, EGU General Assembly, Wien. CUOMO A., GUIDA D. & PALMIERI V. (2011) - Digital orographic map of peninsular and insular Italy. Journal of Maps, 7 (1), HENG T. & EVANS I.S. (2009) Mathematical and Digital Models of Land Surface. In Hengl, T. and Reuter, H.I. Geomorphometry Concepts, Software Applications. Elsevier JARVIS A., REUTER H.I., NELSON A. & GUEVARA E. (2006) - Hole-filled SRTM for the globe Version 3. RANA S. (2004) - Topological data structures for surfaces. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. SMITH B. & MARK D. (2003) - Do Mountains Exist? Towards an Ontology of Landforms, Environment and Planning B (Planning and Design), 30 (3), Strahler A.N. (1952) - Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis of erosional topography. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 63, YAMADA S. (1999) - Mountain ordering: a method for classifying mountains based on their morphometry. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 24 (7),

19 Rend. Online Soc. Geol. It., Vol. 21 (2012), pp , 1 fig. Società Geologica Italiana, Roma 2012 A GIS-based geomorphological mapping of the Calore River alluvial plain in Benevento area (Campania, Italy) VALENTE ALESSIO (*) & MAGLIULO PAOLO (*) Key words: Geomorphological mapping, GIS, River alluvial plain, Campania, Italy. INTRODUCTION In this work the physical landscape of an alluvial plain in terms of processes, forms and evolution is represented by reducing the use of symbols in favor of geometric entities properly mapped. These entities are processed by means of a GIS, which is able to handle large amounts of spatial data, as well as to offer solution to many of the problems occurring during the production of comprehensive geomorphological maps. The information of the spatial database, derived from field survey, cartographic analysis and interpretation of aerial photographs, are managed and represented in a multiscalar hierarchical structure. In this way, the change in scale naturally caused a change in detail of the provided information. Obviously the importance of interpretation increases with decreasing scale. This mapping approach can be the basis for correct choices in terms of environmental planning, also according to recent indications provided by European and national standards. MAPPED AREA The segment of the River Calore that flows in the mapped area, is East-West elongated in the Benevento Plain, an intrachain large depression located to the East of the carbonate massif of Camposauro Mount (southern Apennines). In this depression clayey and sandy-arenaceous deposits of the Ariano Group (Upper Zanclean - Piacentian: CHIOCCHINI, 2007) widely outcrop. They overlap calcirudites with calcarenites and marly interbeddings ascribed to Argille Varicolori Formation (Oligocene-Miocene: CHIOCCHINI, 2007). On this substratum gravelly and sandy alluvial deposits (Middle Pleistocene- Holocene: CHIOCCHINI, 2007) unconformably rest. These latter constitute the substratum of discontinuous river terraces (*) Dipartimento These latter di Scienze constitute per la the Biologia, discontinuous la Geologia terraced e l Ambiente areas developed Università degli on the Studi sides del Sannio of the (Benevento). Calore River at altitudes between occurring on both the sides of the Calore River, at altitudes ranging between 80 and 200 m The Calore River starts about 50 km to the south of the examined area and ends about 40 km to the west, where it joins the Volturno River. It flows down for some 115 km, mostly in the province of Benevento. The catchment area is about 3000 square kilometers, with an average altitude of about 545 m. (MAGLIULO et alii, 2009) In the mapped stretch, the Calore River receives as major tributaries: the Ufita and Tammaro rivers on the right side, and San Nicholas Creek and Sabato River to the left. The sinuosity is Side bars, often alternate, migrating downstream, and a single active channel are present. These features allow to classify it as a pseudo-meandering river. The evolutionary trend is towards a single-thread river with a good stability, and low values of liquid and solid discharge (MAGLIULO et alii, 2009). THE GIS-BASED GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP The qualitative and quantitative information derived from field surveys, literature data and interpretation of topographic maps and aerial photograps can be stored into a proper GIS database. GIS allows easy processing of data and flexibility in the cartographic representation. Using GIS, the space can be described by a series of "objects", each of which discretized by points, lines or polygons with associated attributes (position, topology, etc.). In this way, the different "objects", at different scales, can occupy the same space but with different attributes, e.g. genetic, morphometric and chronologic ones (MCDONNELL, 1996). Therefore, any geomorphic system, such as the alluvial plain in question to be investigated and dealt with analytical methods, needs a multi-scale breakdown in terms of more simple sub-systems, while maintaining the structural congruence, the functional coherence arising from the behavior of all the interrelations between the various components and the proper relationship allometric. Each sub-system, delimited by certain geometrical elements and/or shaded, requires a description of detail, which may involve, in turn, further breakdown. For each degree of 1161

20 Fig. 1 Example of a stretch of the GIS-based geomorphological map. In order to improve the view the adopted scale in the hierarchical sequence is left the same. 1162

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