Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies: knowledge management for entrepreneurs

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies: knowledge management for entrepreneurs"

Transcription

1 Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies: knowledge management for entrepreneurs R.P. uit Beijerse. Journal of Knowledge Management. Kempston: Vol. 4, Iss. 2; pg. 162 Subjects: Classification Codes Author(s): Article types: Publication title: Small business, Knowledge management, Case studies 9520 Small business, 9110 Company specific, 2500 Organizational behavior R.P. uit Beijerse Feature Source Type: Periodical ISSN/ISBN: ProQuest document ID: Text Word Count 9673 Abstract: Journal of Knowledge Management. Kempston: Vol. 4, Iss. 2; pg. 162 This article deals with a field which gets little or no attention in the research done into knowledge management: small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). First a conceptual model for SMEs will be given, next this model will be used to analyze various companies. It is found that knowledge management appears in SMES to get its form especially at an operational level. Copyright MCB UP Limited (MCB) 2000 R.P. uit Beijerse: R.P. uit Beijerse, formerly a Researcher for EIM Small Business Research and Consultancy, The Netherlands, and presently a Researcher with the consultancy agency B & A Groep, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Introduction[1] Changes in society: pluralisation and individualisation Society has changed drastically over the last few years. But this is nothing new, or so it appears. Societies are always changing, just as people are always changing. And seeing as it is the people who form the societies, a constantly changing society is only natural. However something more seems to have happened over the last few years. Without wanting to frighten off the reader straight away, we can point to a diversity of social developments that indicate that the changes seem to be following each other faster, especially over the last few decades. We can for instance, point to the pluralisation (or a growing versatility), differentialisation and specialisation of society as a whole. On a more personal note, we see the diversification of communities, an emphasis on emancipation, individualisation and post-materialism and an increasing wish to live one's life as one wishes, free from social, religious or ideological contexts. Changes in the economy: the knowledge economy

2 If we take a more economic focus, we see for example individualisation, immaterialisation, initiation and ageing in consumer markets, whereby the markets in their turn are increasingly steered by a capricious consumer. Besides this, we see trends such as flexibilisation, deregulation, professionalisation, specialisation and an increasing mobility on employment markets. We also see developments such as the increasing interest for individual entrepreneurship, network formation, computerisation and internationalisation within economic contexts. Altogether, the western economy has evolved into a knowledge economy in which the technological and scientific developments follow each other in a rapid tempo and in which things such as information and communications technology, networks, international competition and knowledge intensive products such as services, play a dominant role. Consequences for company life: changing requirements These types of trends manifest themselves in company life for instance in increasingly capricious and diverse consumer preferences, more demanding consumers, an increasing interest for things such as status, reputation, brand names, logos, product design, user-friendliness, and after sales, an increasing interest in service providing for products and the shortening of the life span of products and services[2]. It has mainly to do with a strongly changing requirement for which the emphasis has shifted to the skill, the quality and the image that is used for the products or services. Complexity as common denominator In general, one can say that this sort of development - and with the sketched developments, the summary of current trends is by no means exhausted - makes society all the more complex. And if society becomes more complex, then the business environment of the average entrepreneur also becomes more complex. He must deal with these developments and will have to make better and smarter use of his or her technological, organisational and marketing competencies in order to stay ahead of all these complexities. Knowledge as competing factor An important means to reduce these complexities is using knowledge. Knowledge is the factor with which entrepreneurs can distinguish themselves from their competitors. Apart from this, knowledge is the means with which the poorly organised business environment can become well organised, with which the complex world becomes manageable and with which unclear items can be interpreted. Phrasing The goal of this article is to make the increasingly important field of knowledge management accessible to researchers in knowledge management and entrepreneurship and to the entrepreneurs themselves. After a short introduction of the background and definition of knowledge management, a short explanation will be given of various methods with which entrepreneurs can optimise the use of their knowledge. The following questions will be addressed: - What is knowledge and knowledge management? - How do (innovative) entrepreneurs use knowledge? - What are systems to organise knowledge?

3 Set-up of this article These three questions will be handled as follows: in the section headed "theoretical notions", we will go into some theoretical notions about knowledge and knowledge management. Important concepts will be defined and a conceptual knowledge management model will be presented. In other words, an answer will be given to the question: "what is knowledge and what is knowledge management?". Subsequently, in the section headed "empirical results", a report will be made of the study that was done of 12 innovative businesses from the industrial and business service providing sectors, with which an image can be formed of the extent in which knowledge management has gained a place in small and medium-sized companies. In the section headed "empirical results", the answer is given to the question: "how do (innovative) entrepreneurs use knowledge?". In the conclusion the most important theoretical and empirical findings are briefly summarised. Knowledge management in SMEs: theoretical notions What is knowledge? Definition of knowledge The most important question with regard to knowledge management is obviously: what is knowledge? It is good - before we answer this question - to look at what knowledge is not. Knowledge can certainly not be assumed to be equal to a dose of data. Above all, knowledge cannot be considered equal to information. Knowledge can primarily be described as something that makes both data and information manageable. A comparison might help you here. You want to travel by train from Rotterdam to Amsterdam. What you need here is data, some information but above all, knowledge. You are provided with the data through tables with train times at Rotterdam station. From these data you can extract meaningful and useable information from the large amount of data that are relevant for your trip. The thing that makes this all possible is knowledge. You have knowledge of train tables, you know approximately what all the little numbers on the large yellow signs mean. You know, above all, that you must consult the tables if you want to know what time the train leaves. And you can read. You found the station. Even more important: you want to take the train. These are all things that have to do with knowledge. In short we can say that knowledge is characterised by information, a capacity and an attitude. With regard to the optimum use of knowledge, it is important that all three of these factors are given equal and sufficient attention. This is emphasised in Figure 1. Looked at in this way, knowledge is the result of a multitude of factors: experience, skills, culture, character, personality, feelings, etc. Information Knowledge is an amount of information that is necessary to function and achieve. What this information is, is difficult to say in advance. It is however important that this information is easily accessible within the organisation and accessible for everyone. Capacity Knowledge is - besides information - the capacity to make information from data and to transform it into useful and meaningful information. It is the capacity with which one thinks creatively, interprets and acts. With regard to knowledge in business, one could think of tapping into and developing that at which people are good, including what are called their core skills or core competencies. Attitude

4 knowledge; (3) knowledge development; (4) knowledge sharing; (5) apply knowledge; and (6) evaluate knowledge. 7 This figure originated from the study Knowledge Management Research Project 1998 by KPMG in which 100 British companies with an annual turnover of above Pounds 200 million, were questioned about the various knowledge management aspects in their business management. Other remarkable figures from that study are the observation that 14 per cent of the businesses questioned had never heard of knowledge management and that only 2 per cent were of the opinion that knowledge management is a trend that means very little. References 1. Beijerse, R.P. uit (1997), Kennismanagement in het midden- en kleinbedrijf. Een state-of-theart Studie (Knowledge Management in Small and Medium-sized Businesses. A State-of-the-Art Study), EIM, Zoetermeer. 2. Cobbenhagen, J., den Hertog, F. and Pennings, H. (1995), Koplopers in Bedrijfsvernieuwing (Leaders in Business Modernization), Den Haag. 3. Jacobs, D. (1996), Het kennisoffensief. Slim Concurreren in de Kennismaatschappij (The Knowledge Offensive. Competing Smartly in the knowledge), Alphen aan den Rijn/Diegem. 4. KPMG (1998), Knowledge Management. Research Report 1998, a full report can be found on the Website of KPMG ( 5. Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1997), De Kenniscreerende Onderneming. Hoe Japanse Bedrijven Innovatieprocessen in Gang Zetten (The Knowledge Creating Business Enterprise: How Japanese Companies start Innovative Processes), Schiedam. 6. Peters, T.J. and Waterman, R.H. (1982), In Search of Excellence, New York, NY. 7. Polanyi, M. (1966), The Tacit Dimension, Gloucester, MA. 8. Weggeman, M.C.D.P. (1997), Kennismanagement. Inrichting en Besturing van Kennisintensieve Organisaties (Knowledge Management. Setting-up and Steering Knowledge Intensive Organisations), Schiedam. Further reading 9. Bartels, C.P.A. (1994), Veel Weten Kan Somtijds Baten. Over het Commercialiseren van Kennis (Knowing a Lot Can Sometimes Be An Asset. About the Commercialization of Knowledge), Assen. 10. Beijerse, R.P. uit(1998), The IQ in Knowledge Management. Defining Knowledge Management and Conceptualising the Knowledge Management Process, EIM, Zoetermeer. 11. Beijerse, R.P. uit (1999), Kennis op Maat van het Midden- en Kleinbedrijf. Kennismanagement voor Ondernemers (Tailor-made Knowledge for SME's. Knowledge Management for Entrepreneurs), EIM, Zoetermeer. 12. Beijerse, R.P. uit (1999), "Questions in knowledge management: defining and conceptualising a phenomenon", Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 3 No. 2.

5 13. Braaksma, R.M., Gianotten, H.J. and Verhoeven, W.H.J. (1987), Midden- en Kleinbedrijf in de Markt. Een Sterkte/Zwakte-Analyse van de Produktiestructuur (Small and Medium-sized Businesses in the Market. A SWOT Analysis of the Production Structure), EIM, Zoetermeer. 14. Bugel, J. (1997), "Kennismanagement, de nieuwe obsessie" ("Knowledge management, the new obsession"), Intermediair, Vol. 33 No. 24, pp Cap Gemini (1996), Annual Report, Paris. 16. Drucker, P.F. (1993), De Post-kapitalistische Maatschappij (The Post-capitalistic Society), Schiedam. 17. Heijst, G. van and Kruizinga, E. (1998), Kennisinfrastructuur. De Ruggengraat van de Lerende Organisatie (Knowledge Infrastructure. The Backbone of the Learning Organization), Utrecht. 18. Jennings, P. and Beaver, G. (1997), "The performance and competitive advantage of small firms: a management perspective", International Small Business Journal, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp Kalff, P., Bouman, M., Holland, C. and van der Weele, E. (1996), Kennismanagement in Kleine en Middelgrote Ondernemingen. Een Korte Verkenning van Vragen en Issues (Knowledge Management in Small and Medium-sized Businesses. A Short Exploration of Questions and Issues), TNO-STB, Apeldoorn. 20. Lof, E. (1997), "Nederland denkt niet genoeg na" ("Holland doesn't think enough"), Intermediair, Vol. 33 No. 50, pp Nijsen, A.F.M., Nooteboom, B., Kroezen, C.W., Godschalk, J.J. and Buursink, J. (1987), Op Maat van het MKB (In the Size of the Small and Medium-sized Business), WRR, 's-gravenhage. 22. Nooteboom, B. (1994), "Innovation and diffusion in small firms: theory and evidence", Small Business Economics, No. 6, Dordrecht, pp OECD (1996), The Knowledge-based Economy, Paris. 24. Reimann, B.C. and Wiener, Y. (1988), "Corporate culture: avoiding the elitist trap", Business Horizons, March/April. 25. Siebenga, B.J. and Santema, S.C. (1995), "Strategisch management in het industrieel kleinbedrijf" ("Strategic management in the small industrial business"), Bedrijfskundig Vakblad, No. 7, pp Spek, R. van der and Spijkervet, A. (1996), Kennismanagement. Intelligent Omgaan met Kennis (Knowledge Management. Dealing Intelligently with Knowledge), Utrecht. 27. Swieringa, J. and Wierdsma, A.F.M. (1990), Op weg Naar een Lerende Organisatie. Over het Leren en Opleiden van Organisaties (On our Way to a Learning Organisation. About Learning and Teaching Organisations), Groningen. 28. Thurik, A.R. (1995), Small Firms, Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth, discussion paper, Tinbergen Institute, Rotterdam.

6 29. Weggeman, M.C.D.P. and Cornelissen, V.B.J. (1997), "Kennismanagement" ("Knowledge management"), HRM in de Praktijk, Issue Paper, No. 8, Deventer. 30. Zijderveld, A.C. (1991), De Samenleving als Schouwspel. Een Sociologisch Leer- en Leesboek (Society as a Spectacle. A Sociological Text and Reading Book), Utrecht. [Illustration] Caption: Table I; The evaluation of knowledge and determination of the knowledge gap; Table II; The acquisition and/or development of knowledge; Table III; Knowledge sharing; Figure 1; Three facets of knowledge; Figure 2; An organisation model; Figure 3; The knowledge cycle within knowledge management; Figure 4; An integral knowledge management model

Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies: knowledge management for entrepreneurs

Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies: knowledge management for entrepreneurs Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies: knowledge management for entrepreneurs R.P. uit Beijerse. Journal of Knowledge Management. Kempston: 2000. Vol. 4, Iss. 2; pg. 162 Subjects: Classification

More information

Preparing Knowledge Management for Law Practice

Preparing Knowledge Management for Law Practice 17 Preparing Knowledge Management for Law Practice Martin Apistola Anja Oskamp Computer/Law Institute Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam The Netherlands {m.apistola, a.oskamp}@rechten.vu.nl Abstract. Law practice

More information

Knowledge Management for Law Practice: Do we really need

Knowledge Management for Law Practice: Do we really need Page 1 of 11 17th BILETA Annual Conference April 5th - 6th, 2002. Free University, Amsterdam. Knowledge Management for Law Practice: Do we really need it? Martin Apistola, Anja Oskamp Computer/Law Institute

More information

Academic and Business Publications. Erik den Hartigh

Academic and Business Publications. Erik den Hartigh Academic and Business Publications Erik den Hartigh Articles Van der Duin, P.A. & E. den Hartigh (2009); Keeping the balance: exploring the link of futures research with innovation and strategy processes.

More information

Literatuur 137. Literatuur

Literatuur 137. Literatuur Literatuur 137 Literatuur Arbnor, I en Bjerke, B. (1997). Methodology for creating business knowledge. Sage, Thousand Oaks, Cal. Argyris, Chris en Donald Schön (1978). Organizational Learning: A Theory

More information

Chain approach, innovation and leadership

Chain approach, innovation and leadership Scientific article Chain approach, innovation and leadership R.V. De Mulder Journal of Chain-computerisation Information Exchange for Chain Co-operation 2011 Volume 2, Art. #8 Received: 1 March 2011 Accepted:

More information

Jolien Grandia MA MSc

Jolien Grandia MA MSc Jolien Grandia MA MSc Curriculum Vitae Jolien Grandia MA MSC Address: E- mail: Faculty of Social Science Department of public Administration P.O. Box 1738, room T17-45 3000 DR Rotterdam The Netherlands

More information

3C, Internet Dynamics and Retail: Towards a new market segmentation?

3C, Internet Dynamics and Retail: Towards a new market segmentation? European Retail Digest 3C, Internet Dynamics and Retail: Towards a new market segmentation? By Peter van den Heuvel, e-business Research Fellow, and Frans van der Reep, Professor of e- business, INHOLLAND

More information

Knowledge Management in Post-Merger Integration 1

Knowledge Management in Post-Merger Integration 1 Knowledge Management in Post-Merger Integration 1 Chen Jian 2 Jia Jun 3 School of Management Xi an Jiaotong University, P. R. China, 710049 Abstract Nowadays, knowledge has become an important resource

More information

Communication as a management perspective. Summary

Communication as a management perspective. Summary Communication as a management perspective Summary Considering the dynamics in the environment, and the growing interdependence and complexity in society the field of communication for organizations needs

More information

YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS

YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS Jaap de Koning Arie Gelderblom Peter van Nes Rotterdam, mei 2005 Contact Jaap de Koning Address SEOR, Erasmus University Rotterdam PO Box 1738 3000 DR Rotterdam,

More information

Copyright subsists in all papers and content posted on this site.

Copyright subsists in all papers and content posted on this site. Student First Name: Ahmad Student Second Name: Al-Halak Copyright subsists in all papers and content posted on this site. Further copying or distribution by any means without prior permission is prohibited,

More information

INFORMATION PACK ABOUT THE NETHERLANDS

INFORMATION PACK ABOUT THE NETHERLANDS Patrons: Lord Dholakia OBE, The Rt. Hon. Shirley Williams 225 Three Bridges Road Crawley West Sussex, RH10 1LG Tel: (+0044) (0)1293 434 350 Fax: (+0044) (0)1293 434 351 INFORMATION PACK ABOUT THE NETHERLANDS

More information

Entrepreneur Scan identifies potential fast growers

Entrepreneur Scan identifies potential fast growers 1 Entrepreneur Scan identifies potential fast growers Rutger van der Laan, Martijn Driessen and Peter Zwart 1. INTRODUCTION Being an entrepreneur is cool! More and more people see self employment as a

More information

How Important Are Knowledge Intensive Business Services For Innovation? A Brief Discussion Based on the Spanish Case

How Important Are Knowledge Intensive Business Services For Innovation? A Brief Discussion Based on the Spanish Case Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Volume 2, Issue 1, November 2013 DOI: 10.11565/cuocient.v2i1.25 How Important Are Knowledge Intensive Business Services For Innovation? A

More information

Edward Wong Sek Khin 1, Mehdi Poorangi 2, Ahmad Zahiruddin 3 E-HRM AND E-RECRUITMENT FOR SMES: MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE

Edward Wong Sek Khin 1, Mehdi Poorangi 2, Ahmad Zahiruddin 3 E-HRM AND E-RECRUITMENT FOR SMES: MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE 376 НОВИНИ ЗАРУБІЖНОЇ НАУКИ Edward Wong Sek Khin 1, Mehdi Poorangi 2, Ahmad Zahiruddin 3 E-HRM AND E-RECRUITMENT FOR SMES: MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE The purpose of this study is the analysis of possibilities

More information

Information society needs of managers in a large governmental organisation

Information society needs of managers in a large governmental organisation Broos, E., & Cronjé, J. C. (2009). Information society needs of managers in a large governmental organisation. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (1), 285 297. Information society needs of managers in

More information

Jolien Grandia MA MSc

Jolien Grandia MA MSc Jolien Grandia MA MSc Curriculum Vitae Jolien Grandia Address: E-mail: Website: Erasmus University Rotterdam Burgemeester Oudlaan 50 3062 PA Rotterdam The Netherlands Grandia@fsw.eur.nl www.joliengrandia.com

More information

Perspectives on the knowledge-based society

Perspectives on the knowledge-based society Perspectives on the knowledge-based society Interviews about Netherlands as knowledge land Editor: Inge Wichard In association with: Vincent Delemarre and Gerda Sulman (editor) Introduction The knowledge-based

More information

Overview Dutch educational activities GALE/EduDivers for ARES project 35% 61% 4%

Overview Dutch educational activities GALE/EduDivers for ARES project 35% 61% 4% Overview Dutch educational activities GALE/EduDivers for ARES project 35% 61% 4% Nr. date activity location 1 24-aug-13 Public stand Almere 50 25 24 1 2 5-sep-13 ROC van Amsterdam Amsterdam 40 14 24 2

More information

Hoe onze wereld aan het veranderen is

Hoe onze wereld aan het veranderen is Hoe onze wereld aan het veranderen is Michiel Schaalje CTO Cisco Nederland Sinds 1996 actief binnen Cisco Vanaf 2006 verantwoordelijk voor o.a. de gehele Nederlandse presales organisatie Richt zich vanuit

More information

HOME IN ON HOLLAND. Direct Dutch Institute (in-) company courses. Laan van Nieuw Oost-Indië 275 2593 BS Den Haag The Netherlands 0031(0)70 365 46 77

HOME IN ON HOLLAND. Direct Dutch Institute (in-) company courses. Laan van Nieuw Oost-Indië 275 2593 BS Den Haag The Netherlands 0031(0)70 365 46 77 HOME IN ON HOLLAND Direct Dutch Institute (in-) company courses Laan van Nieuw Oost-Indië 275 2593 BS Den Haag The Netherlands 0031(0)70 365 46 77 1 BESTE COLLEGA S Ik wil graag Nederlands leren. Blijf

More information

Facts and figures for the Dutch Games industry 2015

Facts and figures for the Dutch Games industry 2015 Facts and figures for the Dutch Games industry 2015 Christel van Grinsven christel@dutchgamegarden.nl www.growinggames.nl Research into the state of the Dutch Games industry - Research comparable to Facts

More information

2009 2011 Volunteer at ISKB: Teaching Dutch to immigrant women in the Netherlands, in the VOP (Vrouwen Ontmoetings Project - Women Meeting Project).

2009 2011 Volunteer at ISKB: Teaching Dutch to immigrant women in the Netherlands, in the VOP (Vrouwen Ontmoetings Project - Women Meeting Project). Curriculum Vitae -- Saraï Sapulete Personal information Name: Saraï Sapulete Work Address (visiting): Kriekenpitplein 21-22 3584 EC Utrecht Work Address (mail): P.O. Box 80125 3508 TC Utrecht Telephone:

More information

Year 2010/2011 Technology, Policy and Management Minors Management of Technology. MOT-Mi-088-10. Dr.ing. V.E. Scholten TBM

Year 2010/2011 Technology, Policy and Management Minors Management of Technology. MOT-Mi-088-10. Dr.ing. V.E. Scholten TBM Program overview 19-Aug-2016 3:40 Year 2010/2011 Organization Technology, Policy and Management Education Minors Management of Technology Code Omschrijving ECTS MOT-Mi-088-10 MOT-Mi-088-10 Ondernemerschap:

More information

Miracle Integrating Knowledge Management and Business Intelligence

Miracle Integrating Knowledge Management and Business Intelligence ALLGEMEINE FORST UND JAGDZEITUNG (ISSN: 0002-5852) Available online www.sauerlander-verlag.com/ Miracle Integrating Knowledge Management and Business Intelligence Nursel van der Haas Technical University

More information

Major factors predicting transfer performance in SME s: are entrepreneurial characteristics of importance?

Major factors predicting transfer performance in SME s: are entrepreneurial characteristics of importance? Major factors predicting transfer performance in SME s: are entrepreneurial characteristics of importance? Lex van Teeffelen Utrecht Business School, Hogeschool van Utrecht P.O. Box 85029, 3508 AA Utrecht

More information

IC Rating NPSP Composieten BV. 9 juni 2010 Variopool

IC Rating NPSP Composieten BV. 9 juni 2010 Variopool IC Rating NPSP Composieten BV 9 juni 2010 Variopool AGENDA: The future of NPSP Future IC Rating TM NPSP Composieten BV 2 Bottom line 3 Bottom line 4 Definition of Intangibles The factors not shown in the

More information

Research Department. J. Jakulj, N. Jonker and H.M.M. Peeters. Research Memorandum WO no. 742. De Nederlandsche Bank

Research Department. J. Jakulj, N. Jonker and H.M.M. Peeters. Research Memorandum WO no. 742. De Nederlandsche Bank Research Department Employment dynamics within small, medium and large establishments in the Netherlands at the end of the 1990s: Where and to what extent did job creation and job destruction occur? J.

More information

Standardisation and Knowledge Management in Services

Standardisation and Knowledge Management in Services 표준과 표준화 연구 제1 권 제 1 호, 2011, 70~78 초청논문 Standardisation and Knowledge Management in Services Henk J. de Vries and Marcella van Delden 9) Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The

More information

PART I. Chapter 1. Networking in Society, Organisations and Education

PART I. Chapter 1. Networking in Society, Organisations and Education ISBN 92-64-10034-2 Networks of Innovation Towards New Models for Managing Schools and Systems OECD 2003 PART I Chapter 1 Networking in Society, Organisations and Education by Hans F. van Aalst Katholiek

More information

Measuring innovative intensity

Measuring innovative intensity Research Report 9912/A Measuring innovative intensity Scale construction J.P.J. de Jong Zoetermeer, March 2000 ISBN: 90-371-0774-5 Price: NLG 20.- Order number: H9912 EIM / Small Business Research and

More information

Comparing the information industry in Amsterdam and Helsinki

Comparing the information industry in Amsterdam and Helsinki Research institutes all over the world are using a number of different information industry 1 classifications. Every classification has its own advantages and disadvantages. For instance, the widely used

More information

FRAMEWORKS FOR ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING

FRAMEWORKS FOR ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING FRAMEWORKS FOR ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING Translation in English: December 2009 Working document Arja Aarnoudse Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Objective 3 3. The Learning Organisation (Peter Senge) 4 4. Eight

More information

OV-Klantenbarometer: Benchmarking customer reviews improves PT-quality

OV-Klantenbarometer: Benchmarking customer reviews improves PT-quality OV-Klantenbarometer: Benchmarking customer reviews improves PT-quality Wim van Tilburg & Gerard van Kesteren 2011 Annual Polis Conference 18 maart 2010 Annual Polis Conference 2 OV-Klantenbarometer - Comprehensive

More information

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRATEGY

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRATEGY THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRATEGY DeRuiter Consultancy International Market & Investment Surveyors A STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO DEVELOPING A BUSINESS STRATEGY FOR INTERNATIONAL GROWTH

More information

Curriculum Vitae Roermond, spring 2015

Curriculum Vitae Roermond, spring 2015 Curriculum Vitae Roermond, spring 2015 Also see LinkedIn for my professional profile Personalia Name G. J. J. C. M. van Brussel, (Gert) Address Swalmerstraat 116, 6041 CZ Roermond, the Netherlands Phone

More information

Incorporating research in professional bachelor programmes

Incorporating research in professional bachelor programmes Incorporating research in professional bachelor programmes Authors Daan Andriessen PhD, professor in methodology of applied research, Research Group Applied Research Methodology, Utrecht University of

More information

HIPPO STUDY DG Education And Culture Study On The Cooperation Between HEIs And Public And Private Organisations In Europe. Valorisatie 9/26/2013

HIPPO STUDY DG Education And Culture Study On The Cooperation Between HEIs And Public And Private Organisations In Europe. Valorisatie 9/26/2013 Valorisatie Hoe goed doen we het in Nederland en doet het HBO het anders dan universiteiten? Peter van der Sijde Todd Davey HIPPO STUDY DG Education And Culture Study On The Cooperation Between HEIs And

More information

Co-supervisor master thesis projects, Master program Management of Learning, School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University

Co-supervisor master thesis projects, Master program Management of Learning, School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University Selma van der Haar Assistant Professor School of Business and Economics Department for Educational Research and Development Maastricht University, the Netherlands Phone: +31 43 3883729 Email: s.vanderhaar@maastrichtuniversity.nl

More information

Training and development of skills in a changing information environment

Training and development of skills in a changing information environment Page 1 of 5 Training and development of skills in a changing information environment The Authors Cephas Odini, is Dean of the Faculty of Information Sciences at Moi University, Kenya Abstract Presented

More information

Entrepreneur Scan identifies potential fast growers

Entrepreneur Scan identifies potential fast growers 1 Entrepreneur Scan identifies potential fast growers Rutger van der Laan, Martijn Driessen and Peter Zwart INTRODUCTION Being an entrepreneur is cool! More and more people see self employment as a positive

More information

HRD Research in a Diversified Field

HRD Research in a Diversified Field Human Resource Development International, Vol. 10, No. 1, 83 87, March 2007 HRD Research in a Diversified Field JOSEPH KESSELS University of Twente The expanding diversity in research topics and approaches

More information

Corporate Universities Aanjagers van de lerende organisatie

Corporate Universities Aanjagers van de lerende organisatie CORPORATE UNIVERSITY EVENT Corporate Universities Aanjagers van de lerende organisatie Rotterdam School of Management Erasmus University Rotterdam 5 juni 2012 Dagvoorzitter Josette de Goede RSM Oogst Open

More information

British Council Zambia Shaping our Future Conference (26 & 27 March 2013) Ways of Growing SME Innovation and Finance

British Council Zambia Shaping our Future Conference (26 & 27 March 2013) Ways of Growing SME Innovation and Finance British Council Zambia Shaping our Future Conference (26 & 27 March 2013) Ways of Growing SME Innovation and Finance Presenter: Mr.Trevor Simumba, MD Sub-Saharan Consulting Group Zambia Limited Sub-Saharan

More information

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: FROM IDEA TO A DISCIPLINE. Robert de Hoog Faculty of Educational Science and Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: FROM IDEA TO A DISCIPLINE. Robert de Hoog Faculty of Educational Science and Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: FROM IDEA TO A DISCIPLINE Robert de Hoog Faculty of Educational Science and Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands Keywords: management fashions, guru approaches, knowledge

More information

MAYORGAME (BURGEMEESTERGAME)

MAYORGAME (BURGEMEESTERGAME) GATE Pilot Safety MAYORGAME (BURGEMEESTERGAME) Twan Boerenkamp Who is it about? Local council Beleidsteam = GBT or Regional Beleidsteam = RBT Mayor = Chairman Advisors now = Voorlichting? Official context

More information

Overview of Domain Engineering

Overview of Domain Engineering 8 Overview of Domain Engineering The prerequisite for studying this chapter is that you are ready now to embark on the long journey of getting to understand the first of the three core phases of software

More information

INNOVATION AND STRATEGIC PLANNING AS KEY ELEMENTS TO ENTREPRENEURIAL SUCCESS

INNOVATION AND STRATEGIC PLANNING AS KEY ELEMENTS TO ENTREPRENEURIAL SUCCESS INNOVATION AND STRATEGIC PLANNING AS KEY ELEMENTS TO ENTREPRENEURIAL SUCCESS JOY JOLLY MUTAGA IENMJOURNAL DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA Abstract: This study investigates the

More information

The ability to learn faster than our competitors may be the only sustainable competitive advantage.

The ability to learn faster than our competitors may be the only sustainable competitive advantage. DEVELOPING SKILLS FOR BUSINESS LEADERSHIP CHAPTER 2 ACTIVITY 2.3 IS KNOWLEDGE THE ONLY SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE TODAY? Assignment submitted by Stefanie Reissner for module Strategic Issues, MA International

More information

Curriculum Vitae Personal details Education Academic positions

Curriculum Vitae Personal details Education Academic positions Curriculum Vitae Personal details Name: Bernard van den Berg Private address: De Roef 1, 3904 PC, Veenendaal, The Netherlands Work address: VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences Institute

More information

ING NV AMSTERDAM PDF

ING NV AMSTERDAM PDF ING NV AMSTERDAM PDF ==> Download: ING NV AMSTERDAM PDF ING NV AMSTERDAM PDF - Are you searching for Ing Nv Amsterdam Books? Now, you will be happy that at this time Ing Nv Amsterdam PDF is available at

More information

Assessing the Value of Flexibility in the Dutch Office Sector using Real Option Analysis

Assessing the Value of Flexibility in the Dutch Office Sector using Real Option Analysis Assessing the Value of Flexibility in the Dutch Office Sector using Real Option Analysis Joost P. Poort, Jun Hoo Abstract Flexibility is one of the key aspects of the Zuidas project, a major construction

More information

Information security survey

Information security survey Information risk management Information security survey Six important signals Advisory Information security survey Introduction For many years now, information security has been an important topic for

More information

THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES IN ENSURING THE SUCCESS OF HRM ACTIVITIES

THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES IN ENSURING THE SUCCESS OF HRM ACTIVITIES THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES IN ENSURING THE SUCCESS OF HRM ACTIVITIES ADELA SUZANA ARTENE TIBISCUS UNIVERSITY OF TIMISOARA, FACULTY OF ECONOMICS WEST UNIVERSITY OF TIMISOARA,

More information

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (University of Groningen), public university, state recognised

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (University of Groningen), public university, state recognised 1 Information identifying the holder of the qualification 1.1 Family name Brathanz 1.2 Given name(s) Frank 1.3 Date and place of birth 3 August 1978, Leeuwarden (The Netherlands) 1.4 Student number 1234567

More information

Training course in Service Engineering

Training course in Service Engineering Training course in Service Engineering The importance of the service sector The importance of the service sector in the global economy has increased significantly in recent years. Services make up about

More information

IMPACT OF DEREGULATION OF TRADING HOURS ON GROCERY STORE RETAILING. Sami Kajalo Helsinki School of Economics

IMPACT OF DEREGULATION OF TRADING HOURS ON GROCERY STORE RETAILING. Sami Kajalo Helsinki School of Economics IMPACT OF DEREGULATION OF TRADING HOURS ON GROCERY STORE RETAILING Sami Kajalo Helsinki School of Economics Track: Distribution and Logistics Issues in Marketing Keywords: Retailing, trading hours, Sunday

More information

Research into competency models in arts education

Research into competency models in arts education Research into competency models in arts education Paper presented at the BMBF Workshop International Perspectives of Research in Arts Education, Nov. 4 th and 5 th, 2013. Folkert Haanstra, Amsterdam School

More information

Innovative forms of delivery in an online university : moocs. José Antonio Díaz (UNED-Spain) jdiaz@poli.uned.es

Innovative forms of delivery in an online university : moocs. José Antonio Díaz (UNED-Spain) jdiaz@poli.uned.es Innovative forms of delivery in an online university : moocs José Antonio Díaz (UNED-Spain) jdiaz@poli.uned.es CONTENTS 1) From The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society to The Network society 2) New socieconomic

More information

The Umbrella Concept. Results of the SME and Start-up Survey 2012. Prof. Dr. R.-Dieter Reineke Andrew Mpeqa, MSc, MA Michael Sitte, MSc, MA

The Umbrella Concept. Results of the SME and Start-up Survey 2012. Prof. Dr. R.-Dieter Reineke Andrew Mpeqa, MSc, MA Michael Sitte, MSc, MA The Umbrella Concept Results of the SME and Start-up Survey 2012 Prof. Dr. R.-Dieter Reineke Andrew Mpeqa, MSc, MA Michael Sitte, MSc, MA Institut für Unternehmensführung Olten, November 2012 Agenda THE

More information

THE ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SCHOOL: PERCEPTION OF APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS

THE ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SCHOOL: PERCEPTION OF APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS THE ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SCHOOL: PERCEPTION OF APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS YOHANNES KURNIAWAN Bina Nusantara University, Department of Information Systems, Jakarta 11480, Indonesia E-mail:

More information

nokia repair center nederland

nokia repair center nederland nokia repair center nederland Reference Manual To learn showcasing to make use of and ways to totally exploit nokia repair center nederland to your advantage, there are numerous resources for you. NOKIA

More information

Management by co-creation

Management by co-creation Management by co-creation Karin Derksen, EMC-Leren in Bedrijf, Groenekan, The Netherlands Paul Keursten, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands Jan Streumer, Rotterdam University, Rotterdam, The

More information

J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 5(12S)134-141, 2015. 2015, TextRoad Publication

J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 5(12S)134-141, 2015. 2015, TextRoad Publication J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 5(12S)134-141, 2015 2015, TextRoad Publication ISSN: 2090-4274 Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences www.textroad.com Relationship between Maintenance Knowledge

More information

CAPACITY BUILDING IN THE DUTCH INSPECTORATE: BRIDGING THE GAP VAN DER SCHRAAF, ANGELIQUE A.A. 1

CAPACITY BUILDING IN THE DUTCH INSPECTORATE: BRIDGING THE GAP VAN DER SCHRAAF, ANGELIQUE A.A. 1 Van der Schraaf 243 CAPACITY BUILDING IN THE DUTCH INSPECTORATE: BRIDGING THE GAP VAN DER SCHRAAF, ANGELIQUE A.A. 1 1 Dean of the Inspectorate Academy, VROM Inspectorate, Post-box 16191, 2500BD The Hague,

More information

Moving into the 21 st century, changing views on professionalism

Moving into the 21 st century, changing views on professionalism 1 Moving into the 21 st century, changing views on professionalism Frank Jansma SBL Introduction In retrospect we may say that the development of teacher standards in the Netherlands started in 1993 when

More information

Marketing Masterclass

Marketing Masterclass Marketing Masterclass Are pharmaceutical (or healthcare) companies achieving true marketing excellence? Paul Stuart-Kregor is a Director at The MSI Consultancy, a specialist pharmaceutical marketing company

More information

Speerpunt Ecosystem & Landscape Services (SELS) Dolf de Groot 8 Nov. 2007 Environmental Systems Analysis Group

Speerpunt Ecosystem & Landscape Services (SELS) Dolf de Groot 8 Nov. 2007 Environmental Systems Analysis Group Speerpunt Ecosystem & Landscape Services (SELS) Dolf de Groot 8 Nov. 2007 Environmental Systems Analysis Group WUR mission: to explore5the potential of nature 4 3 to improve the quality of life 1 = ecosystems

More information

Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations

Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations Issue 6, Scientific Papers (www.scientificpapers.org) Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations Author: Madalina

More information

Multi-level governance and employment policy

Multi-level governance and employment policy Multi-level governance and employment policy Background paper for the session on employment policy at the Multilevel Governance Conference - 2 December 2010 - Liège Ludo Struyven (HIVA, Leuven University)

More information

Business Process Improvement in Organizational Design of E-Government Services

Business Process Improvement in Organizational Design of E-Government Services Business Process Improvement in Organizational Design of E-Government Services Ömer Faruk Aydınlı, Sjaak Brinkkemper,and Pascal Ravesteyn Department of Information and Computing Sciences Utrecht University

More information

3. What is Knowledge Management

3. What is Knowledge Management 3. What is Knowledge Management ETL525 Knowledge Management Tutorial One 5 December 2008 K.T. Lam lblkt@ust.hk Last updated: 4 December 2008 KM History The subject of KM was originally arisen in the field

More information

Studio // Rene Siebum

Studio // Rene Siebum Catalogue Studio // Rene Siebum www.renesiebum.nl // rene@renesiebum.nl // +31 (0)6 48177182 // Halvemaanstraat 22 // 5651 BP // Eindhoven // Nederland Craftsman meets a Designer R The Studio // What I

More information

CAST. Research Master (MPhil) Cultures of Arts, Science, and Technology

CAST. Research Master (MPhil) Cultures of Arts, Science, and Technology CAST Research Master (MPhil) Cultures of Arts, Science, and Technology What s special about CAST? Research master 2-year programme M Phil degree Selective Typical Maastricht focus on Cultures Arts Sciences

More information

Anderson, J.R. (1989). A theory of the origins of human knowledge. Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 40, pp. 313-351

Anderson, J.R. (1989). A theory of the origins of human knowledge. Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 40, pp. 313-351 References Abbing, H.W. (1991). Kennisoverdracht door Netwerkvorming. Economische Statistische Berichten, Vol. 6, no. 3, pp.287-290 Aken, J.E. van, H. Berends & H. van der Bij (2006). Problem Solving in

More information

SUBJECT LINES DONE RIGHT (ENGELSTALIG)

SUBJECT LINES DONE RIGHT (ENGELSTALIG) SUBJECT LINES DONE RIGHT (ENGELSTALIG) Pagina 1 van 6 An email s subject line is like a first impression. It is one of the first things a recipiënt sees when they glance at their inbox and a determining

More information

Mesofinance in opkomende landen via crowdfunding June 2015

Mesofinance in opkomende landen via crowdfunding June 2015 Mesofinance in opkomende landen via crowdfunding June 2015 Introduc>e Financial Engineering (Master IEM) 7 jaar ondernemer: website ontwikkeling en ontwerp Thesis bij Lendahand 2 Inhoud Introduc>on This

More information

What is Happening in Supply Chain Management? From Push to Pull through Best Value Thinking

What is Happening in Supply Chain Management? From Push to Pull through Best Value Thinking What is Happening in Supply Chain Management? From Push to Pull through Best Value Thinking Dr. Sicco C. Santema, PhD Professor of Marketing and Supply Management Technical University Delft, Netherlands

More information

Freight Logistics in Utrecht

Freight Logistics in Utrecht Freight Logistics in Utrecht Approach, solutions and success factors Mark Degenkamp, City of Utrecht 1 Content General introduction Station area Introduction on Bestufs Utrecht city freight distribution

More information

Bibliometric study on Dutch Open Access published output 2000-2012/2013

Bibliometric study on Dutch Open Access published output 2000-2012/2013 Bibliometric study on Dutch Open Access published output 2000-2012/2013 Preliminary research report to the Dutch Ministry of Science, Culture & Education (OC&W) January 2015 Center for Science & Technology

More information

Risks are Key, Processes Follow. Michiel Schuijt Chief Risk Officer, Mn Services

Risks are Key, Processes Follow. Michiel Schuijt Chief Risk Officer, Mn Services Risks are Key, Processes Follow Michiel Schuijt Chief Risk Officer, Mn Services Mn Services & Our Risk Management Philosophy 8 June 2011 ProcessWorld 2011 2 Pension Companies in the Netherlands APG Groep

More information

Cover Page. The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/33081 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation.

Cover Page. The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/33081 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation. Cover Page The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/33081 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation. Author: Stettina, Christoph Johann Title: Governance of innovation project management

More information

Ticket Information Public transport and Train

Ticket Information Public transport and Train Ticket Information Public transport and Train The OV-Chipkaart (OV-chip card) is the national public transport ticket system in The Netherlands and has replaced old paper tickets such as the strippenkaart.

More information

D EVELOPMENTAL SPACE FOR INNOVATION

D EVELOPMENTAL SPACE FOR INNOVATION D EVELOPMENTAL SPACE FOR INNOVATION Karin Derksen, Leon de Caluwé & Robert Jan Simons, 2010. Our research begins with the question: what developmental space do groups need while working on innovation?

More information

THE EUROPEAN REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS SCOREBOARD

THE EUROPEAN REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS SCOREBOARD THE EUROPEAN REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS SCOREBOARD Developing regional economic policy strategies using information on competitiveness Background report Mark Thissen Olaf Jonkeren Carlo Gianelle 5 november

More information

E-Commerce Opportunities for a Commercial Vehicle Industry System Supplier. Bachelorarbeit

E-Commerce Opportunities for a Commercial Vehicle Industry System Supplier. Bachelorarbeit E-Commerce Opportunities for a Commercial Vehicle Industry System Supplier Bachelorarbeit zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) im Studiengang Wirtschaftswissenschaft der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen

More information

SME support under Horizon 2020 how to make it work

SME support under Horizon 2020 how to make it work SME support under Horizon 2020 how to make it work Olivier Brunet Unit Regional dimension of innovation Directorate General Research &Innovation European Commission The Multiannual Financial Framework

More information

Naturally Curious Research ability in (teacher training for) vocational education in the Netherlands

Naturally Curious Research ability in (teacher training for) vocational education in the Netherlands Naturally Curious Research ability in (teacher training for) vocational education in the Netherlands Niek van den Berg, Niek van Benthum, Bernadette Damman, Stan Frijters, Ewald Nijenhuis, Lia Spreeuwenberg

More information

organizational learning as predictors

organizational learning as predictors H200703 Family orientation, strategy and organizational learning as predictors of knowledge management in Dutch SMEs: A quantitative study Haibo Zhou, Sita Tan and Lorraine Uhlaner Zoetermeer, January,

More information

UNIVERSITEIT VAN AMSTERDAM. Faculty of Science CERTIFICATION OF THE SUPPLEMENT. Purpose of this document. Student information

UNIVERSITEIT VAN AMSTERDAM. Faculty of Science CERTIFICATION OF THE SUPPLEMENT. Purpose of this document. Student information bachelor Diploma Supplement UNIVERSITEIT VAN AMSTERDAM Faculty of Science Purpose of this document This supplement provides a description of the nature, level, content and status of the studies that were

More information

Revalidatie. Nederland

Revalidatie. Nederland Revalidatie Nederland Rehabilitation aims to achieve recovery or improvement in people with long-term physical injury or functional impairment What is Revalidatie Nederland? Revalidatie Nederland is the

More information

Modelling returns to R&D: an application on size effects

Modelling returns to R&D: an application on size effects Research Report 9908/E Modelling returns to R&D: an application on size effects Peter Brouwer Henry Nieuwenhuijsen The computations for this study were carried out at CEREM (Centre for Research of Economic

More information

Family Business in the Dutch SME sector

Family Business in the Dutch SME sector STRATEGIC STUDY Family Business in the Dutch SME sector Definitions and characteristics Henriëtte Hulshoff Zoetermeer, March 2001 ISBN: 90-371-0812-1 Price: NLG 45.- Order number: B0004 The underlying

More information

Live View Real-time camera surveillance

Live View Real-time camera surveillance Live View Real-time camera surveillance What is Live View? Live View is a working method that makes it possible for the police control room to watch camera images for example from a shop or shopping centre

More information

Illustrations: Your Illustrator Cover design: Joke Herstel, Wenk

Illustrations: Your Illustrator Cover design: Joke Herstel, Wenk blabla It s me Illustrations: Your Illustrator Cover design: Joke Herstel, Wenk blabla Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Technische Universiteit Delft, op gezag van de Rector

More information

The network serves as a medium for new media art. This does not comprise a

The network serves as a medium for new media art. This does not comprise a OKNO werd opgericht om in collectief aan een gedeelde visie te kunnen werken. Als groep ge?ngageerde kunstenaars bouwen we aan onze vreemde, ongedefinieerde discipline en ruimen we er plaats voor in het

More information

CHALLENGES AND APPROACHES FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT. Jean-Louis ERMINE CEA/UTT

CHALLENGES AND APPROACHES FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT. Jean-Louis ERMINE CEA/UTT CHALLENGES AND APPROACHES FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Jean-Louis ERMINE CEA/UTT Abstract: Knowledge Management is now a crucial issue in companies: Knowledge is a major economic challenge for the future.

More information

IMPORTANCE OF TQM-METHODS IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL SERVICES AN EMPIRICAL SURVEY IN THE AUSTRIAN MACHINERY AND PLANT ENGINEERING INDUSTRY

IMPORTANCE OF TQM-METHODS IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL SERVICES AN EMPIRICAL SURVEY IN THE AUSTRIAN MACHINERY AND PLANT ENGINEERING INDUSTRY IMPORTANCE OF TQM-METHODS IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL SERVICES AN EMPIRICAL SURVEY IN THE AUSTRIAN MACHINERY AND PLANT ENGINEERING INDUSTRY Armin Rosteck, Peter Kuhlang, Wilfried Sihn, Institute for Management

More information

Distributed Knowledge Management Portal For Learning Organizations With Collaborative Environment

Distributed Knowledge Management Portal For Learning Organizations With Collaborative Environment Distributed Knowledge Management Portal For Learning Organizations With Collaborative Environment Rusli Abdullah, Shamsul Sahibudin*, Rose Alinda Alias* & Mohd Hasan Selamat Faculty of Computer Science

More information