1 Tax Implications of Significant PFRS Standards Ma. Victoria C. Españo PICPA National Annual Convention Iloilo City, 2010
2 PFRS and Tax Laws Philippine Financial Reporting Standards (PFRS) set of rules to govern the recognition, measurement and reporting of financial transactions of an entity Philippine National Internal Revenue Code (Tax Code) set of laws governing the taxes imposed in the Philippines
3 PFRS and Tax Laws For tax purposes, revenue and expenses are generally determined based on the accounting method followed by the taxpayer (Sec. 43) Exception If accounting method is not reflective of true income, a different method may be used. If the NIRC provides for specific treatment of income or expenses, this should be followed.
4 What BIR says about the new accounting standards.. Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and Generally accepted accounting standards (GAAS) approved by the Accounting Standards Council (ASC) may, from time to time, differ from the provisions of the Tax Code of 1997 and its implementing regulations. In such cases, the provisions of the Tax Code and its implementing rules and regulations shall prevail. - Rev. Memorandum Circular
5 What BIR says about the new accounting standards.. Taxpayers must maintain books and records that would show clearly the reconciling items or differences between the amounts shown in a taxpayer s financial statements and the figures reported in its income tax return. - Rev. Regulations No
6 Reconciliation of Difference
7 Importance of Financial Records Audited financial statements are required to be submitted with ITR. Financial records are reviewed during tax examination Courts also rely on financial records in evaluating the completeness and correctness of tax information.
8 What should taxpayers do Understand changes brought about by these standards and evaluate if they are contrary to existing tax rules If not contrary and will reflect true income, adopt them. Comply with requirements relating to the adoption of such change! 1. Approval for changes in accounting methods 2. Tax ruling to confirm acceptability of accounting treatment for tax purposes
9 What should taxpayers do If contrary, recognize that information shall be treated differently for tax purposes. Difference should be reported as reconciling accounts between tax and book income. Establish system to track and capture the differences - Track differences for every affected transaction - Calculate differences at the end of the year
10 New Standards Effective 2005 PAS 1 PAS 2 PAS 8 PAS 10 PAS 16 PAS 17 PAS 19 PAS 21 PAS 24 PAS 27 PAS 29 Presentation in Financial Statements Inventories Changes in Accounting Policy, Prior Period Error s & Estimates Events After Balance Sheet Date Property, Plant and Equipment Leases Employee Benefits Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates Related Party Transactions Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements Investment in Associates
11 New Standards Effective 2005 PAS 31 PAS 32 PAS 33 PAS 36 PAS 38 PAS 39 PAS 40 PFRS 2 PFRS 3 PFRS 5 Interest in Joint Ventures Financial Instruments: Presentation and Disclosures Earnings Per Share Impairment of Assets Intangible Assets Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurements Investment Properties Share-based Payments Business Combinations Non-current assets held for sales
12 After 2005 Additional standards and interpretations issued by the IASB and the IFRIC 37 standards (8 x PFRSs; 29 x PASs) 24 interpretations (13 x IFRICs; 11 x SICs)
13 Understanding Differences ACCOUNTING Fair value Substance Matching Income and Expenses Accounting Standards TAX Cost Form Contractual Rights and Obligations Legal Provisions
15 PAS 2 : Inventories Inventories are required to be stated at the lower of: Cost or Net realizable value NRV = Estimated selling price Less: Estimated cost to sell
16 PAS 2 : Inventories Accounting Inventory shall be adjusted to NRV if the latter is lower than cost. Tax Inventory shall remain to be valued at cost Write-down to NRV expense during the period Not valid additions to Cost of Sales. Reversal of write-down reduction in inventories recognized as expense during the period Reversals should not decrease COS.
17 PAS 36: Impairment of Assets Accounting Policy Tax Treatment / Issues Impairment loss is charged as an expense. Losses recognized due to impairment are not deductible. A reversal of an impairment loss for an asset shall be recognized immediately As income (or reduction of expense). Gains from reversal of impairment loss are not taxable. Any reversal of an impairment loss of a revalued asset is credited directly to equity under the heading revaluation surplus.
18 PAS 40 : Investment Property Applies to property (land or building) used to Earn rentals or For capital appreciation or Both Rather than for use in the production or supply of goods or for administrative purposes, or sale in the ordinary course of business.
19 PAS 40 : Investment Property An entity is given the option to choose either: a fair value model, under which an investment property is measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in profit or loss a cost model, which requires an investment property to be measured after initial measurement at depreciated cost.
20 PAS 36 : Investment Property Accounting Fair value model Increase in FV property is reported as income Decrease in FV is reported as expense Tax For tax, property shall be valued at cost. Income/expense recognized due to changes in the value of the property will not be considered as taxable income /deductible expense. If a property is used in business, taxpayer can claim deduction for depreciation. Depreciation shall be based on cost. If the property is sold, gains or losses to be considered shall be based on the unadjusted carrying value (without adjustment of fair value effects).
22 Fundamental Principle - Accounting Inventories are required to be stated at the lower of: Cost or Net realizable value
23 Measurement of Cost - Accounting Includes: Cost of purchase Cost of conversion Other costs to bring inventories to present location and condition Excludes: Abnormal waste Storage Cost Unrelated administrative overhead Selling costs Deferred Payment cost Foreign exchange differences
24 Example - Deferred payment Buyer Side Product was invoiced for P100, payable after a year. If cash payment, price will be P90. Purchases 90 Deferred Interest Expense 10 Accounts Payable 100 Accounts Payable 100 Interest Expense 10 Cash 100 Deferred Interest Expense 10
25 PAS 2 : Inventories Accounting Cash discounts and Settlement discounts are recognized when the purchase is booked. Contractual discounts shall be recognized once probable. Tax If the discount has not been granted at the time of purchase, the purchase price shall be recorded based on the invoice amount Only actual discounts are reported as reduction from gross sales. Cash discount time of purchase Settlement discount when received Rebates when granted
26 PAS 2 : Inventories Accounting If not availed, the foregone discount is recognized as finance cost. Tax Such finance cost shall not be deductible. Useful to use a different account title to record discounts recognized upon purchase but not yet granted under a different account title finance costs relating to unavailed discounts.
27 PAS 18 : Revenue Recognition Goods Transfer of risks & rewards Management involvement Substance of the transaction Recognize revenue when: 1. Measured reliably 2. Flow of economic benefits probable 3. Costs measured reliably Services Performance of obligations Percentage of completion method PAS 11 construction contracts
28 PAS 18 : Revenue Recognition Multiple Element Arrangements (MEA) - Arrangements involving the supply of multiple goods or services at different points in time Examples of MEAs include Supply of goods with subsequent servicing Certain customer loyalty/incentive schemes
29 PAS 18 : Revenue Recognition Accounting Revenues shall be accounted for separately. Tax Treat the components of a transaction separately if - Amount for subsequent servicing that is identifiable from the selling price is deferred and recognized as revenue over the period during which the service is performed. the contract explicitly describes these components and the stipulated payments are broken down according to the various parts of what is being provided under the contract.
30 Substance vs. Form - MEA Example : Supply of goods with subsequent servicing Entity G runs a promotion in which customers sign a twelve month airtime contract with minimum monthly spend of P 30 per month, entitling them to 60 minutes of usage each month, and receive a "free" phone. The phone is also sold separately for P100 (assume there are regular sales at this price). Under the promotion customers also pay a one-off connection fee of P50.
31 Substance vs. Form - MEA Analysis: The arrangement includes two separately identifiable components - the phone and the airtime service. The total consideration for the arrangement is P410 ( x30). The fair value of the phone is P100. The fair value of the airtime revenue is P360. Using a relative fair value approach, the total revenue of P410 is allocated proportionately to the fair values of the two separately identifiable components as follows: Phone: P410 x (100/460) = 89 Airtime: P410 x (360/460) = 321
32 PAS 18 : Revenue Recognition Accounting Recognized as sale of goods: The phone revenue of P89 is recognized on delivery of the phone, along with associated costs. Recognized as sale of services: The airtime revenue of P321 is recognized on a straight line basis over the 12 month contract period. Tax Recognized as sale of services Income tax : VAT: Connection fee of P50 is recognized as revenue in the first year. Airtime revenue of P360 is recognized over the 12 month contract period. Taxable sales is the amount actually received during the year.
33 PAS 17 : Leases Classification of Leases 1. Finance Lease is a lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incident to ownership of an asset. Title may or may not eventually be transferred. 2. Operating Lease is a lease other than the finance lease.
34 Definition Tax (RR 19-86) 1. Lease an agreement between the lessor and lessee giving lessee possession and use of a specific property upon payment of rentals over a period of time. 2. Conditional Sale one of the parties obligates himself or transfer ownership of and deliver a determinate thing while the other pays a price certain.
35 PAS 17 : Leases Accounting Tax Operating Lease Operating Lease Finance Lease Operating Lease Finance Lease Conditional Sale
36 PAS 32: Financial Instruments: Presentation and Disclosures Financial Liability Equity Instrument When issuer is or can be required to deliver either cash or another financial asset to the holder (presence of contractual obligation) When it represents a residual interest in the net asset of the issuer
37 PAS 18 : Revenue Recognition Accounting Tax The substance of a financial instrument governs its classification rather than its legal form Based on LEGAL FORM Treated as obligation if covered by PN, Loan agreements and etc. Treated as equity if representing ownership in company. Normally covered by shares of stocks.
38 Financial Liabilities vs. Equity Instruments Instrument Classification For Accounting Treatment For Tax Payout Common shares Equity Equity Dividends Redeemable preferred shares with 50% fixed dividend each year subject to availability of distributable profits Liability Equity Accounting: Interest Tax: Dividends Convertible bond which converts into fixed number of shares Liability for bond and equity for option Liability Accounting: Interest and Dividend Tax: Interest Convertible bond which converts into shares to the value of the liability Liability Liability until converted to shares Interest
39 PAS 32: Financial Instruments Presentation and Disclosures Financial Liabilities vs. Equity Instruments Example: Company A issued on May 5, 2005 preferred shares with 10% dividend per year and are redeemable in May Accounting: The preferred shares are to be presented in the B/S of Company A as liabilities because they represent contractual obligations of the company to deliver cash at a fixed maturity date. Tax: The preferred shares are treated as equity. Payout is dividend not interest.
40 Tax Treatment: Interest vs. Dividend Interest Dividend Deductibility Deductible Non-deductible Withholding Tax Interest paid to foreign creditor is subject to 20% FT or tax treaty rate, if applicable -0% if intercorporate -32% if NRFC unless Treaty rate - 15% if Resident if tax-sparing provision applies
41 Tax Rules Thin capitalization BIR to examine whether there is a true debtor-creditor relationship. Excessively large liabilities in relation to capital stock (especially in the case of a new company) may indicate a thin capitalization situation. In the absence of rules prescribing guidelines and presumptions as to what constitute thin capitalization (unlike other countries), there is a necessity to determine the reasonable ratio of debt over equity considering all factors surrounding the case. - Rev Audit Memo Order 1-98
43 PAS 18 : Revenue Recognition Fair value of consideration received or receivable If consideration is receivable in the future, use present value and recognize interest income as discount unwinds
44 PAS 18 : Revenue Recognition Example: Seller Side Product was invoiced for P100, payable after 18 months. If cash payment, price will be P90. Accounts Receivable 100 Sales 90 Deferred Interest Income 10 Cash 100 Deferred Interest income 10 Accounts Receivable 100 Interest Income 10
45 PAS 18 : Revenue Recognition Accounting When inventories are sold with deferred settlement terms, the difference between the sales price for normal credit terms and the amount received is recognized as interest income over the period of financing. Tax Taxpayer should report as sales the full invoice amount, both for income and VAT purposes. Implicit interest income on transaction is not taxable. For tracking purposes, a different account may be used to record this type of interest.
46 PAS 16: Property, Plant and Equipment PPE are initially measured at cost. Components of the cost of PPE: Purchase price, including import duties Directly attributable costs Initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site Excludes interest and financing cost to acquire property, except for qualifying assets.
47 PAS 16: Property, Plant and Equipment Accounting Cost shall include initial estimate of cost of dismantlement or removal or cost of restoration incurred to install an item. Tax Not qualified as part of the cost of PPE. This difference affects: - Depreciation - Book value of PPE when disposed Such costs are deductible only when actually incurred (upon dismantling, restoration)
48 PAS 16: Property, Plant and Equipment Accounting Cost shall include initial estimate of cost of dismantlement or removal or Tax Withholding tax - based on actual acquisition cost of PPE. VAT - purchase should be reported at acquisition cost. cost of restoration incurred to install an item.
49 Example: Accounting for Estimated Dismantling and Restoration Costs FS Tax Acquisition cost: Purchase price Installation cost PV Est. dismantling cost P 1,500, , ,000 P 1,500, ,000 - Total Acquisition Cost P 1,850,000 P 1,600,000 Annual Depreciation P 370,000 P 320,000 *Useful life = 5 years
50 PAS 17: Leases Operating Lease : Lessor Accounting Policy Lease income from operating leases shall be recognized as income on a straight-line basis over the lease term, even if the receipts are not on such a basis. Tax Treatment / Issues Income to be reported shall be the amount to be received by the Lessor based on the provisions of the agreement. Hence, the income to be reported by the lessor is just the rent actually earned.
51 Operating Lease with unequal rental payments Year 1 Lessor s Books Lessee s Books Dr. Cash P1,000 Dr. Rent Expense P1,150 Dr. Receivable 150 Cr. Payable 150 Cr. Rent Income 1,150 Cr. Cash P1,000 Year 2 Annual rental: Y1 - P1,000; Y2 - P1,100; Y3 - P1,200; Y4 - P1,300; Lease term = 4 yrs Total rent for 4 years = P4,600; Average annual rent = P1,150 Accounting entry upon receipt/payment of rent: Years 1 and 2 Dr. Cash P1,000 Dr. Rent Expense P1,150 Dr. Receivable 150 Cr. Payable 150 Cr. Rent Income 1,150 Cr. Cash P1,000
53 PAS 8 : Changes in Accounting Policy Accounting Accounting error should be adjusted retrospectively. Tax Tax return in affected year should be amended to report true income or expense. However, this can only be done within three years from the date of filing of such return and provided no notice for audit or investigation has been served to the taxpayer. - Sec. 6, NIRC, as amended
54 PAS 16 : Property, Plant and Equipment Interest and financing charges relating to acquisition of property are treated as period expense, unless said interest are opted to be capitalized for being related to acquisition of qualifying assets. Qualifying asset pertain to a property that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. o Manufacturing plant o Power generation facilities o Buildings o Warehouse
55 PAS 16: Property, Plant and Equipment Accounting Interest and financing charges relating to acquisition of property Non-qualifying treated as an expense Qualifying option to either recognize as period expense or to capitalize as part of the cost of the asset. Tax If incurred in connection with the acquisition of property used in business, taxpayer is given the option to either : Treat interest as part of the cost of the property (and thereof be part of the depreciable base) or Claim interest as deduction in the year incurred. - Sec. 34(B)(1), NIRC as amended
56 PAS 36 : Impairment of Assets Accounting Impairment loss Charged to profit and loss. Tax Gain or loss is recognized only when the asset is sold or disposed. - Sec. 96, Rev. Regs. 2 Non-deductible losses. Gains from reversal of impairment loss are not taxable. - BIR Ruling DA , Nov. 10, 2003
57 PAS 38 : Intangible Assets Accounting Tax Expenditure on research - Recognized as an expense when it is incurred. Development expenditures Option to - Expense in the year incurred, or - Capitalize as an intangible asset. Option to Deduct in the year incurred or Deferred expenses and claim as deduction ratably distributed over a period of not less than 60 months, beginning with the month in which the taxpayer first realizes benefits from such expenditures. -Sec. 34(I), NIRC as amended
58 Example Impact of Impairment on Depreciation Calculation of the Impairment loss at the end of 2005 Carrying amount before impairment loss P 150,000 Impairment loss (P 28,872) Recoverable amount P 121,128 Depreciation each year (straight line basis) P 12,113 Deductible depreciation P 15,000
59 PAS 19: Employee Benefits Accounting DCP = expense / accrued liability is the amount of required contribution under the plan. DBP = use of actuarial assumptions to measure the net expense (income) and the retirement benefit obligation (asset). Tax Only contributions paid during the year to a BIR-qualified trusteed plan are deductible Rule on deductibility: Contributions for present service cost full deductible; Contributions for past service cost, 1/10th of the contribution paid. - Sec 34(J), NIRC
60 Reconciling Tax and Book Income
61 Reconciling Items to be shown in ITR Non-deductible loss on write-down of inventory to net realizable value (PAS 2) Non-deductible/non-taxable implicit interest expense/income recognized on purchase of inventory on deferred installment term (PAS 2) Non-taxable/non-deductible gains/losses arising from the recognition of biological assets/agricultural produce at FV less point-of-sale costs (PAS 41) Difference between the gains/loss on disposal of biological assets/agricultural produce computed using stated at FV less point-ofsale costs vs. unadjusted costs (PAS 41) Non-deductible depreciation on dismantlement, restoration costs and/or revaluation increment (PAS16) Non-deductible impairment losses (PAS 16,38,17,36,40,PFRS 5)
62 Reconciling Items - Additional Non-deductible depreciation on dismantlement, restoration costs and/or revaluation increment (PAS16) Non-deductible impairment losses (PAS 16,38,17,36,40,PFRS 5) Non-taxable gain on reversal of impairment loss (PAS 16, 38, 17, 36, 40, PFRS 5) Additional depreciation on proceeds from samples deducted from the cost of equipment (PAS 16) Difference between the gain/loss on disposal of property computed using the carrying value vs. BV based on cost (PAS 16,17,36,40, PFRS 5) Non-deductible loss on assets de-recognized (PAS 16,36,40, PFRS 5) Amortization of research costs capitalized for tax purposes (PAS 38)
63 Reconciling Items - Additional Loss on write-off of research costs (PAS 38) Difference between the lease expense per contract and per expense recorded (PAS 17) Difference in depreciation expense per accounting and per tax on capitalized leased assets (PAS 17) Gain/loss on assets sold through sale-leaseback agreement (PAS 17) Amortization of gain/loss on assets sold through sale-leaseback agreement (PAS 17) Non-taxable/non-deductible revaluation gains/loss (PAS 38,32)
64 Reconciling Items - Additional Non-deductible/non-taxable implicit interest expenses/income recognized on financial instruments (PAS 32) Interest expense financial instrument recorded as dividends (PAS 32) Non-deductible/non-taxable interest expense/income pertaining to dividends declared/received (PAS 32) Non-taxable/non-deductible gains/losses in changes in faire value of financial assets at FVTPL (PAS 32) Non-taxable/non-deductible gains/losses on remeasurement of derivatives/hedging (PAS 32) Non-deductible accrual of employee benefits (PAS 19, PFRS 2) Employee benefits paid in the current taxable year bur accrued in previous year/s (PAS 19, PFRS 2)
65 Challenge for business entities Are their accounting personnel familiar with the differences with tax and accounting rules to be able to make valuable suggestions to management? Did their employees who are responsible for the preparation of income tax return undergo training on the impact of the new accounting standards on tax reporting? Has the entity reviewed its information system to determine if it effectively captures the relevant tax and accounting differences to ensure availability of correct information when required? Does the entity maintain records to support these differences are retained and will be readily available in case of a BIR tax audit?
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