1 Financial Modeling & Forecasting Jason MacMorran
2 Presentation Outline I. Introduction and Learning Objectives II. Definitions and Standards Overview III. Uses for Financial Models IV. Basics of Financial Modeling V. Basics of Financial Analysis VI. Sensitivity and Scenario Analysis VII. Conclusion
3 Learning Objectives Understand accounting standards related to prospective information. Discuss uses and applications for financial models, including uses as decision making tools. Understand basic design and creation of a financial model. Understand uses for financial analysis and sensitivity analysis.
4 Definitions and Standards Overview
5 Definitions and Standards Overview The words projection, forecast, pro forma, model, etc., are often used interchangeably relative to prospective information. In an accounting context, they have different meanings. Generally speaking, the projection, forecast, pro forma or budget will be the output, and the financial model will include the inputs and output. This section is not intended to be authoritative or a detailed look at standards, but a general overview of what to look for and where to find it!
6 Key Accounting Terms Forecast presents an entity s expected financial position, results of operations, and cash flows, based on responsible party s assumptions reflecting conditions it expects to exist and actions it expects to take. Projection presents an entity s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows, based on one or more hypothetical (what ifs) assumptions provided by a responsible party. Hypothetical Assumption - an assumption used to present a condition or course of action that is not necessarily expected to occur, but is consistent with the purpose of the projection (i.e. expansion scenario).
7 Key Accounting Terms Financial Analysis practitioner develops assumptions, analyzes results, and recommends a course of action. Partial Presentation a presentation of prospective financial information that excludes one or more of the items required for prospective financial statements. Responsible Party person or persons responsible for assumptions underlying the prospective financial statements.
8 Types of Presentations Prospective Information Prospective Financial Statements Forecast Projection Prospective, but not Financial Statements Partial presentations Financial analyses Not Prospective Information Pro forma, based on historical amounts Expired budgets
9 Uses of Prospective Information General Use use by persons with whom the responsible party is not directly negotiating, for example: Offering of debt or equity securities under SEC regulations. Offering of tax-exempt bonds. Limited Use use only by the entity with whom the responsibly party is negotiating, for example: Private placement. Negotiating bank financing. Merger negotiations. Internal Use solely for use by the responsible party.
10 Uses of Prospective Information Type of Prospective Presentation Appropriate Uses General Use Limited Use Internal Use Forecast Yes Yes Yes Projection No Yes Yes Partial Presentation No Yes Yes Financial Analysis No Yes Yes
11 Types of Engagements Third-party Use: Special disclaimer on current year budgets practitioners may not be required to apply any procedures if they make certain disclaimers. Compilation assembling prospective statements in conformity with presentation guidelines and issuing report. Agreed-upon procedures varies by engagement, and can be very limited or quite extensive. Examination evaluating assumptions and presentation of financial information and issuing report. Internal Use: Assembly no type of assurance, does not require report.
12 Independence Independence is required in examination and agreed-upon procedures engagements, but not in compilation or internal use engagements because no assurance is expressed.
13 Exceptions Litigation and valuation projects often have exceptions to procedure and presentation rules, so long as they are properly disclaimed.
14 Key Finance Terms Net Present Value present value of expected future cash flows minus initial investment. Internal Rate of Return discount rate at which investment has zero net present value.
15 Resources Accounting AICPA Attestation Standards AICPA Guide for Prospective Financial Information AICPA Practice Aid 06-2 Preparing Financial Models PPC s Guide to Forecasts and Projections Finance Brealey & Myers Principles of Corporate Finance
16 Uses for Financial Models
17 Background Financial models should tell a story. What is the business going to do? How is it going to do it? How is it reflected in the financials? Financial models capture the future operating, investing and financing activities that determine future profitability, financial position, and risk. Financial models should be comprehensive, internally consistent, and externally reasonable.
18 Background Financial models can integrate elements of accounting, finance, economics, corporate psychology, and business philosophy. Accounting based models compilations for investors / creditors. Finance / economics based models decision making (net present value, internal rate of return, etc.). Psychology / Philosophy In a decision making model, how will competitors react to your planned actions? Does the plan involve risks you know you re unwilling to take?
19 Uses for Financial Models Financing (debt or equity) Merger / Acquisition Buy vs. Lease Lost Profits Valuation Business Interruption Budgeting Litigation Support Business Plans Start-ups Strategic Plans Contraction / Closure Expansion
20 Financial Models in Everyday Life A financial model does not have to be complex! Simple situations call for simple financial models: Buy vs. lease of vehicle Impact of change in interest rate on borrowing Payback period on an investment Complex situations call for complex financial models: Merger and acquisition pro-forma and future cost savings Entering new markets / launching new products Litigation
21 Basics of Financial Modeling
22 Basics of Financial Modeling Define the need Basic organization Sample construction Other layout considerations
23 Define the Need What is the desired goal of the financial model? Launching a new product? Integrating a potential acquisition? Refinancing debt? Who is the expected user? Management? Investors? Bankers? What is the expected use? Internal? External? The above issues will govern the sophistication and reporting requirements of a financial model.
24 Define the Need Presentation / engagement will depend on purpose and audience. May require complete financial statements over a defined time period. May require limited information over a defined time period. May require one-time sources and uses of funds.
25 Complete Financial Statements Most difficult and time consuming to prepare, but also most instructive to user: Balance Sheet measures future liquidity and leverage Income Statement measures future operating results Statement of Cash Flows outlines future cash needs for growth (investment and borrowing) and returns to investors Collectively, complete financial statements can help measure return on investment and potential risks.
26 Limited Information Most common, including: Prepare a twelve month budget Six months of start-up expenses Amortize a loan over five years Do not necessarily have to be financial statements!
27 Sources and Uses of Funds SOURCES AND USES Where is money coming from (bank debt, equity, etc). What is it going to be spent on (equipment, refinance, operating costs, etc). Often seen in refinancing and bond offerings. Contribution Cap % Sources Cash on Hand $ % Bank Revolver 0 0.0% Senior Bank Note 20, % Subordinated Bank Note 5, % Owner Contribution 10, % New Equity 50, % Total Sources $ 85, % Uses Purchase new equipment $ 10, % Operating costs 25, % Office manager 40, % Refinance Existing Debt 0 0.0% Working Capital 10, % Cash % Total Uses $ 85, %
28 Time Period Generally, time period should match the business life cycle. 5 year projection for a 20 year real estate deal may not be helpful. 20 year projection in a rapidly changing industry may not be relevant. How to handle changes in the economy? For litigation or damage oriented models, time period should correspond to period of damage.
29 Basic Organization Most financial models include the following basic elements: Identification of the problem to be solved (buy vs. lease, expansion, new location, etc.) Key assumptions (sales growth, margins, capital expenditures, impact of competitors, etc.) Output / results (financial statements, net present value, go / no go decision, etc.)
30 Sample Construction Problem - Client / Employer wants to expand an existing product into a new geographic market (new location). Which question is better: Will the project be profitable? Will the project provide an adequate return on investment? Accounting based financial statements will show profitability. Net present value / internal rate of return analysis will show return on investment.
31 Sample Construction - Scope Problem and expected use/users will define scope of financial model. In the case of expansion / new location, the following factors should be considered: Will be a long-term project Will likely require significant investment (equity and /or debt) Will likely require consideration of competitor reactions Based on this problem and expected use/users, output should be complete presentation over a long-term, with consideration of return on the investment.
32 Sample Construction - Assumptions What are key assumptions? Will vary by client and industry May be impacted by current economic environment in short-term Critical points: Assumptions should be defined separately (i.e. a separate tab in Excel workbook); often referred to as projection drivers Assumptions should be reasonable and logical Assumptions should be supported by historical trends, industry trends, economic data, or other data (will discuss later) Bad assumptions = bad decisions!
33 Sample Construction - Assumptions Sample Company Projection Assumptions Growth Rates Line Item Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Terminal Revenues 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Salaries 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Benefits 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Supplies 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Licenses 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Utilities 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Repairs and maintenance 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Insurance 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Telephone 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Management fees 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Miscellaneous 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Accounts Receivable Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Terminal Assumed days outstanding Accounts receivable turnover Projected Net Sales $ 953,135 $ 1,000,792 $ 1,050,831 $ 1,103,373 $ 1,158,542 $ 1,216,469 Projected accounts receivable $ 182,793 $ 191,933 $ 201,529 $ 211,606 $ 222,186 $ 233,295 Accounts Payable Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Terminal Assumed days outstanding Accounts payable turnover Projected Operating Expenses, less Int & Depr $ 718,244 $ 751,156 $ 785,714 $ 822,000 $ 860,100 $ 900,105 Projected accounts payable $ 27,549 $ 28,811 $ 30,137 $ 31,529 $ 32,990 $ 34,525
34 Sample Construction Income Statement Easiest place to start: Core assumptions relate to operations (growth rates, margins, etc.) Operations not dependent on balance sheet or cash flows When appropriate, separate fixed and variable costs. If model is very detailed, consider separate worksheets for departments, revenues, cost of revenues, operating expenses, etc. Separating the model into smaller parts helps to catch errors!
36 Sample Construction Balance Sheet Often more difficult to model, mostly because cash balances are iterative (turn on Excel feature). Working capital (receivables, inventory, payables) projected from assumptions, such as days outstanding / turnover ratios. Capital expenditures need to support expected level of operations. Financing (debt / equity) will depend on capital needs, working capital requirements, etc. Retained earnings will roll from net income.
37 Sample Construction Balance Sheet Sample Company Projected Balance Sheets Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Terminal ASSETS Current Assets Cash $ 366,367 $ 564,455 $ 773,599 $ 946,853 $ 1,182,298 $ 1,409,996 Accounts receivable 182, , , , , ,295 Total Current Assets 549, , ,128 1,158,459 1,404,484 1,643,292 Fixed Assets Fixed assets, at cost 748, , , , , ,450 Accumulated depreciation (140,533) (281,066) (421,599) (572,132) (722,665) (722,665) Total Fixed Assets, net 607, , , ,318 75,785 75,785 Total Assets 1,157,077 1,223,771 1,301,979 1,384,777 1,480,269 1,719,077 LIABILITIES & EQUITY Liabilities Accounts payable 27,549 28,811 30,137 31,529 32,990 34,525 Notes payable 61,291 46,964 31,993 16,349 (0) (0) Total Liabilities 88,840 75,776 62,130 47,877 32,990 34,525 Equity Capital contributions 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 Retained earnings 68, , , , , ,552 Total Equity 1,068,237 1,147,996 1,239,849 1,336,899 1,447,279 1,684,552 Total Liabilities and Equity $ 1,157,077 $ 1,223,771 $ 1,301,979 $ 1,384,777 $ 1,480,269 $ 1,719,077
38 Sample Construction Cash Flow Connect the parts from the Balance Sheet and Income Statement. Consider a T=0 time period for initial investments (capital expenditure, debt financing, equity financing, etc). Is there a minimum days cash on hand to start with? This will influence financing requirements. Cash balances are iterative (turn on Excel feature).
39 Sample Construction Cash Flow Sample Company Projected Cash Flows T=0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Terminal Cash Flows from Operating Activities Net Income $ - $ 68,237 $ 79,758 $ 91,853 $ 97,050 $ 110,380 $ 237,273 Adjust for non-cash items Depreciation - 140, , , , ,533 - Adjust for changes in: (Increase) decrease in accounts receivable (174,089) (8,704) (9,140) (9,597) (10,076) (10,580) (11,109) Increase (decrease) in accounts payable 26,347 1,202 1,262 1,326 1,392 1,461 1,534 Net Cash Provided (Used) by Operations (147,742) 201, , , , , ,698 Cash Flows from Investing Activities Capital expenditures (748,450) (50,000) - - Net Cash Used in Investing (748,450) (50,000) - - Cash Flows from Financing Activities Loan proceeds 75, Member contributions 1,000, Principal payments - (13,709) (14,326) (14,971) (15,645) (16,349) - Net Cash Provided (Used) by Financing 1,075,000 (13,709) (14,326) (14,971) (15,645) (16,349) - Net Increase in Cash 178, , , , , , ,698 Cash, Beginning of Year - 178, , , , ,853 1,182,298 Cash, End of Year $ 178,808 $ 366,367 $ 564,455 $ 773,599 $ 946,853 $ 1,182,298 $ 1,409,996
40 Sample Construction Iterative Calculations
41 Sample Construction Cash Flows Most overlooked in financial modeling, but most important. Statement of Cash Flows shows: Timing of capital expenditures for growth Additional borrowing needs Ability to provide return on investment Cash flows available to investors (free cash flows) is a core element in financial decision making, and is essential to a net present value analysis or an internal rate of return analysis.
42 Sample Construction Decision Making Sample Company Decision Making T=0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Terminal EBIT $ 94,358 $ 109,103 $ 124,584 $ 130,840 $ 147,909 $ 316,364 Less: tax on EBIT (23,590) (27,276) (31,146) (32,710) (36,977) (79,091) After-tax EBIT 70,769 81,827 93,438 98, , ,273 Add: depreciation N/A 140, , , , ,533 - Less: capital expenditures (50,000) - - Less: working capital requirements (7,502) (7,877) (8,271) (8,685) (9,119) (9,575) Free Cash Flows to Debt and Equity $ 203,799 $ 214,483 $ 225,700 $ 189,978 $ 252,346 $ 227,698 Free Cash Flows to Debt and Equity $ (1,075,000) $ 203,799 $ 214,483 $ 225,700 $ 189,978 $ 252,346 $ 1,138,490 Present Value (1,075,000) 186, , , , , ,203 Net Present Value $ 129,942 Required Rate of Return 20%
43 Other Layout Consideration Have a summary tab that provides the answer concisely. Have designated input only tabs and clearly delineate variables. Link and cross-link worksheets Use Excel formulas: If/then Average and median Lookup Forecast Trend
44 Basics of Financial Analysis
45 Why Perform Financial Analysis? Projection assumptions can be supported by historical financial analysis. Basic financial analysis tools include: Common size financial statements Ratio analysis Trend analysis Industry comparatives Financial analysis tools and techniques can: Isolate trends (positive and negative). Help identify strengths and weaknesses.
46 Common Size Financial Statements Income Statement line items as a percentage of revenues: Identify changes in cost of sales, gross profits, and operating expense margins over time. Balance Sheet line items as a percentage of total assets: Identify changes in (and composition of) current assets and liabilities, fixed assets, debt, and other balances sheet items over time. Are margins and compositions expected to stay the same in the future? Why have margins changed? Were the changes expected?
47 Ratio Analysis Ratio analysis can assist with understanding and projecting: Growth Cost control Asset turnover Profitability Risk How these ratios have changed (or not) over time. How do ratios compare to benchmarks? Integra Information ( RMA Statement Studies ( Trade associations
48 Ratio Analysis Growth Ratios Growth in revenues Growth in expenses Growth in earnings Cost Control Ratios Often common size income statement / margins Turnover Ratios Receivable turnover Inventory turnover Payable turnover Total asset turnover
49 Ratio Analysis - Example Sample Company Projection Assumptions Growth Rates Line Item Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Terminal Revenues 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Salaries 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Benefits 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Supplies 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Licenses 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Utilities 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Repairs and maintenance 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Insurance 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Telephone 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Management fees 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Miscellaneous 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Accounts Receivable Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Terminal Assumed days outstanding Accounts receivable turnover Projected Net Sales $ 953,135 $ 1,000,792 $ 1,050,831 $ 1,103,373 $ 1,158,542 $ 1,216,469 Projected accounts receivable $ 182,793 $ 191,933 $ 201,529 $ 211,606 $ 222,186 $ 233,295 Accounts Payable Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Terminal Assumed days outstanding Accounts payable turnover Projected Operating Expenses, less Int & Depr $ 718,244 $ 751,156 $ 785,714 $ 822,000 $ 860,100 $ 900,105 Projected accounts payable $ 27,549 $ 28,811 $ 30,137 $ 31,529 $ 32,990 $ 34,525
50 Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratios Return on Assets (ROA) Return on Equity (ROE) Return on Investment (ROI) Risk Ratios Leverage Interest coverage Current ratio
51 Financial Analysis Beware the pitfalls: Ratios can be complicated by accounting methods: How do comparable companies report inventory, depreciation, etc. GAAP allows for different treatments, and different accounting treatments can skew ratio output. Ratios are industry dependent : CPA firms use different ratios than manufacturing firms Be cautious of rules of thumb Financial analysis tools are diagnostic; they do a better job of raising questions than providing answers!
52 Sensitivity and Scenario Analysis
53 Sensitivity Analysis Sensitivity Analysis How does the projection respond to different shocks? Important to know which variables and assumptions are most influential in your model.
54 Scenario Analysis Run multiple scenarios: Measure outcomes of events with different influences. Often used to see best case and worst case. Used to establish a range of cash flows for the company, but does not necessarily increase confidence in decision.
55 Monte Carlo Analysis Monte Carlo analysis: Measures outcomes of events with random influences and assigns probabilities based on frequency. Can run tens of thousands of potential scenarios in seconds. Does not give you THE answer, but gives confidence in the range of answers for a set of variables.
57 Parting Thoughts Be sure to define the problem and expected use. Support the assumptions. Consider alternative scenarios. Provide the right output for the expected user.
59 Contact Information Jason MacMorran, CPA/ABV, CVA, CFF, MS Postlethwaite & Netterville, APAC 8550 United Plaza Blvd., Suite 1001 Baton Rouge, LA
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