ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... 2 INTRODUCTION... 3

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1 Table f Cntents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... 2 INTRODUCTION... 3 LESSON PLANS Lessn 1: Welcme and intrductin - What is entrepreneurship?... 6 Lessn 2: Entrepreneurship assets and deficits and Defining expectatins... 8 Lessn 3: Feasibility Study Steps 1 & 2 Make a business chice and Cnduct market research Lessn 4: Feasibility Study Step 3 Define business peratins and the three types f csts Lessn 5: Feasibility Study Step 4 Calculate the cst per unit, determine the selling price and estimate sales incme Prduct Cst Table Determine the selling price and calculate the prfit per unit Estimate sales incme Lessn 6: Feasibility Study Step 5 Decide if the business is a gd idea S.W.O.T. Decisin Table S.W.O.T. Analysis Table S.W.O.T. Flw Chart Business Idea Checklist Entrepreneurship Questinnaire Lessn 7: Realities f entrepreneurship Lessn 8: Marketing Lessn 9: Accunting Natinal Sandwich May Incme & Expenses Natinal Sandwich June Incme & Expenses Natinal Sandwich July Incme & Expenses Example Daily Cash Jurnal Lessn 10: Finding cmmunity ressurces Lessn 11: Business plans Lessn 12: Actin planning Actin Planning Wrksheet Example Actin Planning Wrksheet Lessn 13: Distributin f certificates Evaluatin Attendance List Example certificate APPENDIX i : Creativity ii: Stck management Daily Sales Recrd, Stck Ntebk, & Inventry Sheet Daily Sales Recrd, Stck Ntebk, & Inventry Sheet Practice... 74

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Yuth Entrepreneurship Training Prgram (YETP) was cnceptualized and inspired by Peace Crps Guinea s lng histry f entrepreneurship activities and an increasing demand t prvide Guinean yuth with the necessary skills t initiate businesses, make healthy and prductive life chices and reinfrce prfessinal skills in the wrk place. YETP Versin 2.0 represents a cllabrative and evlving effrt t create a prgram that respnds t the unique needs f Guinean yuth. It incrprates feedback and lessns learned after nearly a year f implementing the riginal YETP Versin 1.0, and draws frm cntributins frm a number f partners wh have made this prgram a success. First and fremst we thank Philip Rush, the riginal Yuth Entrepreneurship Training Prgram (YETP) Crdinatr. Philip wrked clsely with several Peace Crps Vlunteers t edit and cmpile the prgram, including Juliette Keeley, Ravi Slter, Mary Tellers and Janice Williams. In additin, we cannt thank ur lcal partners enugh fr serving as vital sunding bards in creating a curriculum adapted t the yuth experience in Guinea. We thank the Bké Centre de Frmatin Prfessinnel (CFP) fr its willingness t prvide facilities and input during the trial run f the prgram. We ffer a special thank yu t Mr. Abdul Karim Cndé, Center Directr and Mr. Alhassane Kulibaly, Prfessr f Heavy Engine Mechanics, as well as the students f the Bké CFP wh enthusiastically participated in the initial lessns. Their passin t learn abut entrepreneurship, make psitive life chices and take the initiative t create their wn assciatin (L Assciatin des Jeunes Etudiants à la Recherche de Cnnaissance du CFP de Bké (AJERC)) t search fr knwledge prvided the indispensible yuth-based input that was critical t develping the prgram. We wuld als like t thank Internatinal Fundatin fr Educatin and Self-Help (IFESH) Vlunteers Ibrahima Camara and Djalimatu Diall fr their supprt and participatin. Since YETP 1.0 s intrductin, a number f peple have played a tremendus rle in implementing and revising the prgram. We wuld like t thank all f the past YETP participants and facilitatrs whse indispensable feedback has helped us t enrich the prgram, guiding us t mre precisely and effectively meet the needs f Guinea s yuth. Particular thanks t ur partnerships with CECOJE Kindia and AGUIDEP fr their tenacity and dedicatin t YETP since its beginning. Thanks t Kenny Lawrence, wh retled the Feasibility Study Steps 1-5 and drafted the riginal Finding Cmmunity Resurces and Creativity lessn, Amanda Malzacher wh drafted Stck Management and Meghan McCrmick wh drafted the Business Plans sessin. Particular thanks t Hillary Braseth, wh designed the cver page fr bth Versins 1.0 and 2.0. We are very grateful fr the thughtful input and cnstructive editing f Assciate Peace Crps Directr, Kristine Schantz. Withut her help drafting the Small Prject Assistance (SPA) Prpsal and the YETP backgrund paper, the prgram wuld have never been realized. Als special thanks t Peace Crps Prgram Assistant Mariama Diall fr her editing cntributins. And finally, we appreciate the United States Agency fr Internatinal Develpment (USAID) fr their financial supprt f the prject. Philip Rush YETP Crdinatr May 2012, Versin 1.0 YETP Steering Cmmittee April 2013, Versin 2.0 Christpher Austin General Crdinatr Chelsea Erla Mnitring and Evaluatin Crdinatr Kenny Lawrence Vlunteer Outreach Crdinatr Amanda Malzacher Partnerships Crdinatr Meghan McCrmick Technical Advisr 2

3 INTRODUCTION Yuth Emplyment and Enterprise Develpment in Guinea Small enterprise develpment is cited as a pririty in the Gvernment f Guinea s Five-Year Sci-Ecnmic Develpment Plan ( ) in an ecnmy where 90% f businesses are classified as small r medium. A lack f technical supprt is cited as ne factr impeding small and medium enterprise (SME) grwth. 1 Frmalizing infrmal sectr activities in rder t fuel ecnmic develpment and cmbat unemplyment remains a pririty fr the Guinean gvernment. The infrmal sectr is estimated t emply 86% f the wrking ppulatin 2 and cnstitutes nearly 50% f Grss Dmestic Prduct (GDP). 3 Yuth emplyment, prfessinal develpment, entrepreneurship and civic engagement remain natinal pririties as defined by the Guinean Ministry f Yuth and Yuth Emplyment, with 74% f the ppulatin classified as yuth (15-35 years ld, as defined by the Guinean Gvernment) and 55% under the age f Educatin, training and decent emplyment remain central pririties fr the Guinean Gvernment, with an verarching aim t assist yuth in becming respnsible, engaged and well-runded citizens in rder t participate in natinal develpment and reginal integratin. 5 Unemplyment affects 15% f thse with a secndary-level educatin, 42% f thse cmpleting technical schling and 61% f thse with a university degree. Additinally, 70% f thse under 25 years ld (regardless f educatinal level) are unemplyed. Unemplyment and under-emplyment are explained by a discnnect between the Guinean ecnmy's needs and the training and educatin ffered t yuth, and further reinfrced by a limited number f emplyment pprtunities in the private and public sectrs. 6 Many f Guinea s small business peratrs are cnsidered necessity entrepreneurs due t a lack f ther suitable wrk ptins. Despite the fact that these infrmal business activities drive the Guinean ecnmy at a husehld level, there exists minimal training and supprt t prmte entrepreneurial develpment. In Guinean frmal educatin, entrepreneurship is nt ffered until the university level; hwever, in rder t be effective, entrepreneurial spirit and skills wuld ideally be cultivated frm a much yunger age. The Gal f the YETP There are many initiatives and structures prmting entrepreneurship in Guinea and the regin. The gal f the YETP is t create a natinal curriculum that draws frm diverse experiences and resurces t address the unique needs f Guinean yuth. It aims t prvide basic training in business develpment skills and essential life skills necessary t becme an active and cntributing citizen. The YETP can be adapted as necessary and used by a variety f ecnmic actrs wrking in different cntexts t prmte entrepreneurship. YETP has already made great strides in preparing Guinean yuth t becme successful entrepreneurs. Within the first year ver 400 participants graduated frm curses taught anywhere frm university classrms t small grups f cmmunity members. Internet cafes, mdern brick factries, and rganic farms are all examples f businesses that have been launched fllwing successful cmpletin f the YETP. Additinally, these participants are using existing Guinean funding pprtunities t launch their businesses, which has been a majr success fr the sustainable financial apprach prmted by this prgram. What is the YETP? The YETP cnsists f a series f lessns prmting nt nly basic business skills develpment but als the life skills necessary t succeed as an entrepreneur in Guinea. The training prgram mixes hands-n, cmmunity-based activities with a traditinal training sessin frmat. The fllwing list prvides a brief intrductin t the cntents f each lessn: Lessn 1 lays ut a basic understanding f entrepreneurship and the traits f a successful entrepreneur. Lessn 2 helps participants t self-identify existing entrepreneurship resurces within the cmmunity Lessns 3, 4, 5, and 6 are dedicated t teaching the YETP Five-Step Feasibility Study Prcess. The prcess helps participants t self-identify existing entrepreneurship resurces within the cmmunity and sets expectatins fr the rest f the prgram. 1 Ministère du Plan, Plan Quinquennal de Dévelppement Sci-écnmique ( ), December Ibid. 3 African Develpment Fund, Republic f Guinea Results-Based Cuntry Strategy Paper ( ), June Ministère de la Jeunesse et l Empli des Jeunes, Plan Stratégique de Dévelppement de la Jeunesse et du Sprt, September Ministère du Plan, Plan Quinquennal de Dévelppement Sci-écnmique ( ), December Ibid. 3

4 Lessn 7 examines the realities f entrepreneurs in lcal cmmunities, hw t wrk in teams and gives participants the pprtunity t make a presentatin in frnt f the grup. Lessn 8 intrduces basic marketing practices. Lessn 9 prvides a simple methd f accunting practices thrugh the use f hands-n exercises. Lessn 10 prvides participants with tls t self-identify persnal and cmmunity resurces t initiate their businesses, including infrmatin n Micr-Finance Institutins. Lessn 11 teaches hw t assemble the essential parts f a business plan Lessn 12 helps participants develp an actin plan t start their business by writing gals and bjectives, assigning rles and develping a timeline fr starting up the prject. Lessn 13 prvides time t reflect n what participants have learned and t award certificates Appendix i prvides a variety f participative activities t prmte creativity and innvatin amng participants Appendix ii intrduces a system t manage the entry and exit f stck as well as inventry Implementing the YETP The YETP aims t facilitate hands-n entrepreneurship learning and discvery. It is designed s that trainers and students embark n a jurney tgether, where trainers facilitate the develpment f business ideas, practical applicatin f cncepts and tls, and ultimately, the realizatin f a small business. It is best t implement the training prgram ver several weeks in rder t develp knwledge at an even pace while expliting the benefits f learning thrugh hands-n applicatin. Hwever, it can als be taught in a cndensed frm during an abbreviated perid f time as well. The prgram shuld be implemented in a manner that adapts t individual ability, varying cmprehensin levels and educatinal backgrund. It is preferable t keep class sizes between students. A mdest class size permits trainers t address general questins, while being flexible enugh t wrk with individuals when needed. Participants shuld attend all classes, cmplete hmewrk assignments and arrive t class n time. Excessive tardiness and incmplete hmewrk assignments shuld be cnsidered grunds fr remval frm the prgram. Hwever, it is up t the trainer t decide whether r nt a participant shuld be allwed t cntinue and/r t reward a certificate at the end. Use the attached attendance sheet t help verify individual participatin and hmewrk cmpletin. The release f versin 2.0 als marks the launch f the Participant Manual. The Participant Manual cmpliments and enhances the YETP fr its participants, utlining lessn gals, bjectives and hmewrk assignments fr participants, highlighting key facts, as well as prviding designated space fr planned lessn activities. The bttm line is that participants will spend less time writing and mre time discussing, participating and learning. We suggest that trainers make cpies f the Participant Manual, having participants pay t cver the cst. T make YETP mre accessible, hwever, the language in this Trainer Manual assumes the participants are nt using the Participant Manual as it is a supplementary prduct, nt required. Usage f the Participant Manual is encuraged, but rest assured that the YETP will be a highly effective curriculum with r withut it. Target Grups In the Guinean cntext, yuth are classified as thse between years f age. The YETP is designed t address this ppulatin; hwever, the ideas apply t almst all Guinean entrepreneurs. The prgram is envisined t be taught in a variety f settings as described belw: High Schl and University levels as an after schl activity (althugh pst High Schl is highly recmmended) ; Vcatinal trade schls in rder t cmplement technical training with entrepreneurship and emplyment readiness; Cmmunity yuth assciatins, such as Centre d Ecute, des Cnseils, et d Orientatin pur Jeunes (CECOJE); Cmmunity-based grups and institutins, including wmen s grups, Micr-Finance Institutins, nngvernmental rganizatins and agricultural cperatives. Participant Selectin There are a number f ways t apprach the selectin f participants. Trainers can develp an applicatin prcess wherein ptential participants are required t write a shrt descriptin that explains their mtivatin t participate, knwledge f entrepreneurship and future gals. The applicatin als serves as a way t assess participant literacy. Trainers can als wrk with teachers, prfessrs and peer educatrs t identify ptential leaders and enthusiastic individuals frm existing student r yuth grups. 4

5 In high schls, teachers can play a vital rle in identifying particularly mtivated students and helping align a training schedule with nging classes r ther schl activities. Within the Maisn de Jeunes and CECOJE, trainers can cllabrate with peer educatrs t create entrepreneurship fcus grups. In vcatinal schls and at the university level, the YETP can be taught as a cmplementary subject t each field f study. The prgram can help students create incme generating activities during their time at schl and als prepare them fr life after graduatin by cmbining their technical expertise with newly develped entrepreneurship skills. With regards t literacy, YETP assumes that participants will cme t the prgram with elementary mathematics skills and basic French fluency. Hwever, the prgram can be adapted t varying levels f literacy and translated t lcal languages as necessary. Trainer Qualificatins YETP trainers d nt necessarily need a backgrund in entrepreneurship t teach the prgram. Hwever, they shuld pssess a university level degree r a cmbinatin f prfessinal and life experiences that equates t a level f knwledge sufficient t understand training cncepts, facilitate discussin and lead a class. Trainers are expected t set a psitive example fr prgram participants. This includes preparatin f lessn materials in advance, arriving t class n time, being plite and respectful f a diversity f pinin, and dressing prfessinally. YETP Resurces The prgram is designed s that trainers can teach lessn cntent using existing resurces and infrastructure. If the trainer decides t use markers, flipcharts and tape, s/he shuld purchase these materials with assistance frm participants and r partnering cmmunity structures. Lessn References Lessn 1: What is Entrepreneurship? Activity 2 was adapted frm The New Prject Design and Management Wrkshp Training Manual, Sessin 1, Success Stries in the Cmmunity: Characteristics f Effective Prjects, Peace Crps Office f Overseas Prgramming and Training Supprt, Peace Crps, Lessn 2: Entrepreneurship Assets and Deficits Activities 1, 2, 3 were adapted frm The New Prject Design and Management Wrkshp Training Manual, Sessin 2, Assets and Deficits: Identifying Our Resurces and Expectatins, Office f Overseas Prgramming and Training Supprt, Peace Crps, Lessn 8: Marketing Activities 1, 2, 3, 4 were adapted frm the Guide Sclaire du Curs de Gestin, Marketing, Peace Crps Senegal, Lessn 9: Basic Accunting Activities 1, 2, 3 were adapted frm the Prgramme Prmtin de l Empli des Jeunes en Milieu Urbain (PEJU-GTZ), Guide 3 Cmptabilité de Base et Calcul de Cuts, Agence de Dévelppement et d Encadrement des Petits et Myennes Entreprises, Lessn 10: Finding Cmmunity Resurces Activities 3, 4, 5 were adapted frm Les Prduits Crédits de CAFODEC Finance, CAFODEC, Lessn 13: Actin Planning Activities 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 were adapted frm The New Prject Design and Management Wrkshp Training Manual, Sessin 7 & 8,Office f Overseas Prgramming and Training Supprt, Peace Crps, Appendix II: Stck Management Activities 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were adapted frm the Guide Sclaire du Curs de Gestin, Gestin des Stcks, Peace Crps Senegal, 2001 & Gérer Mieux Vtre Entreprise, Gestin des Stcks, Bureau Internatinal du Travail,

6 Peace Crps Guinea Yuth Entrepreneurship Training Prgram (YETP) Lessn 1: Welcme and Intrductin - What is entrepreneurship? Duratin: 120 minutes Sessin Overview: (Write ut n a flip chart r blackbard) 1. Welcme, intrductin & interest in entrepreneurship. 2. Intrducing entrepreneurship and the wall f success. Objectives: 1. Demnstrate a basic understanding f entrepreneurship. 2. Cite traits f a successful entrepreneur. Materials Required: 1. Large pen wall 2. Flipchart r Blackbard 3. Markers r chalk 4. Tape 5. Tables 6. Chairs 7. Ntebk 8. Pens r Pencils Trainer Preparatins: 1. Tear sheets f flipchart paper in half fr Wall f Success exercise. Make sure t have enugh paper fr each twpersn grup. 30 mins 1. Welcme, intrductin & interest in entrepreneurship Welcme, Intrductin & Interest in Entrepreneurship: Intrduce yurself as the instructr and yur experience with entrepreneurship. Give participants the pprtunity t intrduce themselves individually and a chance t talk abut why they are interested in entrepreneurship. 90 mins 2. Intrducing Entrepreneurship & The Wall f Success Intrducing Entrepreneurship (A grup discussin abut their understanding f entrepreneurship in Guinea): Ask the participants what they think entrepreneurship is. When there are n mre respnses, write the fllwing phrase: The definitin f entrepreneurship is the act f rganizing and perating an incme generating activity, and taking a financial risk t d it. Pse the fllwing questins and encurage participatin fr entrepreneurship specifically in Guinea (30 minutes) Des anyne practice business in yur family? What are sme examples f entrepreneurship in yur cmmunity? Which businesses are the mst successful in yur cmmunity? Why? Wall f Success (An exercise where participants describe examples f an entrepreneur r business that has succeeded in their cmmunity. As examples are described, the trainer ntes dwn the qualities f the successful business): Step I: Sharing Stries Building a Wall f Success (45 minutes) Have participants wrk in tw persn teams. Give each pair a half-size sheet f flip-chart paper and a marker t describe a successful entrepreneur r business. Allw the pairs apprximately 10 minutes t d the assignment and suggest that they use wrds, symbls r drawings t capture the essence f the business. Ask each pair t intrduce themselves and tell their individual success stry. Allw apprximately 2 t 3 minutes per pair fr the sharing. After they finish, have them tape their sheet n the designated wall. Trainer Nte (a): The purpse f this first prcessing is t allw peple t reflect and celebrate, nt t analyze and interpret. 6

7 Trainer Nte (b): While participants are sharing their success stries, nte dwn all the characteristics r qualities f successful entrepreneurs/businesses that they mentin. Write each characteristic n a strip f paper r a large-sized sticky nte (nly ne item per nte r strip). Keep the ntes t yurself until all pairs have finished telling their stries. Step II: Identifying and Listing Characteristics f Successful Entrepreneurs (15 minutes) Mve t the frnt f the rm and pst the header Characteristics f Successful Entrepreneurship n the wall. Explain t the grup why yu were taking ntes and then present all f the characteristics yu nted (n the paper strips r Pst-It) frm their stries. Intrduce the items ne by ne, placing them in lgical rder r grupings. Once yu have finished shwing participants this initial list, ask them if they can think f any additinal characteristics they want t add. When they are finished, add any ther essential items yu think are still missing, such that yu have a gd master list. Allw a few minutes fr clarificatins and place a check mark beside any cntrversial items t revisit at strategic pints during the wrkshp. Trainer Nte (c): The list shuld include several f the fllwing characteristics. Fill-in missing items t enhance the discussin: Be assciated with ther individuals Have a gd idea fr a business Cmmit yurself t efficient management practices Have gd relatins with ther individuals Be able t find financing Wrk in grup settings Have a gd place t practice business Research peple wh can help the business start up Be willing t share with thers Hmewrk (Write ut n a flip chart r blackbard if nt using the Participant Manual) Task(s): N Hmewrk Read the fllwing statement alud t summarize: Everything that yu have listed are yur wn entrepreneurial bservatins! Yu already have an idea f entrepreneurship and the necessary characteristics t be a successful entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship is a huge pprtunity t respnd t a need, create emplyment, help yur cmmunity, create cmpetitin, and imprve the jb market; all while being yur wn bss and pursuing a persnal interest! With this prgram yu will learn the tls, skills, and necessary steps t start a business and be a successful entrepreneur! 7

8 Peace Crps Guinea Yuth Entrepreneurship Training Prgram (YETP) Lessn 2: Entrepreneurship assets and deficits & Defining expectatins Duratin: 120 minutes Sessin Overview : (Write n a flip chart f blackbard) 1. Create Asset Maps. 2. Create Deficit Maps. 3. Summary discussin and prgram expectatins. Materials Required: 1. Flip chart r Blackbard 2. Markers r chalk 3. Tables 4. Chairs 5. Masking tape Objectives: 1. Examine existing entrepreneurship resurces using a balanced apprach. 2. Identify entrepreneurship resurces. Trainer Preparatins: 1. 2 blank flipcharts fr each break ut-grup. 2. Markers. 3. Time Activity Number/ Title 10 mins 1. Intrductin Raise the fllwing questin and facilitate a discussin: As an entrepreneur, is it imprtant t understand the envirnment arund yu? Why r why nt? When all f the respnses are dne, explain that it is essential t understand the envirnment arund yu. What is available? What isn t? What are the pprtunities t take advantage f? What are the threats t avid? Thrughut the entrepreneurial prcess, it is imprtant t always keep yur surrunding envirnment in mind in rder t make gd decisins and be prepared t meet the unique needs f yur market. The activity that we will d tday is called Assets and Deficits Mapping and it will help yu understand the psitive and negative aspects f the envirnment in which yu wrk. 40 mins 2. Creating Asset Maps Asset Mapping: Divide the class int grups f 3-4 peple. Once settled, have the grups select a single recrder. Using a ntebk, have each grup make a list that cmbines all the participants individual skills and knwledge that they bring t the Yuth Entrepreneurship Training Prgram. Give them abut 10 t 15 minutes t wrk. Then stp them and ask them t listen fr further instructins. On a blank flipchart, draw the fllwing scheme, building it frm the inside ut, as yu describe what t put in each space: Natinal Lcal Individual 8

9 1. In the inside square, write all the individual entrepreneurial skills in yur grup. Use the list yu have just created. 2. In the utside square, add all the lcal assciatins r grups in yur cmmunity that culd assist yu in creating a small business fr example, wmen s grups, religius grups, schls, NGOs, etc. 3. In the last space arund the edges, list all f the natinal institutins with whm yu have cnnectins fr example, ministries, fundatins, the Peace Crps, etc., that might be able t assist in the creatin f a small business. Distribute blank flipcharts and markers t each grup. Give them 20 minutes r s t wrk. Ask them t list the names f the peple in the grup n the chart smewhere and t pst their flipcharts alng ne wall, next t each ther. Have the grups reprt ut their assets maps: Ask each grup t reprt a few items frm the center their individual skills and capacities. Then ask fr sme examples frm the secnd layer cmmunity r lcal resurces. Finally ask fr sme examples frm the uter layer natinal resurces. Raise the fllwing questins r cmments t encurage discussin: 1. As yu lk at all the individual and grup skills, cnnectins t rganizatins and assciatins, hw des that make yu feel abut this grup? (Prud, capable, empwered, etc.) 2. We can call these flipcharts assets maps r strength maps. Wh created them? Yu did; this means that yu are aware f yur wn strengths. 3. Is it imprtant fr entrepreneurs t wrk tgether with ne anther and the surrunding cmmunity? Why r why nt? Trainer Nte (a): When participants d an inventry f their capacities r skills and identify their linkages t ne anther r t grups and institutins, a creative prcess begins t happen in which peple start thinking and sharing ideas fr businesses. As YETP facilitatrs, we can help peple develp ideas int businesses, and mbilize assets by cnnecting individuals t grups, grups t institutins, institutins t institutins, and s n. Smetimes, the best thing we can d is help peple wh knw link up with thse wh want t learn. 40 mins 3. Creating Deficit Maps Deficit Mapping: Ask participants, in their grups, t d a secnd map. This time, they shuld fcus n deficits, issues, r prblems that might affect a ptential entrepreneurship prject: 1. In the center blck, list skills r knwledge needed fr carrying ut an entrepreneurship prject which individuals in yur grups lack. Issues culd include lack f creativity, insufficient training, r lack f wrk supplies. 2. In the next blck, list issues r prblems in the lcal cmmunity that might hinder cmpletin f an entrepreneurship prject, such as limited finances fr the cmmunity as a whle; uncperative leaders, lack f transprtatin, lack f paved rads r lack f electricity. 3. In the uter blck, list natinal level issues r prblems that might hinder cmpletin f a prject, such as lack f cmmunicatin resurces, lack f means t discver new ideas, r lack f cmpatible gals f ministries r NGOs, and s n. When they have finished, have them pst these new maps next t the thers and share sme f their bservatins. Ask them the fllwing questins: 1. Did it feel different t d the tw maps? If s, hw was it different? 2. Hw d yu feel abut the tw different visins f yur grup? 9

10 We ftentimes cncentrate n what we are lacking, rather than all we have t help us mve frward in life. In ding an exercise like an Assets Map, we realize that there are actually a lt f resurces at ur dispsal t help us Where nrmal peple see deficits, entrepreneurs see pprtunities. If there isn t stable electricity in yur cmmunity they see an pprtunity t install a slar panel farm. If they dn t knw hw t d accunting, they find a friend wh can help them. Entrepreneurship invlves seeking ut creative slutins t address prblems r needs. 30 mins 4. Summary Discussin and Prgram Expectatins Summary Discussin: (15 minutes) Summarize the discussin by asking the grup: What was the pint f making these maps? The grup shuld cme up with at least the fllwing: Realize hw much we each have t ffer. Realize hw many resurces we have at ur dispsal. Nt fcus n what yu lack r need. Prvide a balanced perspective n entrepreneurship strengths and weaknesses. Explain t participants that in this prgram we want t reinfrce that it is mre psitive t: First, build n strengths and existing resurces, because it empwers participants. Secnd, acknwledge that resurce deficits may exist. Third, have participants self-identify their entrepreneurship gals befre we try and assist them. Defining Expectatins: (15 minutes) Building n this theme, ask participants: What d yu expect r want frm the Yuth Entrepreneurship Training Prgram? Give participants a mment t think first, and then give each persn a chance t speak. List their respnses n flipchart paper. Clarify any expectatins that will nt be met by the prgram. Wrap up the sessin by stating: We, the trainers, will d ur best t meet yur needs. But let s nt frget that everyne here is a resurce. The prgram will accmplish what we want if we all put in ur best effrts. Are we ready? Okay, here we g!!! Hmewrk (Write ut n a flip chart r blackbard if nt using the Participant Manual) Task(s): 1. G int yur cmmunity as an entrepreneur. Observe the assciatins, the prducts and the peple that exist in yur cmmunity and nte 10 assets nt discussed tday. All f yur bservatins can be an asset fr yu as an entrepreneur. Als bserve the frustratins, the needs and what is lacking in yur cmmunity and nte 10 deficits nt discussed tday. All f yur bservatins assets and deficits - can fuel entrepreneurial pprtunities. 10

11 Peace Crps Guinea Yuth Entrepreneurship Training Prgram (YETP) Lessn 3: Feasibility Study Steps 1 & 2 Make a business chice and Cnduct market research Duratin: 130 minutes Sessin Overview: (Write ut n a flipchart r blackbard) 1. Intrductin t the feasibility study. 2. Make a business chice (Step 1). 3. Cnduct market research (Step 2). Materials Required: 1. Flip chart r Blackbard 2. Markers r chalk 3. Tables 4. Chairs 5. Masking tape Objectives: 1. Understand the imprtance f a feasibility study in entrepreneurship. 2. Chse a business idea. 3. Assess persnal entrepreneurial readiness. Trainer Preparatins: 1. Write ut statements n three flipcharts r n the blackbard. 15 mins 1. Intrductin t the feasibility study Why cnduct a feasibility study? Ask participants why planning is imprtant befre undertaking a business. Write answers n a blank flipchart r blackbard. After all answers have been exhausted, prduce a new flipchart with the fllwing bullet pints. Have participants read the pints ut lud: Many businesses fail due t a lack f adequate planning, fresight, participatry analysis, selfevaluatin and engagement. A feasibility study is a tl t evaluate whether r nt a specific business is pssible and if it will be prfitable. A feasibility study requires careful analysis f all aspects invlved in pursuing a new business. Prduce a flipchart that shws a snapsht f the YETP Feasibility Study. Summarize the five steps and ask if there are any questins: Step 1: Make a business chice Step 2: Cnduct market research Step 3: Define business peratins and the three types f csts Step 4: Calculate the cst per unit, determine the selling price, and estimate sales incme. Step 5: Decide if the business is a gd idea Explain that in this prgram, participants will have the chance t walk thrugh each f these steps with a business idea they chse. In rder fr them t fully benefit frm the prgram, everyne will need t be practive and engaged in learning frm the cmmunity arund them. Tday we will cver steps 1 and 2 f the feasibility study. 85 mins 2. Make a business chice (Step 1) Deciding n a Business: (5 minutes) Write ut the fllwing statement n a flipchart r blackbard and have ne f the participants read the text ut lud: There are many reasns why peple chse t sell a certain prduct r service. When cnsidering a prduct r service, it s imprtant t draw frm past experiences, use all pssible resurces, have a strng awareness f the envirnment arund yu and embrace creativity and innvatin. Brainstrm ptential business ideas: (60 minutes) Have participants break ut int three t fur grups and designate a recrder and speaker. Once frmed in grups, have them think f the mst ppular prducts and services that are in the cmmunity nting in their ntebks. Once finished, have each grup reprt their list and explain why the prducts are s ppular. 11

12 Mentin that knwing which prducts are ppular and why is an imprtant entrepreneurial skill. It s als imprtant t identify ther entrepreneurial pprtunities by identifying prducts/services that dn t exist in yur cmmunity, prducts/services that d exist but culd be better r different and which prducts/services exist in anther cmmunity and culd be successful in yurs. Staying in the same grups, have participants cntinue the wrk they have already started by answering the fllwing questins. What prducts r services d peple need (clthing, fd stuffs, sap, etc.)? What prducts r services d peple want (candy, tys, make-up, hair prducts, etc.)? (Prducts that peple desire- and d nt need- are still appealing t the entrepreneur.) What prducts and services are nt available in the cmmunity? (If a prduct is unavailable this des nt mean a demand fr it des nt exist.) What prducts/services have yu bserved in anther cmmunity that d nt exist here? What prducts cnsumed in this cmmunity cme frm anther cmmunity? Hw far d peple travel fr the prducts/services they want? What are surces f frustratin in yur cmmunity? Chsing a business activity: (10 minutes) Have participants cme back tgether as a full grup. Based n the brainstrming activity, ask each individual t think f three business activities that culd be feasible in their cmmunity. Ask participants t read their three ideas t the class. What des the class think abut their ideas? Determining entrepreneurial readiness (cnsider the fllwing): (10 minutes) Ask a few leading questins t get participants thinking abut their readiness t launch a business. Write answers n a flipchart r blackbard. Fr example: What are sme factrs and persnal skills yu ll need t cnsider befre starting the business yu have chsen? Once the grup has exhausted all its ideas, write the fllwing n a new flipchart r blackbard and prvide examples where apprpriate: Practical aptitude: Am I capable f prducing the prducts and (r) services f my business? If nt, where will I find the necessary training? Psychlgical aptitude: Am I determined t prgress, take risks, remain mtivated, make decisins, and maintain a healthy family situatin? Financial situatin: D I have my wn funds t start my business? Am I ready t invest them int my business? Are there ther surces f financing? (i.e. bank, family, friends, c-wrkers?) (Nte: If the business idea is t big fr the available financial resurces, is there a way t start ff smaller, and grw the business ver time?) Trainer Nte (a): It s imprtant fr participants t understand hw these feasibility study steps relate t their ptential business. T help reinfrce participant cmprehensin, yu will use Natinal Sandwich as a cncrete example t illustrate the real life applicatins f these lessns thrughut the rest f the prgram. This example is mst effective when tld as a firsthand accunt. Natinal Sandwich Fr me, I wrk at the market. I m there every day. After my entrepreneurial training I started t think and bserve like an entrepreneur. Because I wrk at the market, I als eat my lunch each day at the market. After a few mnths, I started t becme frustrated with the lack f diversity in lunch ptins. There are always the same ptins: rice and sauce, beans, and tô. In fact, I d like t eat smething different every nce in a while, but there aren t any ptins. I m frustrated! But as a result f my training, I knw that a frustratin can be an entrepreneurial pprtunity! S I ask myself the questins listed abve t see the pprtunity. I knw that an imprvement is needed, and when I m visiting ther twns I see that sandwiches are very ppular! In fact, sandwiches dn t exist here, but I bserve cmmunity members wh travel t ther twns just fr the trendy restaurant ptins. That culd be an entrepreneurial pprtunity! 30 mins 3. Cnduct market research (Step 2) 12

13 Brief Intrductin: (5 minutes) Intrduce this activity by explaining that the participants began this prcess in Step 1 when deciding which business activity t pursue. This activity allws participants t further examine custmer demand by cnducting market research. Ways t cllect infrmatin: (25 minutes) Ask participants t cntribute ideas fr ways that they culd cllect market infrmatin n their business. Write the answers n a flipchart r blackbard. Explain that in rder t cnduct a basic survey f cnsumers, ne has t g thrugh the fllwing prcess: 1. Visit yur ptential market as an entrepreneur rather than a cnsumer. 2. Entrepreneurs must ask if custmers wuld want their prduct/service. (In rder t d this, entrepreneurs have t meet with as many custmers as pssible. This will prvide a wide range f perspectives.) Ask members f the cmmunity (family, friends, religius leaders, traditinal leaders, the mayr, the Directr f Micr-Prjects, the Prefect) Research r reflect n prducts and services available in the surrunding cmmunities Observe lcal businesses 3. Find ut if ther businesses sell yur prduct: Where? Hw many? Hw are they rganized? Ask participants the fllwing questin: If ther businesses sell similar prduct(s)/service(s), why might a custmer buy frm yu instead? Hw can yu be different? Write answers n a flipchart r blackbard, fill in any answers that haven t been mentined: Fr example, the cmpetitr: Is nt well rganized Takes t lng t deliver the prduct Charges t much fr the prduct/service Des nt have a gd wrk ethic Des nt have enugh supply t meet the demand Des nt have gd custmer service Des nt have a gd relatinship with the cmmunity Is lcated t far away Des nt d any marketing Explain that entrepreneurs must cnsider whether they can d a better jb than their cmpetitrs. Yu shuld reflect n yur value prpsitin why yur business exists, hw yu are different, if yu ffer a slutin t a need, the reasn a client wuld buy frm yu instead f smene else. Differentiatin and creativity are essential fr entrepreneurs. Dn t frget: t be an entrepreneur is t be riginal! This research cannt be cmpleted sitting in the classrm. Entrepreneurs have t g ut and actively engage with cmmunity members t cllect infrmatin. Trainer Nte (b): Yu will use Natinal Sandwich t illustrate the imprtance f market research. Again, this is mst effective t explain this example as if it is a firsthand stry. Natinal Sandwich S, I have an entrepreneurial idea and I ve made my chice. Nw, I must see if there s a demand! S I start my market research. I g t the market where everyne eats, and I bserve pssibilities fr imprving n prducts and services ffered. In fact, the little restaurants have emplyees wh are rude and slw, there isn t a menu s I dn t even knw what t ask fr, and the places are dirty. After my bservatin, I start t talk with a lt f peple at the market. I ask my clleague, Mr. Bah, Mr. Bah, what d yu think abut the ptins t eat at the market? He says, Yu knw, actually, I dn t like the ptins that are here. I m always frustrated with the service, and the quality isn t very gd. S, I ask again, And what d yu think f sandwiches? He respnds, Ah I like sandwiches! I wish that there were ptins like that here! S I knw a demand exists with Mr. Bah. Nw, because I m an entrepreneur, I have t be mtivated and determined t talk t A LOT f peple. I have t see if there really is a demand fr my prduct in the cmmunity. Als, after talking with a lt f peple, I have an idea abut my target clients and their desires/needs. After sme weeks f cnducting market research, I 13

14 have an idea f my cmpetitrs and hw I can be different, and I think that there really is a demand that exists fr unique fd ptins - sandwiches in particular! Hmewrk (Write ut n a flip chart r blackbard if nt using the Participant Manual) Trainer Nte (c): Take this time t explain t the participants the imprtance f cmpleting their hmewrk. They are here because they want t becme great entrepreneurs, but what is the pint if they aren t willing t put in the time and effrt t practice what they learn in class? Each hmewrk is essential t participant cmprehensin and future class discussin. They aren t ging t get anything ut f this prgram if they dn t d it! Task(s): 1. Presentatin f yur entrepreneurial idea. Yu will present yur business and the fllwing aspects at the beginning f the next class: The main prduct r service f the business The ptential clients Hw the prduct r service will be sld Hw the prduct r service respnds t a need The main cmpetitrs Hw yur prduct r service cmpares t yur cmpetitr s 14

15 Peace Crps Guinea Yuth Entrepreneurship Training Prgram (YETP) Lessn 4: Feasibility Study - Step 3 Define business peratins and the three types f csts Duratin: 120 minutes Sessin Overview: (Write ut n a flipchart r blackbard) 1. Presentatin f business ideas. 2. Define business peratins. 3. Explain the three types f csts. Objectives: 1. Demnstrate cmfrt in presenting business ideas. 2. Establish all aspects necessary fr the business t functin. 3. Understand the three types f csts. Trainer Preparatins: 1. Blank flipcharts 30 mins 1. Presentatin f Business Ideas Materials Required: 1. Flip chart r Blackbard 2. Markers r chalk 3. Tables 4. Chairs 5. Masking tape Individual Presentatins Have a number f participants cme t the frnt f the class and present their business ideas. The idea shuld crrespnd t the questins frm the hmewrk. 30 mins 2. Define business peratins (Step 3) Determine hw the business will perate: Open the sessin by explaining that nce a business idea has been chsen and the demand is cnfirmed thrugh market research, the entrepreneur must nw examine hw the business will functin. This includes determining the peratins f the business, r specifically utlining everything yu ll d t run yur business effectively. This will help yu determine all the csts invlved in starting and running yur business. Ask the fllwing questin: What are sme expenses/csts yu wuld cme acrss in running yur business? Write the respnses n a flipchart r blackbard. Cmplete the list with the fllwing cnsideratins fr determining the peratins f a business. These questins can be a methd t uncver all csts required t start a business. Emphasize that facility csts, rent, electricity, and water are ftentimes verlked but are actually an imprtant part f almst any business peratin. Prvide examples where necessary: What type f facility is necessary t huse yur business? What materials d yu need t prduce yur prduct/service? Wh will d what t make the prduct/service? Hw many peple are invlved? Des the prduct require packaging? What kind? What transprtatin d yu need t mve yur materials and/r t sell yur prduct? If applicable, hw many items will yu make in ne prductin cycle? Trainer Nte (a): Once again we will draw n ur example f Natinal Sandwich t illustrate the three types f csts. Natinal Sandwich After I saw a demand fr a mre prfessinal" restaurant, and in particular ne that sells sandwiches, I researched and reflected n all f the csts necessary t start and maintain my business. In additin, explain that yu ve decided that ne way t be different is t have a cmfrtable, friendly, and prfessinal atmsphere: a clean building that always has electricity, paintings, a televisin, packaging and labels, etc. In rder t accmplish this, yu ll need many things (Write all f the fllwing csts n the flipchart r blackbard, relating each cst t ne f the previus questins). 15

16 What type f facility is necessary t huse yur business? Building cnstructin, License, Insurance (mnthly) What materials d yu need t prduce yur prduct/service? Bread, Avcads, Onins, Tmates, Maggi, Oil, Salt, Pepper, Maynnaise, Plates, Refrigeratr, Silverware Wh will d what t make the prduct/service? Hw many peple are invlved? Emplyee(s) (salaried) Des the prduct require packaging? What kind? Packaging, Labels What transprtatin d yu need t mve yur materials and/r t sell yur prduct? Transprt Maggi frm Kindia Anything else? What abut ur prfessinal atmsphere? Utilities (rent, water, electricity), Generatr, Gasline, Paintings, Chairs, Tables, Televisin, Marketing (mnthly), Marketing (initial) 60 mins 3. The three types f csts (Step 3) Cntinue Step 3 while explaining that nce yu have detailed what is necessary in rder fr yur business t functin, yu have t start t separate these things int 3 categries - The Three Types f Csts : 1. Start-up Csts 2. Direct Csts 3. Indirect Csts 1. Start-up Csts Start-up csts cnstitute ne-time fees that shuldn t be included in the calculatin f the price f the prduct Explain that respnding t the fllwing questins can help determine start-up csts: T start my business, will I need r have Machinery r equipment? Cnstructin csts? Furniture required t start up my business (tables, chairs, pens, pencils, desks, ntebks, paintings, a generatr, etc...)? Legal demands? Initial marketing csts? Explain t the participants that accurately calculating start-up csts is imprtant s that yu have a clear idea f yur initial financial needs. This can help yu knw whether r nt the scpe f yur business is realistic and/r what additinal resurces yu ll need t make it s. Trainer Nte (b): Use the Natinal Sandwich example t have participants identify its start-up csts. Natinal Sandwich Small Activity: Give the participants five minutes t examine the riginal list f csts yu shared fr Natinal Sandwich and pick ut which are start-up csts and why. The final list f start-up csts fr Natinal Sandwich: Building Cnstructin, Paintings, License, Chairs, Tables, Marketing (initial), Refrigeratr, Generatr, Silverware, Televisin, Plates. 2. Direct Csts The direct csts change accrding t the vlume f prductin/service. They include the prduct materials, transprt, packaging, etc. If yu sell 10 units f prduct, the direct csts will be different frm 30 units f prduct. 16

17 Trainer Nte (c): Use the Natinal Sandwich example t have participants identify the businesses Direct Csts. Natinal Sandwich Small Activity: Give the participants five minutes t again examine the riginal list f csts yu shared fr Natinal Sandwich and pick ut which are direct csts and why. The final list f direct csts fr Natinal Sandwich: Bread, Avcad, Onin, Tmat, Maggi, Oil, Salt, Pepper, Maynnaise, Packaging, Labels, Transprt Maggi frm Kindia. Ask the participants if these aspects change accrding t the prductin vlume f the sandwiches. They shuld respnd Yes! 3. Indirect Csts The indirect csts are the required administrative csts t make the business functin. They dn t change when the vlume f the prduct r service changes. The indirect csts include utilities (rent, water, electricity), wrker salaries, cmmercializatin, lan payments, etc... If we sell 10 units f the prduct, the indirect csts will be the same as if we sld 30 units. Trainer Nte (d): Use the Natinal Sandwich example t have participants identify its Indirect Csts. Natinal Sandwich Small Activity: Give the participants five minutes t again examine the list f csts yu shared fr Natinal Sandwich and pick ut which are indirect csts and why. The final list f indirect csts fr Natinal Sandwich: Utilities (rent, water, electricity), Marketing (mnthly), Insurance (mnthly), Gas, Emplyee salaries. Trainer Nte (e): Pint ut that indirect/direct csts may vary by business. Fr example, if electricity csts change in direct prprtin with yur level f prductin, this may actually be a direct cst. Similarly, if emplyees are paid based n their prductin level (a tailr paid per article f clthing made) rather than a set number f hurs each week (fr example, a tailr paid a mnthly salary regardless f hw many articles f clthing he makes), this may als actually be a direct cst. Ask the fllwing questins: Why d yu think it s imprtant t be aware f classifying these three different types f csts? Afterwards, explain t the participants that being aware f and classifying these three types f csts is imprtant in rder t make accurate financial plans (as we discussed with the start-up csts) and als t accurately calculate the selling price and estimate sales incme, which we will d next class! What are yur csts? (5 minutes) Ask participants t reflect n the csts cncerning the functining f their business (participants can wrk in grups r individually). Assist the participants if there is any cnfusin. Hmewrk (Write ut n a flip chart r blackbard if nt using the Participant Manual) Task(s): 1. Exercise Define yur business peratins by respnding t all the questins prvided in tday s sessin. Yu ll likely find that yu re missing a lt f infrmatin needed t answer these questins. Yu shuld g ut in the cmmunity and cnduct research t make sure that yu cllect accurate infrmatin abut yur business csts. 2. Categrize each cst as Start-up, Direct r Indirect. 17

18 Peace Crps Guinea Yuth Entrepreneurship Training Prgram (YETP) Lessn 5: Feasibility Study Step 4 Calculate the cst per unit, determine the selling price and estimate sales incme. Duratin: 120 minutes Sessin Overview: (Write ut n a flipchart r Materials Required: blackbard) 1. Review f Step Flip chart r Blackbard 2. Calculate cst per unit. 2. Markers r chalk 3. Determine selling price and calculate the 3. Tables prfit per unit. 4. Chairs 4. Estimate sales incme. 5. Tape Wrk in class. Objectives: 1. Understand the imprtance f btaining prductin cst per unit in deciding the selling price. 2. Determine the selling price while cnsidering ptential clients, the cmpetitin and the cst f their prduct/service. 3. Understand hw the estimatin f sales incme will help yu plan. 4. Trainer Preparatins: 1. Write ut statement n determining the cst f yur prduct. 2. Create a prduct cst table n a flipchart. 3. Blank flipchart fr writing ut hw t determine the selling price. 4. Blank flipchart fr writing ut the steps t estimate sales incme. 10 mins 1. Review f Step 3, Define Business Operatins and the Three Types f Csts Define Business Operatins and the Three Types f Csts review Explain that it is vitally imprtant t understand hw yur business will perate in rder t mve n t the next step. Business peratins and their assciated csts are a central part f determining the cst f yur prduct, which we will see shrtly. Ask fr a cuple examples f business peratins frm the hmewrk. Ask if there are any questins r cmments regarding hw t determine business peratins. Respnd as necessary. Ask if there are any questins regarding the three types f csts. Respnd as necessary. 40 mins 2. Calculate Cst per unit (Step 4) Obtaining whlesale prices: (10 minutes) Write the fllwing n a flipchart r blackbard. Have ne f the participants read the text ut lud. Obtain whlesale prices fr yur prduct material(s) by asking fr price qutes frm several whlesalers. D nt settle fr ne price. Oftentimes, yu can lwer the price f yur prduct by practicing cmpetitive bidding between suppliers. Try t find at least three suppliers wh can prvide yu with pricing fr each different item. Calculatin f cst per unit : Explain t the participants: Each entrepreneur has t cnfrnt a classic prblem when they set their price. If it is t high, yu discurage the clients, but if it s t lw, yu wn t earn a prfit. Tday, we ll apprach this prblem by calculating the unit cst. The direct and indirect csts are included in the calculatin f prduct cst. The gal in calculating csts is t find the prductin cst t the entrepreneur per unit. If yu have many prducts/services in yur business, yu have t find the cst fr each unit. Fr example, with Natinal Sandwich, we have t calculate the cst fr each sandwich n the menu (the ingredients will be different fr each sandwich). The cst per unit is calculated as fllws: Direct Csts per Unit + Indirect Csts per Unit = Ttal Cst per Unit 18

19 Befre starting the prcess f calculating the csts, write the fllwing n a flipchart r blackbard. Ask ne f the participants t read the text ut lud: Why calculate the unit cst? 1. T establish yur prices. If yu knw the ttal f yur csts, yu can then establish yur selling prices t btain a prfit. 2. T minimize and cntrl yur expenses. If yu knw all f yur csts, yu will be able t find the best means f prducing and selling yur gds and services. 3. T make better decisins cncerning yur business. Knwing the csts f each f yur prducts r services in detail will help yu make better sales decisins in rder t btain a sufficient prfit. 4. T plan. Knwing the details f all f yur csts well will help yu plan. Fr example, yu need t knw all f yur csts befre being able t plan yur sales and csts r yur liquidity flw. Calculate the Cst per Unit Step 1 : Direct Csts Per Unit (10 minutes) Unveil the uncmpleted Prduct Cst Table (fund n page 22) n a page f flipchart paper. Trainer Nte (a): We will use Natinal Sandwich as an example t fill ut ur Prduct Cst Table. Natinal Sandwich: We are nw ready t calculate the price f ur first sandwich, Syli Sandwich! Refer t the cmpleted Prduct Cst Table n page 24 t see the list f direct csts, their quantities and prices. Please keep the fllwing infrmatin in mind when filling ut the Prduct Cst Table: The specific prduct is Syli Sandwich ne item n the menu f Natinal Sandwich. The ingredients will be different fr each sandwich therefre we wuld fill ut a different Prduct Cst Table fr every type f sandwich we ffer. We will cmplete the table with a quantity f 10 sandwiches (the stated quantity f each ingredient is hwever much it takes t prduce 10 sandwiches). Why? Because ften times the quantities that we use t make just ne prduct are t small and therefre difficult t calculate. Fr this example, we determine we want t ship Maggi in frm Kindia. Regarding the transprtatin csts, we nly want t knw the cst fr 10 sandwiches: Fr this example, we find that it csts 10,000 GNF t transprt 500 cubes f Maggi Therefre transprtatin is 20 GNF per cube We decided that we need 2 cubes fr 10 sandwiches Therefre transprtatin cst fr 10 sandwiches is 40 GNF Divide the ttal direct csts fr 10 sandwiches by 10 t find the price per sandwich Calculate the Cst per Unit, Step 2 : Indirect Csts Per Unit: (15 minutes) There are 4 Steps t find the indirect csts per unit (we will call them Steps A-D): A. Calculate the ttal indirect csts per mnth. B. Find the hurs f peratin per mnth. C. Estimate the amunt f prduct sld per mnth. D. Calculate the indirect csts per unit. In rder t find the ttal direct cst per sandwich, we used ne specific quantity, but t find the ttal indirect csts per sandwich we will use a frecast f the ttal sld. Trainer Nte (b): We will use Natinal Sandwich as an example t fill ut Figures 1-4 (fund n page 23, with the cmpleted examples fund n page 25). Natinal Sandwich We nw want t calculate ur indirect csts per unit. Please keep the fllwing infrmatin in mind when calculating the indirect cst per Syli Sandwich: Step A: T calculate the ttal indirect csts per mnth Refer t the cmpleted Figure 1 n page 25 t see the list f indirect csts Natinal Sandwich will incur 19

20 Fr this example, we als decided that we will spend 30,000 GNF each mnth fr ur marketing effrts. We als decided t have an emplyee present when we re pen (apart frm us). We will pay ur emplyee 5,000 GNF per hur. We are pen 338 hurs per mnth (refer t Step B). 338 hurs x 5,000 GNF = 1,690,000 GNF. Step B: Find the hurs f peratin per mnth Fill ut Figure 2, fund n page 23, with the participants. We will assume that we are pen 13 hurs a day (9-22h), 6 days a week (Tuesday thrugh Sunday). Finally, we want Natinal Sandwich t be pen 26 days a mnth. This means we will be pen 338 hurs per mnth (13x26). Step C: Estimate the amunt f prduct sld per mnth Fill ut the uncmpleted Figure 3, fund n page 23, with the participants. At this pint, we have t make an estimatin f the amunt sld. Frm ur market research and the demand, we prject that we will sell an average f ne sandwich every 15 minutes that we are pen. This is an average; when we are really busy, we culd prject that we will sell ne sandwich every five minutes and when business is slw, we sell ne sandwich every 30 minutes, and s n. This is just a prjectin and it wn t be perfect, but with an intelligent prjectin we can be sure that all f the indirect csts will be accunted fr and that we will be prfitable. In rder t find the sum f the prduct sld per mnth, multiply the hurs f peratin per mnth by the estimatin f the amunt sld per hur. Step D: Calculate indirect csts per sandwich Divide ttal indirect csts per mnth by the estimated amunt f prduct sld per mnth t find the indirect csts per unit Cmplete Figure 4, fund n page 23, with the participants Calculate the Cst per Unit, Step 3 : Ttal Cst per Unit (5 minutes) Add the Direct Csts per Unit and the Indirect Csts per Unit During the explanatin, fill ut the table with the participants while using the example f Natinal Sandwich. 20 mins 3. Determine the selling price and calculate the prfit per unit (Step 4) Brief intrductin: Explain that in rder t determine the selling price yu have t speak with ptential custmers, study yur cmpetitin and cnsider the calculated cst, determining the selling price fr each prduct. Als cnsider, hw much d yu expect/ hpe t earn in a mnth thrugh yur business? Six mnths? A year? Write dwn the fllwing pints and explain their significance: When speaking with ptential custmers, what is an acceptable price level fr yur prduct r service frm yur pint f view? When cnsidering yur cmpetitin: What are yur cmpetitrs prices? If yur price is higher than yur cmpetitrs, why will the client buy frm yu? Trainer Nte (c): We will nw use ur Natinal Sandwich example t calculate ur selling price fr ne Syli Sandwich. Natinal Sandwich: Explain that with ur value prpsitin, the cmpetitin (the ptins fr fd that already exist) and the demand that exists (frm ur market research), 8,000 GNF fr ur sandwich is an acceptable price fr ur clients. Mrever, we can decide if the 2,345GNF is a gd prfit r nt based n ur wn persnal needs. With a cst f 5,655 GNF, that will be a prfit f 41% per sandwich which is very desirable fr ur business! Therefre, with this infrmatin, we can be cnfident in ur price f 8,000 GNF. Ask the participants if they see the cnnectin between calculating cst per sandwich and determining the selling price. Why is it imprtant t make respnsible decisins regarding csts? 20

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