Urban Ecosystem Analysis Atlanta Metro Area Calculating the Value of Nature

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Urban Ecosystem Analysis Atlanta Metro Area Calculating the Value of Nature"

Transcription

1 August 2001 Urban Ecosystem Analysis Atlanta Metro Area Calculating the Value of Nature Report Contents 2 Project Overview and Major Findings 3 Regional Analysis 4 Local Analysis 6 Using Regional Data for Local Analysis 7 What s Next for the Atlanta Metro Area? 8 About the Urban Ecosystem Analysis City of Atlanta, Georgia Study Area Cobb Fulton Gwinnett Douglas Atlanta DeKalb Union City Forest Park Clayton Newton Fayette Henry Sponsored by the Turner Foundation

2 Urban Ecosystem Analysis, Atlanta, GA Urban Ecosystem Analysis The City of Atlanta Project Overview AMERICAN FORESTS conducted a Regional Ecosystem Analysis of the Atlanta metro area to determine how the landscape has changed over time and to calculate the impact of the changes on community management costs. The study area covers 775,000 acres and is centered around the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The changes in the landscape were determined by mapping land cover using remote sensing techniques. The costs associated with the changing landscape were then calculated using a combination of Geographic Information Systems technology and established scientific and engineering formulas. The findings from this analysis show that Atlanta s urban infrastructure has not only expanded rapidly over the last few decades, but also produced an urban infrastructure that costs billions of dollars more to manage than necessary. Simply stated, the development that has taken place has removed far too many trees and replaced them with too many roads, parking lots, and buildings. Less vegetation and more impervious surfaces mean higher costs for clean air and water. While this report is not intended as an indictment of development, the findings clearly show that the approach used in the past is flawed. Land planning needs to be changed if only to reduce the costs of development for tax payers and community health. Growth and development decisions need to be made locally, but these decisions should be guided by a complete set of information. Traditionally, development decisions have not considered the significant contributions of the green infrastructure trees, soils, and open space which provide the community with ecological and environmental benefits. The study also demonstrates the application of computer technology for measuring the benefits of the green infrastructure to the built infrastructure. The technology used in this analysis is available to community leaders and will improve the decision making process. Community leaders need to build a green infrastructure to reconnect the existing gray infrastructure with the underlying natural ecology. The benefits of a healthy green infrastructure to the Atlanta metro area mean a cleaner environment, stronger economy, and healthier residents. Methodology The analysis assessed the value of ecological features by combining advanced image analysis techniques that map the earth s surface with time-tested scientific and engineering models that quantify the effects of the landscape on air, water, and energy. Geographic Information Systems technology is used to con- nect the maps to the scientific and engineering formulas. A base map for the Atlanta metro area was created using imagery collected by Landsat satellites. Landsat satellites have been circling the earth since 1972 and therefore allow us to look back in time. Through the image analysis process accurate maps of the earth s surface are reproduced. Satellite data from three separate points in time, 1974, 1986, and 1996 were used to conduct this analysis. The images selected for this 22-year time span were chosen to maximize the accuracy of the image analysis process. The two most critical criteria used for selecting images were atmospheric clarity (minimum clouds and haze) and timing. Each satellite image used for analysis targeted the same date of the selected year and showed trees in a leaf-on condition. The area covered by the analysis was 775,000 acres and was centered around the city of Atlanta, Georgia. Major Findings Trees are an indicator of environmental quality because of their ability to moderate the effects of urbanization on air, water, and energy. The economic impact of these changes in land cover are calculated using AMERICAN FORESTS CITYgreen software. The ecology of Atlanta metro area has changed dramatically since Forests have declined and urban development has expanded. Heavy tree cover, where tree canopies covered over 50% of the land surface, occupied about half of the Atlanta metro area (368,145 acres) in 1974, but by 1996 heavy tree cover had declined to one quarter of the area (204,784 acres. The heavy tree cover declined from 47.5% in 1974 to 26.4 in ). Loss of tree cover in the metro area is largely due to development. Areas with less than 20% tree cover expanded from 44% in 1974 to 70.8% in Around Atlanta, areas with little tree canopy are covered with impervious surfaces. Average tree cover throughout the 775,000 acre area declined from 45% to 29%. There are economic implications of tree loss for stormwater management and clean air in the Atlanta Metro Area Tree loss in the Atlanta metro area from 1974 to 1996 resulted in a 33% increase in stormwater runoff (from each 2-year peak storm event). This translates into an estimated 591 million cubic feet of water. Costs to build stormwater retention ponds and other engineered systems to intercept this runoff would cost $1.18 billion ($2/cubic ft. of storage). 2

3 American Forests Report The total stormwater retention capacity of this urban forest cover in 1996 was worth about $2.36 billion, down from 1974's value of $3.54 billion. Annually, this translates to $85.9 million. The urban forest improves air quality by removing: nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O 3 ), and particulate matter 10 microns or less (PM10). Lost tree canopy would have removed about 11 million pounds of pollutants annually, at a value of approximately $28 million per year. The Atlanta metro area s direct residential summer energy savings, as a result of tree shade, is estimated at $2.8 million annually. Reduced energy use results in lower pollutant emissions. The reduced energy use as a result of direct residential tree shade reduces the Atlanta area s emissions about 658,000 tons per year. Vegetation lost over this 22-year period would have stored 11.3 million tons of carbon and sequestered the carbon at a rate of 14,000 tons per year (see pp. 4 and 5). Maintaining and restoring tree cover is a cost effective way to improve the environment. The natural landscape should be recognized for its economic, as well as ecological, value. Tree cover is a good measure of the ecological health of the landscape. Sprawl development has large negative environmental and economic consequences. Increasing the average tree cover from 29% to 40% in urban areas would provide sizeable benefits. Stormwater runoff would decrease 20% at a value of $1.7 billion. Tree canopy would remove 4,000 tons more air pollutants at a value of $26 million. Regional Analysis Key: % Tree Cover < 20% 20-29% 30-39% 40-49% 50% Vegetation Change Atlanta Metro Area, Acres Landsat MSS Meter Pixel Resolution Landsat TM Meter Pixel Resolution Low Canopy (<20% Vegetated) Moderate Canopy (20-49% Vegetated) High Canopy ( 50% Vegetated) Atlanta Metro Area Satellite Images Landsat TM and MSS satellite images show the change in land cover for the Atlanta metro area based on a recent 22-year period. Heavy tree cover ( 50%) is indicated in green and light tree canopy (<20%) and impervious surfaces associated with urban areas are in black. The GIS analysis measures nine categories of tree cover, and data from the detailed analysis is used in all calculations. The visual images above combine the nine categories into five groupings to accommodate the limitations of printing the images at this scale. Graphing Change The change in vegetation depicted in the satellite images (above left) is represented in line graphs (above right). Both charts show the change in vegetative cover over a 22-year period for three categories. Natural forest cover is represented by a green line and indicates places with greater than or equal to a 50% tree canopy. Developed areas are represented by a black line and indicate areas where tree canopy is less than 20%. The yellow line represents land where the tree cover is between 20% and 49%. Open space, residential areas, and park land would all fall into this middle category. 3

4 Urban Ecosystem Analysis, Atlanta, GA Local Level Analysis Atlanta Site A1 What is a Local Level Analysis? The local level analysis is a detailed assessment of a selected number of sample study points where high resolution aerial photographs, a site survey and CITYgreen software are used to calculate the effects of tree cover on air, water and energy. It is through this process that scientific and engineering data is connected to the regional assessment. While CITYgreen software produces detailed and accurate information about the function and value of a sample site, the accuracy of the regional assessment is directly related to the quality of the sampling methods. Accuracy is improved by increasing the number of sample sites and stratifying the sites by land use or land cover. AMERICAN FORESTS works closely with local people when selecting sample sites to improve accuracy through stratification. In the Atlanta metro area, data from 41 sample sites were used to calculate value. Each sample site was 2-3 acres in size and included residential, commercial, and open space land use categories. Using the land cover patterns identified from the Landsat regional image, locations for low-level aerial photographs are selected. Aerial photographs of each sample site provided data about trees, grass, and impervious surfaces. Additional information was collected in the field, including tree species, size, and health. Other data is added to the calculations using national data sets for soil types, and rainfall. Land-use data is obtained from local planning agencies. CITYgreen software is used to calculate ecosystem benefits for each sample site. The results are then extrapolated to fit the conditions in the Atlanta Region. Trees as Indicators of a Community's Ecological Health Urban ecology is more complex than tree cover. Nonetheless, trees are good indicators of the health of an urban ecosystem. The greater the canopy coverage, the less impervious surface and the more environmental benefits. Trees provide communities with many valuable services that can be measured in terms of dollar benefits. These include: 1) slowing stormwater runoff and reducing peak flow and 2) improving air quality. These quantifiable benefits can help community leaders recognize cost savings opportunities from increased tree cover. Cities spend tremendous amounts of money installing stormwater control systems and repairing damage from flooding. Furthermore, cities that cannot meet EPA attainment levels for air and water quality jeopardize federal funding for capital improvements. Trees are an attractive, non-built solution that reduces stormwater runoff and improves air quality. These benefits underscore the importance of maintaining and restoring the natural infrastructure of our communities acres 8% tree cover Forest Park Site acres 1% tree cover How to Use CITYgreen To Analyze Local Data AMERICAN FORESTS uses CITYgreen software to conduct a detailed analysis of how the structure of the landscape affects its function. This tool connects research and engineering formulas to place a dollar value on the work trees do.with CITYgreen, it is possible to determine how various canopy covers affect stormwater movement and air quality. Stormwater Runoff Trees and soil function together to reduce stormwater runoff. Trees reduce stormwater flow by intercepting rainwater on leaves, branches, and trunks. Some of the intercepted water evaporates back into the atmosphere, and some soaks into the ground reducing the total amount of runoff that must be managed in urban areas. Trees also slow storm flow, reducing the volume of water that a containment facility must store. The TR-55 model, developed by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, measures stormwater movement in various storm events (see page 8). Local governments are looking toward non-built stormwater management strategies, including trees, to reduce the cost of constructing stormwater control infrastructure. The value of trees for stormwater management is based on avoided cost for storage of 4

5 American Forests Report Atlanta Site C1 7.2 acres 30% tree cover Atlanta Site 3D Atlanta Site G acres 19% tree cover 7.74 acres 5% tree cover Forty-one sample sites were chosen throughout the Atlanta Metro area to represent a range of neighborhoods and canopy conditions. Five of the forty-one sites are shown in detail here, illustrating canopy coverage from 1-30%. tree cover local site boundary built structure impervious surface stormwater in retention ponds. Local construction costs for building containment facilities are multiplied by the total volume of avoided storage to determine dollars saved by trees. In the Atlanta metro area, the existing tree canopy reduces the need for retention structures by 591 million cubic feet. Using a $2.00/cubic foot construction cost, trees in 1996 saved the region $2.36 billion per construction cycle (maintenance costs are not included). Annually this translates to $85.9 million. Air Quality Trees provide air quality benefits by removing pollutants such as NO 2, CO, SO 2, O 3, and PM10. To calculate the dollar value for these pollutants (see page 8), economists multiply the number of tons of pollutants by an externality cost or costs to society that are not reflected in marketplace activity. In the Atlanta metro area, the trees removed 19 million pounds of pollutants, valued at $47 million in Tree cover as it existed in 1974 would have removed 30 million pounds of pollutants, valued at $75.5 million. Stored and Sequestered Carbon This study also analyzed the amount of carbon stored and sequestered per year. Carbon accounts for about half the dry weight of most trees. The carbon-related function of trees is measured in two ways: storage, or the amount currently stored in tree biomass, and sequestration, the rate of absorption per year. The region s trees stored an estimated 8.3 million tons in 1996.The trees sequester about 58,000 lbs per year. Energy Use The Atlanta metro area experiences a long, hot summer and residents spend approximately $400 per home on air conditioning per year. AMERICAN FORESTS analysis suggests that the existing tree canopy in the 18 residential sample sites saves an average of $28 per home (based on 1-2 story, single family detached homes for which available research numbers are available.) To estimate citywide energy conservation savings of trees, the average savings of $28/home was projected across the city s estimated 99,083 single family homes within the study area. The estimated annual residential savings is approximately $2.8 million. Avoided Carbon Reducing energy use also reduces the amount of carbon pollution produced by utility companies. CITYgreen calculates the amount of kilowatt hours of electricity conserved as a result of direct shading of trees. This number is multiplied by the fuel mix profile of Georgia s electricity production. Atlanta saves about 658,000 tons of carbon emission annually as a result of direct shading of residences. 5

6 Urban Ecosystem Analysis, Atlanta, GA Using Regional Data for Local Analysis The Atlanta Metro area satellite data 1996 (above), the City of Atlanta clip of satellite data (left). CITYgreen software can model benefits for different land cover scenarios. By modeling changes in land cover, decision makers can see the impacts of various development decisions. Using the 775,000 acres study site, two scenarios were modeled, one used a 40% tree canopy, 10% grass, and 50% impervious surface. This was compared to the 1996 measured canopy from the Landsat data (an estimated 29% canopy) and a modeled 21% grass, and 50% impervious surface land cover. Increasing the average tree cover from 29% to 40% in urban areas would provide sizeable benefits. Stormwater runoff would decrease 20% at a value of $1.7 billion. Tree canopy would remove 4,054 tons more air pollutants at a value of $73.4 million annually. Table 1. Atlanta Metro Area Benefits Ecological Benefit 1996 canopy at 29% Modeled at 40 % Stormwater Management Value (one time) $2.36 billion $4.06 billion Stormwater Management Value (annual) $85.9 million $197.7 million Air Pollution Stored (annual) $47 million $73.4 million Energy Conserved (annual) $2.82 million N/A Carbon Avoided (annual) $657,000 N/A Carbon Stored (total) 8 million tons 13.3 million tons Carbon Sequestered (annual) 58,000 tons 104,000 tons 6

7 American Forests Report What s Next for the Atlanta Metro Area? Recommendations These findings address public policy questions for land-use planning and growth management. The most fundamental recommendation is for the community to use green infrastructure data in the decision making process. Trees, being the largest member of the plant world, provide a good measure of how well a community is doing in its effort to become greener Trees require good soils, adequate water, and clean air. Tree cover is also a measure of environmental quality. When urban trees are large and healthy, the ecological system that supports them is also healthy. This report brings together the expertise of ecologists, scientists, and engineers with computer mapping technology to evaluate the environment in the Atlanta metro area and chart a course of action for future improvement. Local agencies and the community are encouraged to incorporate this information into the regional planning process and to gather more detailed data for local analyses using aerial imagery, site surveys, and CITYgreen software. (1) Expand the capacity and usefulness of this analysis for regional planning and growth management. Obtain additional data for this model from city and county governments. Use the data from this analysis as a basis for building a regional model. Incorporate a natural resource data layer into the regional planning process. (2) Recruit county and city governments as partners in creating a regional model. Local governments should clip their data from the regional information and conduct a more detailed local analysis using aerial imagery. Establish local data collection plots. (3) Increase and conserve the tree canopy cover in urban areas. Develop urban tree canopy goals for the Atlanta metro area based on AMERICAN FORESTS guidelines for the eastern US: 40% tree canopy overall 50% tree canopy in suburban residential zones 25% tree canopy in urban residential zones 15% tree canopy in the central business district Implement innovative land-use planning techniques and engineering guidelines for saving existing trees and planting new ones. Consider the dollar values associated with trees when making land-use decisions. Use trees as a valuable and essential element of the urban environment. Use CITYgreen software as a tool to incorporate trees into land-use planning by collecting data on tree cover and quantifying the value of the trees. Use the findings in the local decision making process. (4) Increase overall tree cover in the Atlanta metro region to 40%. Develop a comprehensive plan for the Atlanta metro area to protect, expand, and sustainably maintain a green infrastructure of urban and rural forests. Meet or exceed the goals of major tree-planting initiatives in the Atlanta metro area. These include the Riparian Forest Buffer Initiative of the partners in the Atlanta metro area to plant 2,020 miles of streamside forests by the year Use local analyses for community planning. Utilize CITYgreen software and the AMERICAN FORESTS analysis technique as a model for community participation. 7

8 Urban Ecosystem Analysis, Atlanta, GA About the Urban Ecosystem Analysis Ecostructure Classification AMERICAN FORESTS Urban Ecosystem Analysis is based on the assessment of ecostructures, unique combinations of land use and land cover patterns. Each ecostructure performs ecological functions differently and thus provides different values. For example, a site with a heavy tree canopy provides more stormwater reduction benefits than one with a light tree canopy. In this study, the regional analysis provided an overview of tree cover change in the Atlanta metro region. Using the tree cover percentage categories to model the area s ecostructures, sample study sites within the Atlanta area were selected to further examine the effects of different tree canopy cover percentages on air quality and stormwater management. Additional local analysis using aerial photos of representative ecostructures is needed to refine the local values given in the analysis. Data Used in this Study For regional analysis, Landsat satellite TM (30 meter pixel) and MSS (80 meter pixel) images were used as the source of land cover data. AMERICAN FORESTS used a subpixel classification technique and divided land cover into nine vegetation categories. For the local analysis, AMERICAN FORESTS USED geo-rectified.tif images (aerial photos) at a 2 foot resolution. AMERICAN FORESTS developed CITYgreen software to help communities analyze the value of local trees and vegetation as part of urban infrastructure. CITYgreen is an application of ArcView for Windows, a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software developed by ESRI. Analysis Formulas Stormwater Runoff: Stormwater runoff calculations incorporate formulas from US Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Technical Release 55 (TR-55). TR-55 is a model for estimating stormwater runoff in small urban watersheds and is widely used across the country for stormwater planning and urban engineering analyses. Don Woodward, PE, a hydrologic engineer with NRCS, customized the formulas to determine the benefits of trees and other urban vegetation with respect to stormwater management. CITYgreen calculates stormwater runoff volume, peak flow and time of concentration and can model the percentage change between two landcover scenarios. UFORE Model for Air Pollution: CITYgreen uses formulas from a model developed by David Nowak, PhD, of the US Forest Service. The model estimates how many pounds of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, PM10 and carbon 8 monoxide are deposited in tree canopies as well as the amount of carbon sequestered. The Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) model is based on data collected in 50 US cities. Dollar values for air pollutants are based on the median value of the externality costs set by the State Public Service Commissions in these states. Avoided Carbon: CITYgreen avoided carbon module begins with kwh savings estimated in the energy module. Because different fuel sources emit different levels of carbon per unit of electricity production, the impact of a conserved kwh will vary depending on local fuel sources. To account for this, the amount of saved kwh from the energy module is multiplied by Energy Information Administration (EIA) data for statelevel fuel sources used in electricity production. Acknowledgments for this Study This report was sponsored by the Turner Foundation. We thank our corporate partners: ESRI for GIS software, Emerge for aerial imagery, and ERDAS for remote sensing software. For More Information AMERICAN FORESTS, founded in 1875, is the oldest national nonprofit citizens conservation organization. Its three centers Global ReLeaf, Urban Forests, and Forest Policy mobilize people to improve the environment by planting and caring for trees. Global ReLeaf 2000 is AMERICAN FORESTS campaign to plant 20 million trees for the new millennium. AMERICAN FORESTS CITYgreen software provides individuals, organizations, and agencies with a powerful tool to evaluate development and restoration strategies and impacts on urban ecosystems. AMERICAN FORESTS offers regional training workshops and technical support for CITYgreen and is a certified ESRI developer and reseller of ArcView products. Prepared analyses such as this report are available by order. AMERICAN FORESTS P.O. Box 2000 Washington DC phone:202/ ; fax: 202/ website: Click on Trees, Cities & Sprawl

Urban Ecosystem Analysis For the Houston Gulf Coast Region Calculating the Value of Nature

Urban Ecosystem Analysis For the Houston Gulf Coast Region Calculating the Value of Nature December 2000 Urban Ecosystem Analysis For the Houston Gulf Coast Region Calculating the Value of Nature Report Contents 2-3 Project Overview and Major Findings 4 Regional Level Analysis 5-7 Local Level

More information

Urban Ecosystem Analysis San Antonio, TX Region

Urban Ecosystem Analysis San Antonio, TX Region November 2002 Urban Ecosystem Analysis San Antonio, TX Region Calculating the Value of Nature Report Contents 2 Project Overview and Major Findings 3 Greater San Antonio Area Regional Ecosystem Analysis

More information

Projected Environmental Benefits of Community Tree Planting

Projected Environmental Benefits of Community Tree Planting October 2002 Projected Environmental Benefits of Community Tree Planting A Multi-Site Model Urban Forest Project in Atlanta Report Contents 2 Project Overview 3 Major Findings 4 Environmental Benefits

More information

Urban Ecosystem Analysis Miami-Dade County UDB and the City of Miami, Florida

Urban Ecosystem Analysis Miami-Dade County UDB and the City of Miami, Florida May 2008 Urban Ecosystem Analysis Miami-Dade County UDB and the, Florida Calculating the Value of Nature Report Contents 2 Project Overview 2 Background 4 Major Landcover Change Findings 5 2004-2006 Landcover

More information

Quantifying the Value of Urban Forest Land in Macon, GA

Quantifying the Value of Urban Forest Land in Macon, GA Quantifying the Value of Urban Forest Land in Macon, GA August 2000 4501 Circle 75 Parkway Suite F-6320 Atlanta, GA 30339 (770) 953-4143 Table of Contents Executive Summary... 3 Introduction... 5 Urban

More information

GULF COASTAL URBAN FOREST HAZARD ASSESSMENT AND REMOTE SENSING EFFORTS AFTER HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA 1

GULF COASTAL URBAN FOREST HAZARD ASSESSMENT AND REMOTE SENSING EFFORTS AFTER HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA 1 GULF COASTAL URBAN FOREST HAZARD ASSESSMENT AND REMOTE SENSING EFFORTS AFTER HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA 1 Kamran K. Abdollahi, Zhu Hua Ning, Daniel Collins, Fulbert Namwamba and Asebe Negatu SU Agricultural

More information

MAPPING MINNEAPOLIS URBAN TREE CANOPY. Why is Tree Canopy Important? Project Background. Mapping Minneapolis Urban Tree Canopy.

MAPPING MINNEAPOLIS URBAN TREE CANOPY. Why is Tree Canopy Important? Project Background. Mapping Minneapolis Urban Tree Canopy. MAPPING MINNEAPOLIS URBAN TREE CANOPY Why is Tree Canopy Important? Trees are an important component of urban environments. In addition to their aesthetic value, trees have significant economic and environmental

More information

Quantifying LID Triple Bottom Line Benefits Milwaukee Case Study Kimberly Brewer, A.I.C.P. Tetra Tech

Quantifying LID Triple Bottom Line Benefits Milwaukee Case Study Kimberly Brewer, A.I.C.P. Tetra Tech Quantifying LID Triple Bottom Line Benefits Milwaukee Case Study Kimberly Brewer, A.I.C.P. Tetra Tech Karen Sands, Manager of Sustainability, MMSD Heather Fisher, AICP, Tetra Tech 1 Background MMSD provides

More information

A Developer s Guide: Watershed-Wise Development

A Developer s Guide: Watershed-Wise Development A Developer s Guide: Watershed-Wise Development Environmental Protection What is a watershed? It does not matter how far away you build from a creek, lake, or the ocean, you are in a watershed. Another

More information

Ecosystem Services in the Greater Houston Region. A case study analysis and recommendations for policy initiatives

Ecosystem Services in the Greater Houston Region. A case study analysis and recommendations for policy initiatives Ecosystem Services in the Greater Houston Region A case study analysis and recommendations for policy initiatives Ecosystem Services Ecosystems provide services through their natural processes that we

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Some scientists estimate that by 2025 over 60 percent of the global human population will live in urban areas. Urban residents experience a variety

More information

Urban Ecosystem Services Seattle s Urban Forest

Urban Ecosystem Services Seattle s Urban Forest Urban Ecosystem Services Seattle s Urban Forest Dr. Kathleen Wolf Dr. Dale Blahna University of Washington, College of the Environment USDA Forest Service, Pacific NW Research Station Laos/Cambodia Study

More information

What is Urban and Community Forestry?

What is Urban and Community Forestry? What is Urban and Community Forestry? The Role of Plants: Generally, urban forests are collective masses of trees found within the boundaries of cities, towns or neighborhoods. Such forests contain publicly

More information

RE-GREENING WASHINGTON, DC: A Green Roof Vision Based on Quantifying Storm Water and Air Quality Benefits

RE-GREENING WASHINGTON, DC: A Green Roof Vision Based on Quantifying Storm Water and Air Quality Benefits RE-GREENING WASHINGTON, DC: A Green Roof Vision Based on Quantifying Storm Water and Air Quality Benefits Washington, DC: 2002 Washington, DC: 2025 Casey Trees Endowment Fund Barbara Deutsch, ASLA, ISA,

More information

The Energy Savings and Emission Reduction Benefits Delivered by the State of Maryland Energy Performance Contracts

The Energy Savings and Emission Reduction Benefits Delivered by the State of Maryland Energy Performance Contracts The Energy Savings and Emission Reduction Benefits Delivered by the State of Maryland Energy Performance Contracts A Cleaner and Greener SM Environment Program Report by Leonardo Academy Inc. January 2002

More information

CHAPTER FOUR Air Quality, Pollution, and Trees

CHAPTER FOUR Air Quality, Pollution, and Trees CHAPTER FOUR Air Quality, Pollution, and Trees Introduction... 4-1 The Front Range and Air Quality... 4-1 Air Quality and Health... 4-3 The Relationship Between Temperature and Air Quality... 4-3 Trees:

More information

Background research on the topic of urban forestry is intended to

Background research on the topic of urban forestry is intended to overview urban forestry Urban Forestry Background research on the topic of urban forestry is intended to help guide the task of integrating trees and urban forestry goals and aspirations into the Portland

More information

Richmond City s Green Infrastructure Assessment

Richmond City s Green Infrastructure Assessment Richmond City s Green Infrastructure Assessment Presented by Karen Firehock, Director The Green Infrastructure Center Inc. www.gicinc.org Mike Mather, City Arborist City of Richmond Winter Symposium --

More information

Air Quality Effects of Urban Trees and Parks

Air Quality Effects of Urban Trees and Parks Executive Summary R E S E A R C H S E R I E S 2 0 1 0 Air Quality Effects of Urban Trees and Parks DAVID J. NOWAK GORDON M. HEISLER www.nrpa.org Executive Summary Estimated Value of Trees in U.S. Urban

More information

Tree Canopy Assessment City of Atlantic Beach, Florida January, 2015

Tree Canopy Assessment City of Atlantic Beach, Florida January, 2015 Tree Canopy Assessment City of Atlantic Beach, Florida January, 2015 Prepared by: Charles Marcus Legacy Arborist Services Tallahassee, FL charliem@nrpsforeseters.com SUMMARY The City of Atlantic Beach,

More information

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA & GREEN ROOF RESEARCH. Utilizing New Technologies to Update an Old Concept. www.nasa.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA & GREEN ROOF RESEARCH. Utilizing New Technologies to Update an Old Concept. www.nasa. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA & GREEN ROOF RESEARCH Utilizing New Technologies to Update an Old Concept www.nasa.gov NASA Utilizes New Technologies to Update an Old Concept NASA s

More information

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality Backyard Buffers Protecting Habitat and Water Quality What is a buffer? A buffer (also called a riparian buffer area or zone) is the strip of natural vegetation along the bank of a stream, lake or other

More information

Clean Water from Urban Forests. Urban Riparian Buffer Program

Clean Water from Urban Forests. Urban Riparian Buffer Program Clean Water from Urban Forests Urban Riparian Buffer Program TDF Urban Riparian Buffer Program A Clean Water from Urban Forests Initiative TDF Urban Riparian Buffer Program A Clean Water from Urban Forests

More information

2002 URBAN FOREST CANOPY & LAND USE IN PORTLAND S HOLLYWOOD DISTRICT. Final Report. Michael Lackner, B.A. Geography, 2003

2002 URBAN FOREST CANOPY & LAND USE IN PORTLAND S HOLLYWOOD DISTRICT. Final Report. Michael Lackner, B.A. Geography, 2003 2002 URBAN FOREST CANOPY & LAND USE IN PORTLAND S HOLLYWOOD DISTRICT Final Report by Michael Lackner, B.A. Geography, 2003 February 2004 - page 1 of 17 - TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 3 Introduction 4 Study

More information

Haynes Recreation Center, Laredo, TX. Data Matrix and Sustainability Benchmarks

Haynes Recreation Center, Laredo, TX. Data Matrix and Sustainability Benchmarks Haynes Recreation Center, Laredo, TX Data Matrix and Sustainability Benchmarks (Updated Spring 2010) 1 Standard Benchmarks BENCHMARKS UNITS PRE PROJECT GOAL Property value (pre/post) Assessed or redevelopment

More information

Please click on the tutorial most fitting of your expertise in order to learn about the features of the visualization tool.

Please click on the tutorial most fitting of your expertise in order to learn about the features of the visualization tool. Introduction Welcome to the Indian Creek Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) visualization tool. This tool was developed by the University of Iowa - Institute for Hydroscience and Research (IIHR) as part

More information

FLOOD PROTECTION AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE CHEHALIS RIVER BASIN. May 2010. Prepared by. for the. 2010 by Earth Economics

FLOOD PROTECTION AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE CHEHALIS RIVER BASIN. May 2010. Prepared by. for the. 2010 by Earth Economics FLOOD PROTECTION AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE CHEHALIS RIVER BASIN May 2010 Prepared by for the Execubve Summary The Chehalis Basin experienced catastrophic flooding in 2007 and 2009. In response, the

More information

AQUATIC VEGETATION SURVEYS USING HIGH-RESOLUTION IKONOS IMAGERY INTRODUCTION

AQUATIC VEGETATION SURVEYS USING HIGH-RESOLUTION IKONOS IMAGERY INTRODUCTION AQUATIC VEGETATION SURVEYS USING HIGH-RESOLUTION IKONOS IMAGERY Leif G. Olmanson, Marvin E. Bauer, and Patrick L. Brezonik Water Resources Center & Remote Sensing and Geospatial Analysis Laboratory University

More information

The Economic Benefits of Green Infrastructure

The Economic Benefits of Green Infrastructure The Economic Benefits of Green Infrastructure A Case Study of Lancaster, PA Map of Lancaster, PA provided by CH2M Hill, Inc. February 2014 EPA 800-R-14-007 About the Green Infrastructure Technical Assistance

More information

City of Atlanta. Department of Watershed Management. Post-Development Stormwater Management Ordinance Summary of Revisions

City of Atlanta. Department of Watershed Management. Post-Development Stormwater Management Ordinance Summary of Revisions City of Atlanta Department of Watershed Management Post-Development Stormwater Management Ordinance Summary of Revisions Cory Rayburn, CPESC Environmental Program Manager crayburn@atlantaga.gov Stormwater

More information

Perspective of Green Industry Professionals from the Florida Pest Management Association (FPMA)

Perspective of Green Industry Professionals from the Florida Pest Management Association (FPMA) Perspective of Green Industry Professionals from the Florida Pest Management Association (FPMA) My name is Erica Santella: I am here representing the green industries, including the Lawn & Ornamental Service

More information

Clean Water Services. Ecosystems Services Case Study: Tualatin River, Washington

Clean Water Services. Ecosystems Services Case Study: Tualatin River, Washington Viewed broadly, the concept of ecosystem services describes the many resources and services provided by nature. Typically, traditional planning and development practices do not adequately represent the

More information

It s hard to avoid the word green these days.

It s hard to avoid the word green these days. Going green : Environmental jobs for scientists and engineers Alice Ramey Alice Ramey is an economist in the Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, BLS. She is available at (202)

More information

Flood Plain Reclamation to Enhance Resiliency Conserving Land in Urban New Jersey

Flood Plain Reclamation to Enhance Resiliency Conserving Land in Urban New Jersey Flood Plain Reclamation to Enhance Resiliency Conserving Land in Urban New Jersey Rutgers Cooperative Extension Water Resources Program Christopher C. Obropta, Ph.D., P.E. Email: obropta@envsci.rutgers.edu

More information

How Landsat Images are Made

How Landsat Images are Made How Landsat Images are Made Presentation by: NASA s Landsat Education and Public Outreach team June 2006 1 More than just a pretty picture Landsat makes pretty weird looking maps, and it isn t always easy

More information

1800 Washington Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21230-1718 www.mde.maryland.gov 410-537-3000 800-633-6101 TTY Users 800-735-2258 Larry Hogan, Governor Boyd

1800 Washington Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21230-1718 www.mde.maryland.gov 410-537-3000 800-633-6101 TTY Users 800-735-2258 Larry Hogan, Governor Boyd ENVIRONMENTAL SITE DESIGN (ESD) REDEVELOPMENT EXAMPLES OCTOBER 2010 1800 Washington Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21230-1718 www.mde.maryland.gov 410-537-3000 800-633-6101 TTY Users 800-735-2258 Larry Hogan,

More information

Table of Contents. Grid-Source Renewable Energy. The Problem

Table of Contents. Grid-Source Renewable Energy. The Problem Table of Contents Grid-Source Renewable Energy Lauren Newsom, LEED AP Renewable Choice Energy April 2, 2009 Electricity Production Today Renewable Energy Sources Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) Common

More information

A Report on the City of Philadelphia s Existing and Possible Tree Canopy

A Report on the City of Philadelphia s Existing and Possible Tree Canopy A Report on the City of Philadelphia s Existing and Possible Tree Canopy Why is Tree Canopy Important? Tree canopy (TC) is the layer of leaves, branches, and stems of trees that cover the ground when viewed

More information

The Sustainable Sites Initiative: Future Business Opportunities? 2009 Sustainable Sites Initiative

The Sustainable Sites Initiative: Future Business Opportunities? 2009 Sustainable Sites Initiative The Sustainable Sites Initiative: Future Business Opportunities? 2 Sustainable Sites Initiative Business Opportunities!! professionals become registered, then consult! collaboration with other firms! public

More information

COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SECTION B, ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES. April 20, 2010 EXHIBIT 1

COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SECTION B, ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES. April 20, 2010 EXHIBIT 1 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SECTION B, ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES April 20, 2010 EXHIBIT 1 ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 GOALS AND POLICIES 4.2.A General Goals and Policies 1 4.2.B

More information

Renewable Choice Energy

Renewable Choice Energy Catawba College Table of Contents About Renewable Choice The Problem: Electricity Production Today The Solutions: Renewable Energy Sources Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) Who can participate in Renewable

More information

1.7.0 Floodplain Modification Criteria

1.7.0 Floodplain Modification Criteria 1.7.0 Floodplain Modification Criteria 1.7.1 Introduction These guidelines set out standards for evaluating and processing proposed modifications of the 100- year floodplain with the following objectives:

More information

Digital Classification and Mapping of Urban Tree Cover: City of Minneapolis

Digital Classification and Mapping of Urban Tree Cover: City of Minneapolis Digital Classification and Mapping of Urban Tree Cover: City of Minneapolis FINAL REPORT April 12, 2011 Marvin Bauer, Donald Kilberg, Molly Martin and Zecharya Tagar Remote Sensing and Geospatial Analysis

More information

Development of an Impervious-Surface Database for the Little Blackwater River Watershed, Dorchester County, Maryland

Development of an Impervious-Surface Database for the Little Blackwater River Watershed, Dorchester County, Maryland Development of an Impervious-Surface Database for the Little Blackwater River Watershed, Dorchester County, Maryland By Lesley E. Milheim, John W. Jones, and Roger A. Barlow Open-File Report 2007 1308

More information

i-tree-eco International Versions

i-tree-eco International Versions i-tree-eco International Versions David J. Nowak (US Forest Service, Northern Research Station) June 28, 2010 Executive Summary To enhance the ability of i-tree to work outside the United States, various

More information

ERP: Willamette-Ecosystem Services Project

ERP: Willamette-Ecosystem Services Project ERP: Willamette-Ecosystem Services Project Presented by Iris Goodman to NAS Sustainability R&D Forum October 17-18, 2007 Conserving ecosystem services through proactive decision-making making Linking Human

More information

New Community ReLeaf Cities Request for Proposals

New Community ReLeaf Cities Request for Proposals New Community ReLeaf Cities Request for Proposals American Forests, a leading national conservation organization, has long been on the forefront of providing scientifically-based resources to help cities

More information

Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon. fact SHEET

Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon. fact SHEET Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon fact SHEET Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon Coastal Blue Carbon - An Important Wetland Ecosystem Service Coastal Blue Carbon refers to the

More information

Sustainable Construction An Education and Research Perspective

Sustainable Construction An Education and Research Perspective Sustainable Construction An Education and Research Perspective Amit Bandyopadhyay, Ph.D.,PE, Orla LoPiccolo, RA, AIA, Bahar Zoghi, Ph.D., PE State University of New York College of Technology at Farmingdale

More information

EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES FOR COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES FOR COASTAL DEVELOPMENT EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES FOR COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Nancy Cofer-Shabica, Perot Systems Government Services at Amanda Rutherford, Perot Systems Government Services at Patty McIntosh, Georgia Conservancy Fred

More information

Open Forum: Tree Preservation Town of Morrisville 7.24.14

Open Forum: Tree Preservation Town of Morrisville 7.24.14 Open Forum: Tree Preservation Town of Morrisville 7.24.14 Chad Meadows, AICP Public & Private Sector Planner Drafted 16 Development Codes Co-Author, Local Tree Protection Ordinances in North Carolina Congressional

More information

S n. San Antonio: Ripples of Change

S n. San Antonio: Ripples of Change NJ41;&IJ414 SEARCHING FOR COMMON GROUND IN A COMPLEX WORLD Roducod tree cover and an inereaso in impervious surface area take their toll on a region's air and vdater quality San Antonio: Ripples of Change

More information

Strategic Urban Forests Assessment: Baltimore, Maryland INTRODUCTION

Strategic Urban Forests Assessment: Baltimore, Maryland INTRODUCTION Strategic Urban Forests Assessment: Baltimore, Maryland Frederick M. Irani, Remote Sensing and GIS, Chesapeake and Coastal Watershed Service Watershed Management and Analysis Michael F. Galvin, Supervisor,

More information

Costs for Green Infrastructure and Stormwater Controls

Costs for Green Infrastructure and Stormwater Controls Costs for Green Infrastructure and Stormwater Controls August 5, 2015 Bob Newport U.S. EPA Region 5 (Chicago Office) Topics to be Covered EPA data collection and cost analysis focused on postconstruction

More information

Natural Resource-Based Planning*

Natural Resource-Based Planning* Natural Resource-Based Planning* Planning, when done well, is among the most powerful tools available to communities. A solid plan, based on good natural resource information, guides rational land-use

More information

Planning the Urban Forest

Planning the Urban Forest Planning the Urban Forest Waco, TX June 2, 2011 David Rouse, AICP, ASLA Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC Sponsored in part by a grant from the US Forest Service Urban and Community Forest Program Planning the

More information

Green Infrastructure. 52 MMSD Regional Green Infrastructure Plan

Green Infrastructure. 52 MMSD Regional Green Infrastructure Plan Green Infrastructure Benefits and Costs 52 MMSD Regional Green Infrastructure Plan MMSD s 2035 Vision has two key elements: 1) Integrated Watershed Management and, 2) Climate Change Mitigation/Adaptation

More information

Follow the Drop. Activity Overview Students observe and collect information about water runoff on their school property. Objective Students will:

Follow the Drop. Activity Overview Students observe and collect information about water runoff on their school property. Objective Students will: Follow the Drop Activity Overview Students observe and collect information about water runoff on their school property. Objective Students will: Practice observation and investigative skills Survey and

More information

CHAPTER TWO Boulder s Urban Forest Provides Energy Savings

CHAPTER TWO Boulder s Urban Forest Provides Energy Savings CHAPTER TWO Boulder s Urban Forest Provides Energy Savings Introduction... 2-1 The Urban Heat Island Effect: Why Urban Summers Keep Getting Hotter... 2-1 Increased Urban Temperatures Affect Air Quality...

More information

DAVID J. NOWAK GORDON M. HEISLER

DAVID J. NOWAK GORDON M. HEISLER R E S E A R C H S E R I E S 2 0 1 0 Air Quality Effects of Urban Trees and Parks DAVID J. NOWAK GORDON M. HEISLER Table of Contents Executive Summary................................................................

More information

Green Values Stormwater Calculator Methodology

Green Values Stormwater Calculator Methodology Green Values Stormwater Calculator Methodology The CNT Green Values Stormwater Calculator (greenvalues.cnt.org) is designed to arrive at a first approximation of the hydrologic and financial conditions

More information

Use of Green Roofs to Meet New Development Runoff Requirements. Greg Davis Nov. 8, 2007

Use of Green Roofs to Meet New Development Runoff Requirements. Greg Davis Nov. 8, 2007 Use of Green Roofs to Meet New Development Runoff Requirements Greg Davis Nov. 8, 2007 Why green roof? Absorption of precipitation Increased insulation Reduced urban heat island effect Pollutant removal

More information

3. The submittal shall include a proposed scope of work to confirm the provided project description;

3. The submittal shall include a proposed scope of work to confirm the provided project description; QIN Shoreline Master Program Project Summary The Shoreline Master Program (SMP) development process for the Quinault Indian Nation (QIN) includes the completion of inventory and analysis report with corresponding

More information

Robert D. Trimborn Airport Director Santa Monica Airport

Robert D. Trimborn Airport Director Santa Monica Airport Robert D. Trimborn Airport Director Santa Monica Airport Association of California Airports Conference - September 18, 2009 Noise Air Emissions Ground Support Equipment Alternative Fuels and Green

More information

Construction Guidelines for Tree Protection. d. DISTRICT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION URBAN FORESTRY ADMINISTRATION

Construction Guidelines for Tree Protection. d. DISTRICT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION URBAN FORESTRY ADMINISTRATION Construction Guidelines for Tree Protection d. DISTRICT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION URBAN FORESTRY ADMINISTRATION City of Trees Our time in history Since 1872, when Governor Alexander Shepherd planted

More information

Remote Sensing Method in Implementing REDD+

Remote Sensing Method in Implementing REDD+ Remote Sensing Method in Implementing REDD+ FRIM-FFPRI Research on Development of Carbon Monitoring Methodology for REDD+ in Malaysia Remote Sensing Component Mohd Azahari Faidi, Hamdan Omar, Khali Aziz

More information

CWSRF Project Descriptions and Examples for Green Project Reserve

CWSRF Project Descriptions and Examples for Green Project Reserve CWSRF Project Descriptions and Examples for Green Project Reserve I. Water Efficiency a. Water efficiency is the use of improved technologies and practices to deliver equal or better services with less

More information

~Pennsylvania Campaign for Clean Water~ Stormwater Workgroup

~Pennsylvania Campaign for Clean Water~ Stormwater Workgroup c/o Liz Deardorff, co-chair 1845 Market Street, Suite 206 Camp Hill, PA 17011 LDeardorff@AmericanRivers.org April 30, 2015 Sally Claggett Chesapeake Bay Program U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 410

More information

Pima Regional Remote Sensing Program

Pima Regional Remote Sensing Program Pima Regional Remote Sensing Program Activity Orthophoto GIS Mapping and Analysis Implementing Agency Pima Association of Governments (Tucson, Arizona area Metropolitan Planning Organization) Summary Through

More information

Impacts of air pollution on human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage

Impacts of air pollution on human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage Impacts of air pollution on human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage Air pollution causes damage to human health, crops, ecosystems and cultural heritage The scientific data presented in this brochure

More information

STATE OF THE DALLAS URBAN FOREST

STATE OF THE DALLAS URBAN FOREST STATE OF THE DALLAS URBAN FOREST March 2015 STATE OF THE DALLAS URBAN FOREST March 2015 Provided for the people of the City of Dallas by texastrees.org TABLE OF CONTENTS Texas Trees Foundation 5 Acknowledgements

More information

Water Quality and Water Usage Surveys

Water Quality and Water Usage Surveys Appendix 1 Water Quality and Water Usage Surveys This appendix contains copies of the Water Quality Survey and the Lake Usage Survey that we used to complete the watershedbased community assessments. We

More information

Remote Sensing and Land Use Classification: Supervised vs. Unsupervised Classification Glen Busch

Remote Sensing and Land Use Classification: Supervised vs. Unsupervised Classification Glen Busch Remote Sensing and Land Use Classification: Supervised vs. Unsupervised Classification Glen Busch Introduction In this time of large-scale planning and land management on public lands, managers are increasingly

More information

Understanding Raster Data

Understanding Raster Data Introduction The following document is intended to provide a basic understanding of raster data. Raster data layers (commonly referred to as grids) are the essential data layers used in all tools developed

More information

Seattle Comprehensive Plan: Toward a Sustainable Seattle Evaluation

Seattle Comprehensive Plan: Toward a Sustainable Seattle Evaluation Plan Analysis for UAP 5794 Sustainability Planning Lab Seattle Comprehensive Plan: Toward a Sustainable Seattle Evaluation Kaitlen Scanlon March 26, 2011 Table of Contents City Context Information... 2

More information

The Clean Air Act s Economic Benefits. Past, Present and Future

The Clean Air Act s Economic Benefits. Past, Present and Future The Clean Air Act s Economic Benefits Past, Present and Future October 2010 Acknowledgements This report is the product of a collaborative effort by Small Business Majority and The Main Street Alliance.

More information

A Marketing Strategy for Urban & Community Forestry in the West

A Marketing Strategy for Urban & Community Forestry in the West Final Version - 01/11/2007 Page 1 of 8 A Marketing Strategy for Urban & Community Forestry in the West Developed by the Western Urban and Community Forestry Committee Of the Council of Western State Foresters

More information

The Conservation Reserve Program: 45th Signup Results

The Conservation Reserve Program: 45th Signup Results Farm Service Agency The Conservation Reserve Program: 45th Signup Results U.S Department of Agriculture Farm Service Agency Conservation and Environmental Program Division 1400 Independence Ave., SW, Room

More information

Remote Sensing and GIS Application In Change Detection Study In Urban Zone Using Multi Temporal Satellite

Remote Sensing and GIS Application In Change Detection Study In Urban Zone Using Multi Temporal Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS Application In Change Detection Study In Urban Zone Using Multi Temporal Satellite R.Manonmani, G.Mary Divya Suganya Institute of Remote Sensing, Anna University, Chennai 600 025

More information

Phosphorus. Phosphorus Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management. www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html

Phosphorus. Phosphorus Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management. www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html Phosphorus Phosphorus Brochure Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management Reducing Phosphorus Website Washington State Department of Ecology www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html Nutrients

More information

Conducting a Land Use Inventory

Conducting a Land Use Inventory Chapter 3 Conducting a Land Use Inventory Included in this chapter: Determining Current Land Use Conditions Preparing a Base Map Deciding on Land Use Categories Collecting Current Land Use Data Preparing

More information

VCS REDD Methodology Module. Methods for monitoring forest cover changes in REDD project activities

VCS REDD Methodology Module. Methods for monitoring forest cover changes in REDD project activities 1 VCS REDD Methodology Module Methods for monitoring forest cover changes in REDD project activities Version 1.0 May 2009 I. SCOPE, APPLICABILITY, DATA REQUIREMENT AND OUTPUT PARAMETERS Scope This module

More information

Triple Bottom Line Discussion. Scott Struck, Ph.D. Senior Professional Geosyntec Consultants

Triple Bottom Line Discussion. Scott Struck, Ph.D. Senior Professional Geosyntec Consultants Triple Bottom Line Discussion Scott Struck, Ph.D. Senior Professional Geosyntec Consultants http://water.epa.gov/action/importanceofwater/upload /Importance-of-Water-Synthesis-Report.pdf EPA Report Says

More information

Innovative Stormwater Solutions in Coastal Areas 2015 APWA Stormwater Conference

Innovative Stormwater Solutions in Coastal Areas 2015 APWA Stormwater Conference Innovative Stormwater Solutions in Coastal Areas 2015 APWA Stormwater Conference September 15, 2015 Barrier Island Hydrology 2015 APWA Stormwater Conference September 15, 2015 2 Barrier Island Hydrology

More information

Carbon Credits: An Opportunity for Forest Landowners. Hughes Simpson Texas Forest Service

Carbon Credits: An Opportunity for Forest Landowners. Hughes Simpson Texas Forest Service Carbon Credits: An Opportunity for Forest Landowners Hughes Simpson Texas Forest Service Carbon and Greenhouse Gases How can we mitigate Carbon / GHGs? Reduce emissions Stop burning fossil fuels Improve

More information

Trees, Parking and Green Law: Strategies for Sustainability

Trees, Parking and Green Law: Strategies for Sustainability Urban and Community Forestry Policy and Law Trees, Parking and Green Law: Strategies for Sustainability February 2004 Prepared by: Kathleen L. Wolf College of Forest Resources, University of Washington

More information

Environmental Case Study Decatur, Georgia, DeKalb County A Suburban Creek Resists Channelization

Environmental Case Study Decatur, Georgia, DeKalb County A Suburban Creek Resists Channelization Introduction A visual examination of Doolittle Creek in a highly developed suburban county in Georgia yielded telltale signs of a creek whose original streambed had been altered. Examination of official

More information

SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS

SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS KEY CONCEPTS: In this session we will look at: Geographic information systems and Map projections. Content that needs to be covered for examination

More information

SPECIAL REPORT. TD Economics THE VALUE OF URBAN FORESTS IN CITIES ACROSS CANADA

SPECIAL REPORT. TD Economics THE VALUE OF URBAN FORESTS IN CITIES ACROSS CANADA SPECIAL REPORT TD Economics THE VALUE OF URBAN FORESTS IN CITIES ACROSS CANADA Highlights Urban forests are the trees and other plants found on the streets, in our yards, in parks, and surrounding our

More information

Course: Green Technology IV (or similar upper-level environmental science course) Instructor: Gregory Rusciano

Course: Green Technology IV (or similar upper-level environmental science course) Instructor: Gregory Rusciano LESSON PLAN Course: Green Technology IV (or similar upper-level environmental science course) Instructor: Gregory Rusciano TOPIC: Stream Ecology (with Stream Visual Assessment Protocol culminating project)

More information

Application of Invest`s Sedimentation Retention model for restoration benefits forecast at Cantareira Water Supply System

Application of Invest`s Sedimentation Retention model for restoration benefits forecast at Cantareira Water Supply System Application of Invest`s Sedimentation Retention model for restoration benefits forecast at Cantareira Water Supply System Introduction Healthy forests regulate water flows, protect watercourses and maintain

More information

Vue. User s Manual. v. 3.0

Vue. User s Manual. v. 3.0 Vue User s Manual v. 3.0 i-tree is a cooperative initiative About i-tree i-tree is a state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed software suite from the USDA Forest Service that provides urban and community forestry

More information

SMUD SHADE TREE AND COOL ROOF PROGRAMS: CASE STUDY IN MITIGATING THE URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECTS

SMUD SHADE TREE AND COOL ROOF PROGRAMS: CASE STUDY IN MITIGATING THE URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECTS SMUD SHADE TREE AND COOL ROOF PROGRAMS: CASE STUDY IN MITIGATING THE URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECTS SUBJECT 1) case studies 2) energy effects/ CO2 impact Misha Sarkovich, Ph.D., Sacramento Municipal Utility

More information

Costs for Green Infrastructure and Stormwater Retention Practices

Costs for Green Infrastructure and Stormwater Retention Practices Costs for Green Infrastructure and Stormwater Retention Practices Bob Newport U.S. EPA December 9, 2014 Topics to be Covered EPA data collection and cost analysis focused on postconstruction stormwater

More information

understanding Sustainable Landscaping & Tree Preservation Standards

understanding Sustainable Landscaping & Tree Preservation Standards understanding Sustainable Landscaping & Tree Preservation Standards Purpose To promote landscaping around development that is compatible with the existing environment, and which reduces greenhouse gas

More information

Remote Sensing in Natural Resources Mapping

Remote Sensing in Natural Resources Mapping Remote Sensing in Natural Resources Mapping NRS 516, Spring 2016 Overview of Remote Sensing in Natural Resources Mapping What is remote sensing? Why remote sensing? Examples of remote sensing in natural

More information

Miami-Dade County s Urban Forests and Their Ecosystem Services 1

Miami-Dade County s Urban Forests and Their Ecosystem Services 1 FOR285 Miami-Dade County s Urban Forests and Their Ecosystem Services 1 Francisco Escobedo, Joy Klein, Micah Pace, Henry Mayer, and Sebastian Varela 2 An urban forest is composed of all the trees, palms,

More information

What is A Triple Bottom Line Economic Analysis of Improving Urban River Quality?

What is A Triple Bottom Line Economic Analysis of Improving Urban River Quality? What is A Triple Bottom Line Economic Analysis of Improving Urban River Quality? Leland Deck, Ph.D. Managing Economist Stratus Consulting Inc. Washington, DC Prepared for: Anacostia River Business Summit

More information

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS. For a map of this information, in paper or digital format, contact the Tompkins County Planning Department.

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS. For a map of this information, in paper or digital format, contact the Tompkins County Planning Department. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS What are Aerial Photographs? Aerial photographs are images of the land taken from an airplane and printed on 9 x9 photographic paper. Why are Aerial Photographs Important? Aerial photographs

More information

Regulatory Alternatives to Address Stormwater Management and Flooding in the Marlboro Street Study Area

Regulatory Alternatives to Address Stormwater Management and Flooding in the Marlboro Street Study Area Regulatory Alternatives to Address Stormwater Management and Flooding in the Marlboro Street Study Area Alternative 1: Amend Existing Local Regulations This proposed alternative provides an incremental

More information