Broadcasting and Cinema

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1 RRN 1,713 Broadcasting and Cinema September 2012 Needs Assessment Prepared by Elisa Lewis Date: September 25, 2012 Broadcasting and Cinema 1

2 Scope Data compiled in this report covers San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and Los Angeles counties. Data were drawn from external sources, including the Employment Development Department s California Labor Market Information and the U.S. Department of Education s Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), as well as Chaffey College s Colleague Administrative database. Data Sources and Calculations Educational Program Data TOP Code Program of Study Radio and Television The Taxonomy of Programs (TOP) is a standardized system used at the state level to classify programs and courses at California Community Colleges that are intended to achieve the same outcome. The Broadcasting and Cinema program at Chaffey College is classified under the Radio and Television TOP code. CIP Code Program of Study Radio and Television The Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) is a standardized coding system used at the federal level to facilitate accurate tracking, assessment, and reporting of fields of study and program completion at educational institutions throughout the country. This report draws on the Radio and Television CIP code, which maps to the Radio and Television TOP code, to compare Chaffey College to other institutions and examine employment trends. Completions Data Degree and certificate data regarding students at Chaffey College were collected from the Colleague Administrative database. Degree and certificate data for all comparison schools were collected from the U.S. Department of Education s Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). All comparison institutions included in this report are postsecondary and have provided data to IPEDS. IPEDS defines postsecondary education as a formal program designed primarily for students beyond high school age. These include academic, vocational, and continuing professional education, and exclude avocational and adult basic education programs. Occupational Data SOC Code Occupational Title Broadcast News Analysts Film and Video Editors Producers and Directors Radio and Television Announcers The Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system is used by federal statistical agencies to classify workers into occupational categories. The Radio and Television CIP code was mapped to the four SOC codes listed in the table above using the crosswalk described in the paragraph below. 2

3 Educational Program to Occupation Crosswalk The TOP-CIP-SOC Crosswalk (Employment Development Department, 2007) was used in this report to map TOP codes to CIP and SOC codes. This crosswalk allows the user to estimate labor market demand for California Community College program completers using SOC-based projections from the California Labor Market Information Division. Industry Data The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is used by federal statistical agencies to classify business establishments for the purpose of conducting and reporting research on the U.S. business economy. The Standard Occupation Classification codes are mapped to industry data by the California Labor Market Information Division. Industry information is used to geographically map the business locations of potential employers as well as to observe trends across the industries that employ the occupations identified above. 3

4 Introduction and Contents Contents Background Information 6 Regional Job Outlook 10 Largest and Fastest Growing Industry Employers 13 Regional Graduation Summary 15 Chaffey College s Performance on Core Indicators 17 Map of Regional Employers and Competitor Institutions 18 The purpose of this report is to integrate and analyze data from multiple sources to determine labor market needs for the Broadcasting and Cinema program at Chaffey College. Regional Definitions Inland Empire includes the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) Los Angeles County includes the Los Angeles- Long Beach-Glendale Metropolitan Division Orange County includes the Santa Ana- Anaheim-Irvine Metropolitan Division Key Terms and Concepts Replacement Jobs: Replacement jobs refer to the number of job openings due to workers leaving an occupation. Annual Openings: Annual openings are calculated by adding the number of new jobs to the number of replacement jobs, divided by the number of years in the projection period. Projections: Projections of employment are calculated by the Employment Development Department and are based on a mathematical formula that includes historical employment and economic indicators along with national, state, and local trends. Occupation: Jobs are grouped into occupations using the federal Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. Industry: Occupations are grouped into industries using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Wages: Hourly wages are reported in percentiles and averages. The 25 th percentile is a useful proxy of entry-level wages and the 75 th percentile of experienced-level wages. 4

5 Purpose and Goals Chaffey College currently offers a 30-unit Associate of Science and a 17-unit Certificate option in the Broadcasting and Cinema program. The following is a description of the Broadcasting and Cinema program as outlined in the catalog: The Broadcasting and Cinema degree program is a challenging and technology driven learning environment designed for students who want to enhance, refine, and polish their storytelling creations. Courses of study follow the traditional modes of the production process while providing students with a dynamic and innovative learning environment. Students may arrange their own program of courses in broadcasting and cinema production, including cinema studies, producing, broadcast audio, television and radio announcing, radio production, scriptwriting, post-production editing, TV production, cinema, and HDTV production. The Broadcasting and Cinema certificate program is for students to learn and apply the processes involved in the creative, collaborative business of producing radio, motion picture, and television productions. Focus is on how to craft ideas into storytelling materials, put them together, and manage the process through completion. This certificate prepares students for various career opportunities in screenwriting, directing, producing, announcing, audio recording, cinematography, camera operation, and other vocations in the motion picture, radio, television, and broadcast industries. Student Learning Outcomes: Upon the successful completion of this program, students should be able to: 1. Synthesize a basic overview of the historical practices and personnel involved in the three production phases of the motion picture and broadcasting process. 2. Conceptualize and arrange subject matter (such as script, film and/or radio content, storyboarding) in aspects of broadcasting and cinema. 3. Complete a production of his/her own announcing voice and/or film/tv production reel. 4. Operate industry standard equipment and computer software programs. 5

6 Background Information Radio and Television Radio and Television programs in California Community Colleges focus on teaching students history, theories, principles, techniques, functions, technologies, and creative processes of radio and television in reaching mass audiences. 1 The descriptions of job duties for Broadcast News Analysts, Film and Video Editors, Producers and Directors, and Radio and Television Announcers are provided by the Occupational Information Network. 2 Broadcast News Analysts Broadcast News Analysts analyze, interpret, and broadcast news received from various sources. Typical Tasks Analyze and interpret news and information received from various sources in order to be able to broadcast the information Write commentaries, columns, or scripts, using computers Examine news items of local, national, and international significance in order to determine topics to address, or obtain assignments from editorial staff members Coordinate and serve as an anchor on news broadcast programs Edit news materials most pertinent to presentation, and organize this material into appropriate formats Gather information and develop perspectives about news subjects through research, interviews, observation, and experience Present news stories, and introduce in-depth videotaped segments or live transmissions from on-the-scene reporters 1 California Community Colleges, Chancellor s Office, Taxonomy of Programs, Sixth Edition (Corrected Version). 2 O*Net Online: 6

7 Film and Video Editors Film and Video Editors edit moving images on film, video, or other media. May edit or synchronize soundtracks with images. Typical Tasks Organize and string together raw footage into a continuous whole according to scripts or the instructions of directors and producers Review assembled films or edited videotapes on screens or monitors to determine if corrections are necessary Trim film segments to specified lengths, and reassemble segments in sequences that present stories with maximum effect Determine the specific audio and visual effects and music necessary to complete films. Set up and operate computer editing systems, electronic titling systems, video switching equipment, and digital video effects units to produce a final product Select and combine the most effective shots of each scene to form a logical and smoothly running story Edit films and videotapes to insert music, dialogue, and sound effects, to arrange films into sequences, and to correct errors, using editing equipment Cut shot sequences to different angles at specific points in scenes, making each individual cut as fluid and seamless as possible Mark frames where a particular shot or piece of sound is to begin or end Verify key numbers and time codes on materials Producers and Directors Producers and Directors produce or direct stage, television, radio, video, or motion picture productions for entertainment, information, or instruction. They are responsible for creative decisions, such as interpretation of script, choice of guests, motion picture production, coordinating writing, set design, sound, special effects, and choreography as well as the arrangement of financing. Depending on whether one is a producer or director, and which kind of director at that, typical tasks differ. Typical Tasks of Producers Write and edit news stories from information collected by reporters and other sources Research production topics using the internet, video archives, and other informational sources Review film, recordings, or rehearsals to ensure conformance to production and broadcast standards Coordinate the activities of writers, directors, managers, and other personnel throughout the production process Monitor postproduction processes to ensure accurate completion of details Perform administrative duties, such as preparing operational reports, distributing rehearsal call sheets and script copies, and arranging for rehearsal quarters Conduct meetings with staff to discuss production progress and to ensure production objectives are attained Resolve personnel problems that arise during the production process by acting as liaisons between dissenting parties when necessary Produce shows for special occasions, such as holidays or testimonials Hire directors, principal cast members, and key production staff members Arrange financing for productions Typical Tasks of Directors of Stage, Motion Pictures, Television, and Radio Direct live broadcasts, films and recordings, or non-broadcast programming for public entertainment or education 7

8 Supervise and coordinate the work of camera, lighting, design, and sound crewmembers Study and research scripts to determine how they should be directed Compile cue words and phrases, and cue announcers, cast members, and technicians during performances Identify and approve equipment and elements required for productions, such as scenery, lights, props, costumes, choreography, and music Confer with technical directors, managers, crew members, and writers to discuss details of production, such as photography, script, music, sets, and costumes Plan details such as framing, composition, camera movement, sound, and actor movement for each shot or scene Consult with writers, producers, or actors about script changes, or "workshop" scripts, through rehearsal with writers and actors to create final drafts Establish pace of programs and sequences of scenes according to time requirements and cast and set accessibility Select plays or scripts for production, and determine how material should be interpreted and performed Typical Tasks of Program Directors Plan and schedule programming and event coverage, based on broadcast length, time availability, and other factors, such as community needs, ratings data, and viewer demographics Monitor and review programming to ensure that schedules are met, guidelines are adhered to, and performances are of adequate quality Direct and coordinate activities of personnel engaged in broadcast news, sports, or programming Check completed program logs for accuracy and conformance with Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations and resolve program log inaccuracies Establish work schedules and assign work to staff members Coordinate activities between departments, such as news and programming Perform personnel duties, such as hiring staff and evaluating work performance Evaluate new and existing programming to assess suitability and the need for changes, using information such as audience surveys and feedback Develop budgets for programming and broadcasting activities and monitor expenditures to ensure that they remain within budgetary limits Confer with directors and production staff to discuss issues such as production and casting problems, budgets, policies, and news coverage Typical Tasks of Talent Directors Review performer information such as photos, resumes, voice tapes, videos, and union membership, in order to decide whom to audition for parts Read scripts and confer with producers in order to determine the types and numbers of performers required for a given production Select performers for roles or submit lists of suitable performers to producers or directors for final selection Audition and interview performers in order to match their attributes to specific roles or to increase the pool of available acting talent Maintain talent files that include information such as performers specialties, past performances, and availability Prepare actors for auditions by providing scripts and information about roles and casting 8

9 Serve as liaisons between directors, actors, and agents Attend or view productions in order to maintain knowledge of available actors Negotiate contract agreements with performers, with agents, or between performers and agents or production companies Contact agents and actors in order to provide notification of audition and performance opportunities and to set up audition times Typical Tasks of Technical Directors/Managers Direct technical aspects of newscasts and other productions, checking and switching between video sources, and taking responsibility for the on-air product, including camera shots and graphics Test equipment to ensure proper operation Monitor broadcasts to ensure that programs conform to station or network policies and regulations Observe pictures through monitors, and direct camera and video staff concerning shading and composition Act as liaisons between engineering and production departments Supervise and assign duties to workers engaged in technical control and production of radio and television programs Schedule use of studio and editing facilities for producers and engineering and maintenance staff Confer with operations directors to formulate and maintain fair and attainable technical Discuss filter options, lens choices, and the visual effects of objects being filmed with photography directors and video operators. Follow instructions from production managers and directors during productions, such as commands for camera cuts, effects, graphics, and takes Radio and Television Announcers Radio and Television announcers Speak or read from scripted materials, such as news reports or commercial messages, on radio or television. May announce artist or title of performance, identify station, or interview guests. Typical Tasks Prepare and deliver news, sports, and/or weather reports, gathering and rewriting material so that it will convey required information and fit specific time slots Read news flashes to inform audiences of important events Identify stations, and introduce or close shows, using memorized or read scripts, and/or adlibs Select program content, in conjunction with producers and assistants, based on factors such as program specialties, audience tastes, or requests from the public Study background information in order to prepare for programs or interviews Comment on music and other matters, such as weather or traffic conditions Interview show guests about their lives, their work, or topics of current interest Discuss various topics over the telephone with viewers or listeners Host civic, charitable, or promotional events that are broadcast over television or radio Make promotional appearances at public or private events in order to represent their employers 9

10 Regional Job Outlook Projected Regional Job Outlook The table below displays 2008 employment estimates and 2018 projections for careers that are associated with Radio and Television programs. Predictably, because these careers are in the entertainment industry, Los Angeles County is expected to provide the most annual job openings. The Inland Empire and Orange County are expected to have few job openings in these careers. Total Estimated 2010 Jobs Total Projected 2020 Jobs Projected Growth (%) Ave. Annual New Job Openings Ave. Annual Replacement Job Openings Ave. Annual Total Job Openings Broadcast News Analysts State of California Inland Empire Los Angeles CO Orange CO Film and Video Editors State of California 9,200 10,600 1,400 (15.2%) Inland Empire (0.0%) Los Angeles CO 6,890 7, (10.9%) Orange CO (5.0%) Producers and Directors State of California 33,500 40,100 6,600 (19.7%) ,650 Inland Empire (7.1%) Los Angeles CO 19,870 21,990 2,120 (10.7%) Orange CO (4.4%) Radio and Television Announcers State of California 3,800 4, (10.5%) Inland Empire (2.4%) Los Angeles CO 1,320 1, (-3.0%) Orange CO Note: - - indicates that these data were not available. Source: Labor Market Information Division, Employment Development Department, Occupation Profile, on the Internet at: (visited September 25, 2012). 10

11 Projected Regional Job Growth The graph below shows the projected growth from 2010 to 2020 of Radio and Television-related jobs.* Of particular interest is the growth in available jobs for Film and Video Editors and Producers and Directors in Los Angeles County. Radio and Television Announcers jobs are on the rise in California, though not in Los Angeles County. % Growth California Film and Video Editors Inland Empire Los Angeles County Orange County % Growth California Producers and Directors Inland Empire Los Angeles County Orange County % Growth Radio and Television Announcers California Inland Empire Los Angeles County Orange County *Note: Data for Broadcast News Analysts were not available. Source: Labor Market Information Division, Employment Development Department, Occupation Profile, on the Internet at: (visited September 25, 2012). 11

12 Regional Hourly Wages This table displays the 2012 hourly wage statistics of occupations associated with Radio and Television programs. Mean and median wages are highest in Los Angeles County for all occupations for which this information is available. Producers and Directors generally earn more than individuals in the other occupations that are associated with Radio and Television programs. An individual can earn anywhere from $12-65/hour, depending upon occupation and experience. Mean Hourly Rate 25 th Percentile Median Hourly Rate 75 th Percentile Broadcast News Analysts State of California $43.65 $20.20 $31.30 $52.14 Inland Empire $39.31 $24.25 $32.59 $40.43 Los Angeles CO Orange CO $43.65 $20.20 $31.30 $52.14 Film and Video Editors State of California $46.11 $23.21 $41.36 $61.14 Inland Empire Los Angeles CO $50.05 $28.04 $46.80 $65.72 Orange CO $19.85 $12.43 $15.60 $25.02 Producers and Directors State of California $62.73 $31.95 $ Inland Empire $39.15 $22.53 $34.46 $43.55 Los Angeles CO $68.08 $35.16 $ Orange CO $38.18 $22.27 $33.83 $50.37 Radio and Television Announcers State of California $29.87 $12.68 $18.92 $31.55 Inland Empire $15.83 $11.22 $14.60 $18.48 Los Angeles CO $36.75 $15.54 $23.68 $41.65 Orange CO $29.87 $12.68 $18.92 $31.55 Note: - - indicates that these data were not available. Source: Labor Market Information Division, Employment Development Department, Occupation Profile, on the Internet at: (visited September 26, 2012). 12

13 Largest and Fastest Growing Industry Employers Largest Industry Employers of Radio and Television-Related Occupations The graphs below display the 2010 staffing patterns of the largest industries employing Film and Video Editors, Producers and Directors, and Radio and Television Announcers across the state of California.* Only one industry employed Film and Video Editors, four industries employed Producers and Directors, and one industry employed Radio and Television Announcers. Number of Employees Film and Video Editors Radio and Television Broadcasting Number of Employees 2,500 2,000 1,500 1, Producers and Directors Number of Employees Radio and Television Announcers Motion Picture and Video Industries *Note: Data for Broadcast News Analysts were not available. 13

14 Source: Labor Market Information Division, Employment Development Department, Staffing Patterns, on the Internet at: (visited September 26, 2012). Change Over Time of the Largest Industry Employers of Radio and Television- Related Occupations The graphs below display projections of staffing changes from of the largest industries employing Radio and Television-related occupations in the state of California.* Radio and Television Broadcasting industries are expected to increase the number of Film and Video Editors employed. The number of Radio and Television Announcers employed by Motion Picture and Video Industries is not expected to grow. Cable and Other Subscription Programming industries are expected to increase the number of individuals employed. Percent Change Film and Video Editors Radio and Television Broadcasting Percent Change Producers and Directors *Note: Data for Broadcast News Analysts were not available and industries employing Radio and Television Announcers showed no change. Source: Labor Market Information Division, Employment Development Department, Staffing Patterns, on the Internet at: (visited September 26, 2012). 14

15 Regional Graduation Summary Education and Training 3 Education and training requirements differ for each of the occupations associated with Radio and Television programs. Most employers of Broadcast News Analysts, for instance, prefer to hire individuals with a bachelor s degree in journalism or mass communications, but some will hire graduates with other majors. They look for experience at school newspapers or broadcasting stations, and internships with news organizations. Most employers of Film and Video Editors require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree. Some employers prefer a bachelor s degree from a film school, college, university, or photographic institute. They look for a good eye, imagination, and creativity, as well as good technical understanding of how the camera operates. The most important qualities employers look for when hiring Producers and Directors are creative instincts, innate talent, and the intellectual capacity to perform the work. Producers, but especially directors, need experience in the field and most acquire this experience either as actors or in other related jobs. These jobs usually require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not. Competition for Radio and Television Announcer jobs is high, and postsecondary education or long-term on-the-job training is common. Formal training in broadcasting from college or a technical school is valuable but not always required. Trainees usually must have several years of experience in the industry before they work on air. Regional Completers in Radio and Television Programs The table below displays the number of program completers in the academic year at regional institutions offering Radio and Television programs. Besides Chaffey College, there are 16 institutions offering degrees or certificates below the baccalaureate level across the four county region. Institution Name < 1 year Certificate 1 to < 2 year Certificate Award Level Associate s Degree 2 to < 4 year Certificate Chaffey College College of the Canyons El Camino Community College District Fullerton College Glendale Community College Golden West College Long Beach City College Los Angeles City College Los Angeles Valley College Mt. San Antonio College Pasadena City College Riverside Community College Saddleback College Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Edition, on the Internet at: (visited September 26, 2012). 15

16 Santa Ana College Santa Monica College Santiago Canyon College The Academy of Radio and TV Broadcasting Total Note: -- indicates that this type of degree is not offered. 0 indicates that this degree/certificate level is offered but no degrees or certificates were granted. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, on the Internet at: (visited September 26, 2012) 16

17 Chaffey College s Performance on Core Indicators The Perkins IV Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006 mandates that all state and local postsecondary institutions provide data on six core performance indicators for their career and technical education programs. These indicators are: 1) Technical Skill Attainment; 2) Completions; 3) Persistence and Transfer; 4) Employment; 5) Nontraditional Participation; and 6) Nontraditional Completion. Performance goals are set at the state and local levels and progress is monitored based on a comparison between the actual percentage of students who master each performance area and the negotiated levels of performance Chaffey College Performance on Core Indicators The table below displays negotiated and actual core performance indicator levels for all Chaffey College students classified under the Radio and Television TOP code. These students performed above district negotiated levels on Core Indicators 2 and 3. Core Performance Indicators Negotiated Level State District Chaffey College Performance Percent Above or Below District Negotiated Level Radio and Television Core 1 Technical Skill Attainment 88.82% 88.82% 50.00% N/A Core 2 Completions- Credential, Certificate, Degree, or Transfer Ready 80.93% 76.88% % N/A Core 3 Persistence and Transfer 85.86% 85.86% % N/A Core 4 Employment 81.48% 81.48% N/R N/R Core 5a Non-traditional Participation 22.08% 20.53% 0.00% N/A Core 5b Non-traditional Completions 25.00% 22.75% 0.00% N/A Note: N/A (Not Applicable) indicates denominators less than 10. Source: CA Community Colleges Reporting Services, Radio and Television, College Core Indicator Information by 6-Digit TOP ( ) 17

18 Map of Regional Employers and Competitor Institutions Motion Picture and Video Industries and Radio and Television Broadcasting employ the majority of individuals who work in Radio and Televisionrelated occupations. Across all four counties of interest, there are 5,149 employers in these industries listed by the California Labor Market (4,237 in Los Angeles County, 560 in Orange County, 190 in Riverside County, and 162 in San Bernardino County). This map illustrates the location of a random selection of 10% of all employers in the Motion Picture and Video and Radio and Television Broadcast industries. Also included are the locations of Chaffey College and other competitor schools offering a degree or certificate in Radio and Television programs. 18

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