QuickGuide: English Learners

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1 p o l i c y Practice QuickGuide: English Learners Provided by California Teachers Association Instruction & Professional Development

2 QuickGuide: English Learners Department for Instruction and Professional Development California Teachers Association P.O. Box 921 Burlingame, CA (650) First edition revised 9/ California Teachers Association. All rights reserved. Reprint rights available only with prior written consent and proper credit.

3 introduction The number of English learners (ELs) in California schools is increasing dramatically. Currently, twenty-five percent of students in California K - 6 schools are English learners. It is estimated that forty percent of all California students in kindergarten and 1st grade learn to speak English as a second language. Eighty percent of the ELs in California schools speak Spanish. QuickGuide: English Learners includes information about the certification requirements for working with ELs, best practice strategies, answers to frequently asked questions, CTA policy and additional resources. certification requirements Teachers providing ELD and/or SDAIE instruction to English learners in California need to be certified to do so by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC) through the CLAD, BCLAD and/or the SB1969/395 certification processes. In California, the possession of a Bilingual, Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) credential or equivalent authorizes a teacher to provide instruction to English learners in a language other than English. There are additional requirements for teachers hired with funds from ESEA NCLB, Title III Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students, Part A sub-grants. LEAs receiving Title III funds must certify that all teachers are fluent in English and any other language used for instruction, including having written and oral communications skills. (Title III, Section 3116(c)). The CLAD credential is not part of the Federal ESEA NCLB Title II requirements for highly qualified classroom teachers. ESEA NCLB/HQT requirements are separate and in addition to California's CLAD requirements. In addition to CLAD certification, teachers of English learners assigned to teach core academic subjects must meet the same ESEA NCLB requirements as other teachers of core academic subjects.

4 table of contents Practice Answers to frequently asked questions CTA policy & activities Additional resources Timeline

5 practice English learners who lack academic content knowledge and English language proficiency pose a real challenge for their teachers, but teachers can assist these students to catch up with their classmates by using research-based ELD and SDAIE teaching strategies. English learners (ELs) who receive appropriate educational opportunities in our public schools become proficient in English and attain high levels of achievement in core academic areas. National and state assessments, as well as state graduation requirements, reflect new levels of required achievement, including requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of Schools that meet the challenges presented by English learners implement teaching strategies that are consistent with research on effective schools, and ensure that ELs have access to ELD and SDAIE instruction. The Importance of Appropriate Lesson Plans for ELs ELs are more successful when they are able to make connections between what they know and what they are learning by relating classroom experiences to their own lives. They learn to attach labels and terms to things already familiar to them, and their learning becomes situational rather than abstract when provided with the opportunity to experience what they are learning about. Lessons and activities for ELs must promote language development in all skills while ELs are mastering content objectives. Through careful planning, teachers of ELs make learning meaningful and relevant by using materials and activities that foster real-life application of concepts studied, and by making use of age- and grade level-appropriate content and materials. 1

6 Meeting Content Standards with Appropriate Lesson Plans Concrete content and language objectives that identify what students should know and be able to do must guide teaching and learning. They must be clearly stated, and students need to be informed about them both orally and in writing. Effective teachers of ELs consider the following when planning lessons: content concepts they wish to teach, using district curriculum guidelines and grade-level content standards to guide them the student's first language literacy the student's second language proficiency the student's reading ability cultural and age appropriateness of the materials in English difficulty level of the material to be read amount of background experience needed to learn and apply the content ways to activate student's prior knowledge related to the content to be presented 2

7 Using Supplementary Materials Supplementary materials can enhance meaning, create context and clarify confusing concepts, making lessons more relevant. This is especially important for students who do not have grade-level academic background and/or who have language and learning difficulties. Lectures and pencil-and-paper activities centered around a text are often difficult for these students. Information that is embedded in a real-life context enables students to bridge prior experiences with new learning and allows ELs to understand and complete more cognitively demanding tasks. Using a variety of supplementary materials can also support different learning styles, when students can see, hear, feel, perform, create, and participate while making connections and constructing personal, relevant meanings. Hands-on manipulatives These can include anything from manipulatives for math, to microscopes for science, to globes for social studies. Realia Realia are real-life objects that enable students to make connections to their own lives, e.g., nutrition labels on food products for a health unit. Pictures Photographs and illustrations can depict nearly any object, process, or topic, and magazines, commercial photos, and hand drawings can provide visual support for a wide variety of content and vocabulary concepts. 3

8 Visuals Visuals can include overhead transparencies, models, graphs, charts, timelines, maps, props, and bulletin board displays. ELs often have difficulty processing auditory information and need to be assisted by visual clues. Multimedia A wide variety of multimedia materials are available to enhance teaching and learning, including simple tape recordings and videos, DVDs, interactive CD-ROMs, and resources available on the World Wide Web. For some students and tasks, media in the students' native language may be helpful. It is important to preview websites for appropriateness and readability. Demonstrations Students' learning is enhanced when teachers provide scaffolding for less-experienced students. Scaffold ELs by carefully planning demonstrations that model how to follow steps or directions to complete tasks, and include supplementary materials. Related literature A wide variety of fiction and nonfiction can be included to support content teaching. Creating class libraries with trade books on key topics can provide students with supplements to the textbook. Adapted text Adapted text increases the readability of a piece of text. Rewrite lengthy sentences with specialized terminology in abbreviated form and provide definitions for difficult vocabulary. Retain the major concepts but increase the readability of the text. 4

9 Adaptation of Content Teachers of ELs are required to teach from textbooks that are often too difficult for English learners to read. Here are several ways in which teachers of ELs can make the text and other resource materials accessible: Graphic organizers Prepare schematic diagrams that help students identify key content concepts and make relationships among them. Diagrams often provide students with visual clues they can use to supplement written or spoken words that may be hard to understand. When used prior to reading, students use organizers as a guide and as a supplement to build background for difficult or dense text. When used concurrently with reading, they focus students' attention and help them make connections, take notes, and understand the text structure. When used after reading, graphic organizers can be used to record personal understandings and responses. Graphic organizers include story or text structure charts, Venn diagrams, story or text maps, timelines, discussion webs, word webs, clusters and thinking maps. Outlines Prepare outlines to equip students with a form for note-taking while reading dense portions of text. These are especially helpful if major concepts are already filled in. The students can then add other information to the outline as they read. 5

10 Highlighted text Highlight key ideas and concepts, important vocabulary, and summary statements in the text. Encourage students to first read only the highlighted sections. As confidence and reading ability improves, more of the unmarked text is attempted. The purpose of highlighted text is to reduce the reading demands of the text, while still maintaining key concepts and information. Marginal notes Print notes in the margin of the textbook pages or duplicate notes on a handout that students can put alongside a page they are reading. The notes should include hints for understanding the content key concepts, and/or key vocabulary and definitions. The notes are similar to the ones often found in teachers' guides. Marginal notes reduce ambiguity as well as the reading difficulty of the text, making it more accessible and less intimidating. Taped text Record key portions or the entire text and encourage students to listen to the tape while they follow along in the book. Language texts in the student's primary language: Use primary language (L1) texts with students who are proficient in their L1 to supplement a textbook or clarify key concepts. Consult native language websites as well. Jigsaw text reading Jigsaw works well with English learners when there is a difficult-to-read text. Jigsaw as a process scaffolds the learning of ELs as they work with others to understand the text. 6

11 answers to frequently asked questions Do I need special certification or authorization to instruct English learners? California teachers assigned to provide instruction to English learners must possess or be in training to receive an authorization, appropriate for their assignment, issued by the California Commission for Teacher Credentialing (CCTC). Some examples of CCTC authorizations are: Crosscultural, Language, and Academic Development (CLAD), Bilingual Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BCLAD), SB 1969, SB 395 and LDS certificates. Details about authorizations available can be obtained from the California Commission for Teacher Credentialing (CCTC), web: phone: (916) or (888) Who is required to have CLAD certification? California requires SB 1969/395, CLAD or BCLAD certification for teachers delivering ELD and SDAIE to English learners. For compliance purposes, districts must be able to show that English learners have access to teachers with training in ELD/SDAIE techniques. The district's Bilingual Master Plan usually specifies which assignments require CLAD certification. The state generally expects the percentage of teachers in a district that are certified to work with English learners (teachers with SB 1969/395, CLAD, or BCLAD authorizations) to mirror the percentage of English learners in a district (i.e., a district with a high percentage of English learners would be expected to have a high percentage of its teachers certified to work with EL students). More and more districts in California are requiring CLAD or equivalent certification as a condition of employment in the district. This is usually done by board policy. 7

12 What is ELD and SDAIE? Instruction for English Language Development (ELD) refers to instruction designed specifically for English learners to develop their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in English. Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) refers to instruction in a subject area, delivered in English, that is specially designed to provide EL students with access to the curriculum. What is SB 1969? SB 1969 is CTA-sponsored legislation that permits veteran teachers (defined as those with nine years or more of teaching experience) to fulfill the requirements for obtaining a certificate to work with ELs through 45 hours of staff development rather, than the 12 units of CLAD course work generally required for CLAD certification. In addition, the legislation waived the two years of college foreign language requirement for veteran teachers fulfilling certification through SB 1969 staff development. SB 1969 sunset on December 31, What is SB 395? SB 395 is legislation that replaced SB When the option to acquire certification to work with ELs through 45 hours of staff development was due to expire on December 31, 1999, CTA sponsored SB 395 to extend until January 1, 2005 the option to acquire such certification through an SB 1969-like process. SB 395 was enacted in October, AB 2913, enacted in July, 2004, extended the January 1, 2005 deadline for the completion of staff development to January 1,

13 What is an SB 395 certificate of completion? The Certificate of Completion of Staff Development (SB 395) authorizes the holder to teach English Language Development (ELD) and Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) to English learners (ELs) within a self-contained classroom, and content ELD and SDAIE in the subject matter content of the holder's basic credential. The SB 395 certificate will remain valid for as long as the holder's basic teaching credential is valid. The certificate does not need to be renewed. What job security does CLAD certification offer? Teachers looking to change districts should be aware that many districts now require CLAD certification of new hires. When districts are forced to layoff teachers, they often try to "protect" teachers with CLAD certification in order to keep the district's overall percentage of CLAD-certified teachers within compliance guidelines. When there are significant numbers of English learners at every school site and every grade level in a district, to increase the overall number of CLAD-certified teachers, many districts try to hire teachers already in possession of CLAD certification, or hire teachers who agree to earn the certification within a specified number of years. Districts may adopt board policy requiring CLAD certification as a condition of employment. How can I find out if I need certification to work with ELs? Teachers should contact their local CTA Primary Contact Staff and refer to their employment agreement to determine if their assignment requires them to secure certification to work with English learners, and whether their job is in jeopardy if such certification is not obtained. 9

14 What exactly does it mean to have CLAD certification? Having CLAD certification means that you have one of the certificates that qualifies a teacher to work with English learners. The CLAD qualifies a teacher to deliver ELD and SDAIE within their subject area of certification. CLAD certification can be obtained in one of two ways: by completing coursework at a university or college by obtaining CLAD through examination, currently administered by National Evaluation Systems, Inc. (NES), P.O. Box , Sacramento, CA telephone: (916) web: If I have a CLAD, SB 395, SB 1969 or LDS certificate, will I have to take more training later? It is difficult to predict if and when the CCTC will add new credentialing and certification requirements. Generally, the SB 1969 ELD/SDAIE certificate should enable most K-12 teachers to meet the needs of English learners assigned to them in the years to come. If a teacher wants to provide content area instruction in the primary language (for example, to teach math in Spanish or Vietnamese), then he or she would need to complete a BCLAD certificate which certifies that the teachers has proficiency in that primary language. Does job-sharing count toward the experience required by SB 395? Neither the legislation, nor the CCTC guidelines, speak to whether the experience required be full- or part-time. By what date do I need to complete a CLAD or SB 395 program? Currently, the process to obtain CLAD either by exam or through course work at a university or college does not have a required date of completion or contain an expiration date. However, the SB 395 certification process requires that a 45-hour program be completed prior to January 1, AB 2913, enacted in July, 2004, extended the January 1, 2005 deadline to January 1,

15 If the district is paying for me to obtain CLAD certification, can I take it for credit and use the units for salary advancement? Some contracts prohibit the use of district-paid coursework or staff development taken during the contract day for salary credit. You will need to check your specific contract to see if it contains language that prohibits the use of district-paid coursework for salary credit. How do I know if the certificate I have is portable? SB 395 certificates are not restricted. They are, therefore, portable within California. Please refer to California Code of Regulations, Title 5, Section What can happen if I refuse to become CLAD-certified? Many teachers are not required to have CLAD certification. However, teachers who sign a contract agreeing to earn CLAD or SB 1969/395 certification within a specified number of years usually have to demonstrate progress toward certification or they place at risk their continued employment with the district. Where in the law are the requirements for bilingual education? The law governing educational services for English learners is varied and consists of both state and federal requirements. Federal law clearly takes precedence over state law if there is conflict. Districts are required to comply with all federal requirements, as well as state requirements. Pertinent legal citations for programs for English learners include, but are not limited to: 20 USC 1703 (f ), 42 USC 2000 (d), EC 300 et. seq., (a)(3), 44253, , , , , 48985, 54032, et.seq., 62002,

16 Title 5 California Code of Regulations (5 CCR) 3942 (3), , 4312, 4320, , 34 CFR , (d), (a), (a)(c), Casteneda v. Pickard (5th cir. 1981) 648 F.2d 989, Gomez v. Illinois State Board of Education (7th cir. 1987) 811 F.2d 1030, How will teachers of English learners comply with NCLB teacher requirements? Teachers of English learners assigned to teach core academic subjects must meet the same NCLB requirements as other teachers of core academic subjects. There are additional requirements for teachers hired with funds from NCLB, Title III Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students, Part A sub-grants. LEAs receiving Title III funds must certify that all teachers are fluent in English and any other language used for instruction, including having written and oral communications skills. (Title III, Section 3116(c)). In California, the possession of a Bilingual, Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) credential or equivalent, authorizes a teacher to provide instruction to English learners in a language other than English, though this is not a requirement for a teacher to meet the definition of "highly qualified teacher" under NCLB. What are the guidelines to assess, identify, qualify and provide services to ELs who may also be special education students? The process to identify ELs and provide specific services are the same for all ELs, including special education students within the IEP process. For example, the general education services and linguistically appropriate goals/objectives need to be addressed in the context of the student's needs as an English learner in addition to what is needed to accommodate their disability(ies). 12

17 Since ELs include any student in public schools grades K-12, the same areas in the same tasks are monitored for students in general or special education. The California state requirements for ELs is specific for grades K-12, although the IDEA and NCLB addresses the needs of students at earlier, and possibly later, ages. Are special education, PE and music teachers required to have CLAD certification? Special education teachers are subject to the revised IDEA regulations which require English learners with IEP objectives in a language-impacted area (e.g., spelling or reading) to be served by trained professionals. PE and music teachers are normally not required to obtain certification because PE and music are outside the core curricular area defined by Lau v. Nichols (math, language arts, science and social studies). However, districts with board policy requiring certification as a condition of employment often require it of all certificated employees, regardless of subject area. 13

18 CTA policy & activities Policy CTA recognizes that California's student population has become richly diverse during the last several decades. Today, more than one in three students in California is not a native English speaker. As a result, our public school system faces wonderful opportunities - as well as enormous challenges - to ensure that these students receive the education they deserve. CTA believes all students are entitled to equal access to all educational opportunities, and that students without English proficiency are denied equal access unless appropriate educational support is provided. CTA recognizes that for those students who have not reached proficiency in English, meaningful instruction in all curricular areas needs to be provided, whenever possible, in the primary language, including opportunities to acquire a second language. CTA has worked tirelessly to ensure that schools implement educational programs, classroom practices, and instructional strategies that respect the personal histories, languages, cultures, families, and communities of the students while building on students' potential and expanding their educational opportunities. CTA applauds and continues to support the commitment of teachers, parents and community members to the education of California's English learners, and recognizes that, with your assistance, these children will reach their language and academic goals. 14

19 Activities CTA's State Council Language Acquisition Committee addresses the needs of ELs and their teachers and guides the organization's policy development and legislative efforts. CTA's Department for Instruction and Professional Development works closely with CTA Primary Contact Staff to address issues related to the education of ELs, conducts workshops on appropriate authorization and practices for teachers to meet the educational needs of ELs, and provides briefings on new requirements for ELs. 15

20 Additional Resources California Commission On Teacher Credentialing (CCTC) (916) or (888) Key CCTC publications Serving English Learners, Leaflet Number CL-622 Certificate of Completion of Staff Development (SB 395), Leaflet Number CL- 824 Bilingual, Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) certificates, Leaflet Number CL-628B Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (CLAD) certificates, Leaflet Number CL-628C CCTC-approved SB 395 training providers The CCTC maintains a list of approved SB 395 training providers on their website at 16

21 Links California Association for Bilingual Education (CABE) California Department of Education Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) Center for Language Minority Education & Research (CLMER) Linguistic Minorities Research Institute (LMRI) National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA) U.S. Department of Education Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol 17

22 Research & Studies Thomas, W. Collier V School effectiveness for language minority students. Alexandria, VA: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education Genesee, F Second language learning through immersion: A review of U.S. programs. Review of Educational Research, 55: Cummins, J Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Ramirez, J.D., Yuen, S.D., & Ramey, D.R Longitudinal study of structured English immersion strategy, early-exit, and late-exit transitional bilingual education programs for language minority children. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Education (Contract No ). 18

23 Timeline The linguistic diversity of the elementary and secondary student population in California has increased dramatically over the past three decades Nichols The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed in Lau v. Nichols (1974) the U.S. Department of Education's May 25, 1970 Memorandum that directed school districts to take steps to help English learners (ELs) overcome language barriers by ensuring their meaningful participation in educational programs Varied certification types By the early 1990s, the dramatically increasing ELs student population in California, coupled with concerns about the academic performance of many ELs, the shortage of teachers qualified to teach ELs, and the legal impetus of Federal requirements combined to produced a wide variety of bilingual and English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher certification programs by the early 1990s Consolidation of certification types: SB 2987 In 1991, California passed Senate Bill 2987 to consolidate the many different "English as a Second Language" (ESL) and bilingual education certificates being issued by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC) into two types of certificates Certification for new teachers: CLAD/BCLAD In 1994, the CCTC proposed regulations for two new certificates: Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (CLAD) and Bilingual, Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BCLAD). Both certificates formally recognize teachers that have the required knowledge and skills to teach ELs. 19

24 1995 Alternative certification process for experienced, veteran teachers: SB 1969 While general teaching credentials or life credentials authorized teachers to give instruction in English language to ELs, the CCTC also recommended that all veteran teachers be given adequate training in ELD and SDAIE before being assigned to instruct ELs. In 1995, the California Teachers Association (CTA) sponsored Senate Bill 1969, which authorized certification of experienced non- CLAD/BCLAD teachers to teach ELs upon successful completion of an approved ELD/SDAIE staff development program. Since the passage of SB 1969, a number of school districts designed and operated their own SB 1969 programs. In addition, several commercial certification programs and on-line university courses were offered. The California Teachers Association (CTA) offered an SB 1969/395 training and certification program that ended in August During that time, CTA trained nearly 10,000, and certified over 8,000, teachers. Prop 227 implementation CTA worked on the campaign against Proposition 227. After Prop 227 passed, CTA conducted briefings throughout California to ensure that ELs and their teachers understood the new requirements Extension of time for veteran teachers to secure alternate certification SB 1969 originally imposed a January 1, 2000 deadline for certification through an approved ELD/SDAIE staff development program. However, SB 395, when passed in 1999, reauthorized SB 1969 and extended the deadline for certification through those programs to January 1, AB 2913, enacted in July, 2004, extended the January 1, 2005 deadline to January 1,

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