GREATER-THAN-CLASS C LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND DOE GREATER-THAN-CLASS C-LIKE WASTE INVENTORY ESTIMATES

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "GREATER-THAN-CLASS C LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND DOE GREATER-THAN-CLASS C-LIKE WASTE INVENTORY ESTIMATES"

Transcription

1 GREATER-THAN-CLASS C LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND DOE GREATER-THAN-CLASS C-LIKE WASTE INVENTORY ESTIMATES Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy s National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories with the assistance of Dade Moeller and Associates for the Department of Energy s Office of Environmental Management. ii

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report presents estimates of Greater-Than-Class-C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) volumes and activities in storage and projected in the future. It updates the inventory estimates in the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) 1994 report, Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclides, Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW-114). The estimates provided in this report used the best available data and are intended to assist the DOE in planning for the disposal of GTCC LLW, as required by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in 10 CFR 61.55, classifies LLW into the following four categories: Class A, Class B, Class C, and waste that is not generally acceptable for near-surface disposal. The latter class of LLW exceeds the maximum concentration limits of radionuclides established by NRC for Class C waste and is referred to as Greater-Than-Class-C. This report examines waste inventories for the following waste types: nuclear utility waste, sealed sources, and other generator waste. In addition to these waste types, this report also examines DOE waste with characteristics similar to GTCC LLW and which may not have a path to disposal (referred to in this report as DOE GTCC-like waste). DOE GTCC-like waste may include LLW and transuranic waste. The DOE GTCC-like waste is not subject to NRC regulation and licensing if disposed at DOE facilities. The use of the term GTCC-like does not have the intent or effect of creating a new classification of radioactive waste. NUCLEAR UTILITY GTCC LLW - This report estimates GTCC LLW volumes that would be generated upon decommissioning the 104 commercial nuclear reactors that are operating in the United States in 2007, and from 18 decommissioned reactors. Data sources included several NRC and DOE reports and data provided by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Maine Yankee. The inventory of GTCC LLW from nuclear utilities was estimated using scaling factors developed from NRC analyses of reference reactor decommissioning. SEALED SOURCE GTCC LLW - Sealed sources are typically small, high-activity radioactive materials encapsulated in closed metallic containers. Sealed source inventory information was obtained from the NRC Interim Sealed Source Database, the DOE Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) Database, and forecast source recovery rates provided by DOE s Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP). The NRC Interim Sealed Source Database included GTCC LLW sealed sources from NRC and Agreement State licensees possessing aggregate quantities of radionuclides in excess of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 2 thresholds. The DOE RSRT Database included only DOE sealed sources, some of which are GTCC-like, and some of which have been recovered under the OSRP. OSRP recovery rates were used to estimate projected inventories of GTCC LLW sealed sources, which include IAEA Category 3 and 4 sources. Sealed sources requiring disposal as GTCC LLW, and DOE GTCC-like sealed sources that may not have a path to disposal, identified from the databases were conceptually packaged for disposal. iii

4 OTHER GENERATORS GTCC LLW - The Other Generators category of GTCC LLW includes all GTCC LLW that is not generated or owned by commercial nuclear utilities, sealed source licensees, or DOE. Information on potential GTCC LLW was obtained from potential generators identified through several sources as discussed in Chapter 4. DOE GTCC-LIKE WASTE Because DOE s waste is not subject to NRC regulation, it is not required to use the NRC LLW classification system for its LLW disposed of at DOE facilities. However, DOE possesses wastes similar to GTCC LLW, which may not have a path to disposal, referred to as DOE GTCC-like waste. DOE GTCC-like waste may include LLW and transuranic waste. Information on DOE GTCC-like waste was obtained through an August 2005 data call to DOE sites, which was updated in DATA SUMMARY OF ALL CATEGORIES - The estimates presented in this document are based on the best available information originally compiled in 2005 and subsequently updated from the results of data calls, interviews, and other sources of information. A degree of uncertainty in the results exists due to limitations in the availability of information and assumptions applied in the analysis. These estimates, however, provide reasonable values of the volumes and activities of GTCC LLW and GTCC-like wastes. Table ES.1 provides a summary of the volumes and activities for these four categories. Figure ES.1 provides a graphical representation of this information. iv

5 Table ES. 1 Summary of GTCC LLW and DOE GTCC-like Waste Volume and Activity Estimates a In storage Projected Total stored and projected Waste type Volume (m 3 ) Activity (MCi) Volume m 3 Activity (MCi) Volume (m 3 ) Activity (MCi) GTCC LLW Activated metal b Sealed sources c (d) (d) 1, , Other waste Total GTCC LLW , , DOE GTCC-like waste Activated metal Sealed sources c Other , , Total DOE , , GTCC-like waste Total GTCC and 1, , , GTCC-like waste a Values have been rounded to two significant figures. b Activities for the projected inventory estimated at six years following reactor shutdown. Activities for the stored inventory have been decayed to The year 2062 was used for the overall nuclear utility GTCC LLW projections in order to include the 20-year license renewal that a number of commercial nuclear reactors are likely to receive and a minimum six-year cooling period before the waste would be available for disposal. Waste from operating reactors is assumed to start becoming available in 2035; waste from six reactors, accounting for 51.9 m 3 and 6.7x10 +6 Ci, will become available after c Sealed source activities estimated as of January 1, d NRC licensees currently possess sealed sources that may become GTCC LLW when no longer needed by the licensee; the estimated volume and activity of those sources are included in the projected inventory. v

6 Cubic Meters Stored Projected Nuclear Utilities Sealed Sources Other Generators DOE GTCC-Like Waste Category 1.20E E E+07 Curies 6.00E+07 Stored Projected 4.00E E E+00 Nuclear Utilities Sealed Sources Other Generators DOE GTCC-Like Waste Category Figure ES. 1 GTCC and GTCC-like Volume and Activity Estimates (Stored and Projected) vi

7 Estimated volumes of GTCC and DOE GTCC-like mixed waste, which may require treatment prior to disposal, are provided in Table ES.2. The mixed waste activity estimate is uncertain, but likely relatively small in relation to the overall inventory. Table ES. 2 Mixed Waste Inventory Summary Volume (m 3 ) Origin Stored Projected Total Other Generator GTCC Waste DOE GTCC-like Waste Total In order to better appreciate the magnitude of GTCC LLW and DOE GTCC-like waste requiring disposal by 2062, a comparison was made to NRC Class A, B, and C LLW volumes disposed of in fiscal year 2006 (see Figure ES.2) (DOE, 2007). As can be seen from this figure, the total volume of GTCC LLW and GTCC-like waste requiring disposal by 2062 (5,567 cubic meters) is less than 5% of the volume disposed of at the three NRC-licensed disposal facilities (117,282 cubic meters) in fiscal year Richland WA, 702 GTCC LLW and GTCClike Waste, 5,567 Barnwell SC, 1,150 Clive UT, 115,430 Figure ES. 2 Comparison of GTCC LLW and GTCC-like Waste Total Disposal Volume (Cubic Meters) with Fiscal Year 2006 Annual Disposal Volumes (Cubic Meters) from Operating LLW Disposal Facilities vii

8 This page intentionally blank. viii

9 TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary...iii 1. Introduction Purpose of This Report Background Types of GTCC LLW and DOE GTCC-like Waste Concentration Averaging Report Organization Nuclear Utilities Waste Description Summary of Previous DOE Study Current Study Methodology Assumptions and Uncertainties Summary Results of the Current Study Sealed Sources Waste Description Summary of Previous Studies Current Study Methodology Assumptions Sealed Source Inventories Summary Other Generators Waste Description Summary of Previous Studies Current Study Estimating the Stored Inventory Assumptions Results and Uncertainties DOE GTCC-Like Waste Waste Description Summary of Previous Studies Current Study Methodology Overview Assumptions Results/Uncertainties Summary of Results Mixed Waste Considerations Waste Description Summary of Previous Studies Current Study Results/Uncertainties Inventory Summary References ix

10 LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1. Table 1 from 10 CFR Table 1.2. Table 2 from 10 CFR Table 2.1. DOE/RW-006 Estimating Factors Table 2.2. Summary of Stored and Projected GTCC LLW Inventories (activated metals) Table 3.1. Total GTCC LLW Base Case Sealed Source Inventory for 1993 and Projected for 2035 (DOE, 1994a) Table 3.2. Maximum Class C Concentration Limits from 10 CFR and Calculated Maximum Class C Activity Limits per Drum Table 3.3. OSRP Packaging Limits Table 3.4. Stored DOE GTCC-like Sealed Source Inventory Table 3.5. Projected Inventory of GTCC Sealed Sources Table 3.6. Projected (2035) Inventory of DOE GTCC-like Packaged Sealed Sources Table 3.7. Sealed Source Summary Inventory Table 4.1. Estimated Inventory of Other Generators GTCC LLW (DOE, 1994a) Table 4.2. Description of GTCC LLW Produced by Other Generators Table 4.3. Stored Inventory of GTCC LLW from Other Generators Table 4.4. Projected Inventory of GTCC LLW from Other Generators Table 5.1. Stored Inventory of DOE GTCC-like Waste, Sorted by Waste Type Table 5.2. Projected Inventory of DOE GTCC-Like Waste, Sorted by Waste Type Table 6.1. Projected Volumes of Mixed GTCC LLW (DOE/LLW-114) Table 6.2 Mixed Waste Inventory Summary Table 7.1 Summary Estimates of GTCC LLW and DOE GTCC-like Waste Volume and Activity a Table 7.2 Mixed Waste Volume Estimates x

11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1. Process for Determining Appropriate Waste Terminology as Used in this Report Figure 2.1. Location of Some BWR Decommissioning Components (DOE, 1994a) Figure 2.2. Location of Some PWR Decommissioning Components (DOE, 1994a) Figure 2.3. Location of 104 U.S. Nuclear Reactors (NRC, 2003) Figure 2.4. Projected Annual GTCC LLW Volumes Based on a 60 Year Plant Life Figure 2.5. Cumulative GTCC LLW Volumes Based on a 60-Year Plant Life (including pre-existing wastes) Figure 2.6. Projected GTCC LLW Activities Based on a 60-Year Plant Life Figure 2.7. Cumulative GTCC LLW Activity at End of 60-Year Plant Life (including pre-existing wastes) Figure 3.1. Typical Sealed Source Figure 3.2. Waste Storage Facility Figure 4.1. Method Used to Identify Other Generators Figure 7.1 GTCC LLW and GTCC-like Waste Volume Estimates (Stored and Projected) Figure 7.2 GTCC LLW and GTCC-like Waste Activity Estimates (Stored and Projected) Figure 7.3 Stored Volume Estimates in Cubic Meters Figure 7.4 Projected Volume Estimates in Cubic Meters Figure 7.5 Stored Activity Estimates in Curies Figure 7.6 Projected Activity Estimates in Curies Figure 7.7. Comparison of GTCC LLW and GTCC-like Waste Volume (Cubic Meters) with Fiscal Year 2006 Disposal Volumes (Cubic Meters) from Operating LLW Disposal Facilities xi

12 ACA ALARA BWR CFR CH Ci DOE DOE/EM DOT EFPY EIS EIA EPRI GAO GTCC IAEA INL kci LANL LLRWPAA LLW MCi MIMS MSRE MW(e) NNSA NRC OSRP PWR RCRA RH RPS RSRT SC SNL TRU U.S. UT WA WIPP Acronyms and Abbreviations After Concentration Averaged As Low As Reasonably Achievable Boiling Water Reactor Code of Federal Regulations Contact-Handled Curies U.S. Department of Energy U.S. DOE Office of Environmental Management U.S. Department of Transportation Effective Full Power Year Environmental Impact Statement Energy Information Administration Electric Power Research Institute Government Accountability Office Greater-Than-Class-C International Atomic Energy Agency Idaho National Laboratory kilocurie (1000 curies) Los Alamos National Laboratory Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act Low-Level Radioactive Waste Megacurie (1 million curies) Manifest Information Management Systems Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Mega Watts of Electrical Output National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Off-Site Source Recovery Project Pressurized Water Reactor Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Remote-Handled Radioisotope Power Systems Radiological Source Registry and Tracking South Carolina Sandia National Laboratories Transuranic Waste United States Utah Washington Waste Isolation Pilot Plant xii

13 Elements Am Be Bk C Cf Cm Co Cs Fe H I Mn Nb Ni Np Pu Sr Tc Americium Beryllium Berkelium Carbon Californium Curium Cobalt Cesium Iron Hydrogen Iodine Manganese Niobium Nickel Neptunium Plutonium Strontium Technetium xiii

14 This page intentionally blank. xiv

15 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT The purpose of this report is to update and summarize the GTCC LLW inventory information to support issuance of the Notice of Intent (NOI) for preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for development of a disposal capability for Greater- Than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This report updates the inventory estimates in DOE s 1994 report, Greater-Than- Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclides, Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW-114), which provided estimates of the 1993 inventory, inventory projections to the year 2035 for all waste categories, and to 2055 for nuclear utility GTCC LLW (DOE, 1994a). The year 2055 was used for the nuclear utility GTCC LLW projections in order to include the 20- year license renewal that a number of commercial nuclear reactors are likely to seek. The current report extends the projections to 2062 assuming a six-year cooling period before the waste becomes available for disposal. GTCC LLW or DOE GTCC-like LLW? GTCC LLW is low-level radioactive waste generated by activities licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Agreement States that exceeds the maximum concentration limits of radionuclides established by NRC for Class C waste. This waste is generally unacceptable for near-surface disposal under NRC requirements. DOE GTCC-like waste is radioactive waste generated or owned by DOE with characteristics similar to GTCC LLW, and which may not have a path to disposal. DOE GTCClike waste may include LLW and transuranic waste. However, because DOE s LLW is not subject to NRC regulation, DOE does not use the NRC LLW classification system. For purposes of this report, it is considered to be GTCC-like. The use of the term GTCC-like does not have the intent or affect of creating a new classification of radioactive waste BACKGROUND The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA), section 3(b)(1)(D), assigned the U.S. Federal Government the responsibility for disposing of GTCC LLW resulting from activities licensed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Agreement States (42 USC 2021 as amended). Section 3(b)(2) of the LLRWPAA requires the Federal Government to 1-1

16 provide for the disposal of such GTCC LLW in a facility that adequately protects the safety and health of the public and is licensed by NRC. NRC classifies LLW based on the presence of certain long- and short-lived radionuclides. These classes of LLW, referred to as Class A, Class B, and Class C, are defined in 10 CFR Tables 1 and 2 from 10 CFR are used to determine waste classes, as described below. Class A: Waste whose long-lived radionuclide concentration does not exceed 0.1 times the value in Table 1 from 10 CFR 61.55, see Table 1.1 below, or whose short-lived radionuclide concentration does not exceed the value in Column 1 from Table 2 of 10 CFR 61.55, see Table 1.2 below. Also see 10 CFR 61.55, sections 3(i) and 4(i) respectively. Class B: Waste whose short-lived radionuclide concentration exceeds the value in Column 1 of Table 1 in 10 CFR 61.55, see Table 1.1 below, but does not exceed the value in Column 2 of Table 2 in 10 CFR 61.55, see Table 1.2 below. Also see 10 CFR 61.55, section 4(ii). Class C: If the waste concentration exceeds 0.1 times the value but does not exceed the actual value provided in Table 1 from 10 CFR 61.55, see Table 1.1 below, the waste is Class C. Also, the waste can be classified as Class C if the concentration exceeds the value in Column 2 but does not exceed the value in Column 3 of Table 2 in 10 CFR 61.55, see Table 1.2 below. Also see 10 CFR 61.55, sections 3(ii) and 4(iii) respectively. Waste that is referred to as Greater-Than-Class-C is LLW that exceeds the maximum concentration limits of radionuclides established by NRC for Class C waste. Table 1.1. Table 1 from 10 CFR Radionuclide Concentration C-14 8 Ci/m 3 C-14 in activated metal 80 Ci/m 3 Ni-59 in activated metal 220 Ci/m 3 Nb-94 in activated metal 0.20 Ci/m 3 Tc-99 3 Ci/m 3 I Ci/m 3 Alpha emitting transuranic nuclides 100 nci/g with half-lives greater than 5 years 1 Pu-241 3,500 nci/g Cm ,000 nci/g 1 Alpha emitting transuranic nuclides with half-lives greater than 5 years include Am-241, Am-243, Bk- 247, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Cm-250, Np-237, Pu- 238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, and Pu

17 Table 1.2. Table 2 from 10 CFR Radionuclide Concentration (Ci/m 3 ) Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Total of all nuclides with less than a 5-year half-life 700 (1) (1) H-3 40 (1) (1) Co (1) (1) Ni Ni-63 in activated metal ,000 Sr ,000 Cs ,600 (1) There are no limits established for these radionuclides in Class B or C wastes. Practical considerations such as the effects of external radiation and internal heat generation on transportation, handling, and disposal will limit the concentrations for these wastes. These wastes shall be Class B unless the concentrations of other nuclides in Table 1.2 determine the waste to be Class C independent of these nuclides. Under NRC regulations (10 CFR 61.55), Class A, B, and C waste can generally be disposed of in a near-surface disposal facility licensed by NRC or an Agreement State (10 CFR Part 61). According to 10 CFR 61.7 (b)(5), waste with concentrations above Class C limits (i.e., GTCC LLW) is generally unacceptable for near-surface disposal. However, 10 CFR 61.7 (b)(5) also states that There may be some instances where waste with concentrations greater than permitted for Class C would be acceptable for nearsurface disposal with special processing or design. (10 CFR Part 61) TYPES OF GTCC LLW AND DOE GTCC-LIKE WASTE GTCC LLW includes activated metals, sealed sources, and other wastes generated by users of radioactive material. In addition, DOE generates or owns waste with characteristics similar to GTCC LLW and which may not have a path to disposal (referred to in this report as DOE GTCC-like waste). DOE GTCC-like waste was considered for purposes of the current study. (See Figure 1.1 below for a depiction of terminology used in this report.) GTCC LLW This report examines the following waste categories: Nuclear utility waste, including activated metals and other wastes generated by commercial nuclear power plants. Sealed sources, consisting of radioactive materials contained in small, metallic capsules and used in devices for such purposes as measurement or calibration. Other generator waste, including contaminated debris and other wastes generated by radionuclide manufacturing, commercial research, and similar types of operations. 1-3

18 DOE GTCC-Like Waste DOE GTCC-like waste is DOE-generated or owned waste with similar characteristics to GTCC LLW and which may not have a path to disposal. DOE GTCC-like waste may include LLW and transuranic waste (TRU). DOE GTCClike waste includes sealed sources generated or owned by DOE and sources recovered by DOE under the Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP) that may not have a path to disposal. For purposes of this inventory, DOE sealed sources are discussed in Chapter 3, Sealed Sources. Figure 1.1. Process for Determining Appropriate Waste Terminology as Used in this Report CONCENTRATION AVERAGING An NRC requirement in 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8) states: The concentration of a radionuclide may be averaged over the volume of a waste, or the weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram. NRC s Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation provides guidelines for concentration averaging and encapsulation practices that NRC would find acceptable when licensees are trying to determine the concentration of radionuclides in their LLW (NRC, 1995). The guidelines are based on the premise that waste types are largely homogenous, in that 1-4

19 they are volume distributed and the radionuclide concentrations are likely to approach uniformity in the context of the intruder scenarios used to establish the values included in the 10 CFR waste classification tables (NRC, 1995). The amount of GTCC LLW available for disposal has decreased as a result, because the waste activity can be averaged over the disposal container, allowing some of this waste to be disposed of as Class A, B, or C LLW REPORT ORGANIZATION This report is organized according to the following waste inventory categories: Commercial GTCC LLW Nuclear utility waste (Chapter 2) Sealed sources (both commercial and DOE) (Chapter 3) Other generator waste (Chapter 4) DOE GTCC-like Waste DOE GTCC-like waste (Chapter 5) This report estimates the quantities of GTCC LLW and DOE GTCC-like waste in storage and the projected (to 2035) quantities of these wastes. In addition, nuclear utility waste projections are made to Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 address the above four waste inventory categories and each chapter includes a description of the waste; a summary of previous inventory studies; a discussion of the current study, including the methodology used, assumptions, stored and projected inventory results, and uncertainties. Chapter 6 addresses the small quantity of mixed hazardous waste represented in the inventory. Chapter 7 summarizes the overall inventory of GTCC LLW and DOE GTCC-like waste in the four waste categories. 1-5

20 This page intentionally blank. 1-6

21 2. NUCLEAR UTILITIES 2.1. WASTE DESCRIPTION GTCC LLW from nuclear reactors is produced as a result of normal operations and becomes available for disposal during facility decommissioning. The majority of GTCC LLW generated by nuclear reactors is activated metal (DOE, 1994a). The waste consists of components internal to the reactor that have become radioactive from exposure to a neutron flux, resulting in neutron absorption (DOE, 1994a). These components can include the core shroud, top fuel guide assembly components, core support plates, the Figure 2.2. Location of Some PWR Decommissioning Components (DOE, 1994a). Figure 2.1. Location of Some BWR Decommissioning Components (DOE, 1994a). lower core barrel, thermal shields, and lower grid plate components. Figures 2.1 and 2.2 depict the locations of these components. Radionuclides in the activated metal components include C-14, Mn-54, Fe-55, Co- 60, Ni-59, Ni-63, and Nb-94. The bulk of the total activity in the activated metals initially is from the short-lived radionuclides Co-60 and Fe-55, which do not have Class C limits as defined in 10 CFR The high concentrations of longer-lived radionuclides, such as Ni-63, Ni-59, and Nb-94, in the activated metal are responsible for the material resulting in GTCC LLW. Another type of utility waste that has the potential to be classified as GTCC LLW is process waste, such as water filter cartridges and ion-exchange resins used in normal reactor operations. However, the quantity of such waste is very small in comparison to decommissioning waste (DOE, 1994a). Most process waste is Class C or below after 2-1

22 concentration averaging 1, and can be disposed of at an existing LLW disposal facility. Current practice is to select resins that will not create mixed waste and to remove filters using these resins before the concentration exceeds Class C limits. NRC considers other small activated metal components such as control rod elements, burnable poison rod assemblies, and thimble plugs (non-fuel components) stored as part of spent fuel assembly packages to be spent fuel and not GTCC LLW (NRC, 2001); these components were therefore excluded from the analysis SUMMARY OF PREVIOUS DOE STUDY The DOE report, Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW-114) (DOE, 1994a), provides a detailed analysis of GTCC LLW projections for the 109 commercial nuclear reactors (37 Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and 72 Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs)) that were operating in the United States in The DOE/LLW-114 report estimated volumes and activities of GTCC LLW available for disposal in 2035 and 2055 under three different decommissioning scenarios was used as the projected year at which a majority of the reactors would have reached the end of their licensed operating lifetimes, and 2055 was used as the projected year assuming the possibility of 20-year license extensions. The base case inventory of GTCC LLW already in storage from nuclear utilities in 1993 was estimated in DOE/LLW-114 to be 26 m 3 for the after concentration averaged (ACA) volume and an activity of 3.89 MCi (DOE, 1994a). The values include operational wastes deemed GTCC LLW stored onsite by the 109 operational commercial nuclear reactors, as well as GTCC LLW from the 12 commercial reactors that had been shut down by DOE/LLW-114 analyzed three decommissioning scenarios (identified as low, base, and high ) for the 109 operating commercial reactors. For the base case scenario (37% of plants with 20 year license extensions, 25% early shutdown, and 38% average 40 year operation), by 2035 the GTCC LLW from nuclear utilities was estimated to be 937 m 3 for the ACA volume with an activity of 35.5 MCi. By 2055, the base case was estimated to be 1,347 m 3 for the ACA volume with an activity of 88.4 MCi (DOE, 1994a). 1 Concentration averaging is done by averaging the radionuclides in the waste over the volume or mass of the container (DOE, 1994a). Note: The 1995 NRC Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging is used as the basis for concentration averaging in this report (NRC, 1995). 2-2

23 2.3. CURRENT STUDY As of 2007, there were reactors in commercial operation, and 18 decommissioned reactors. The operational inventory includes 35 BWRs and 69 PWRs. The decommissioned inventory includes 8 BWRs and 10 PWRs. Figure 2.3 shows the location of these reactors. Estimates of the volumes of GTCC LLW in the current study used scaling factors based on detailed NRC analyses of the decommissioning of two reference reactors. Figure 2.3. Location of 104 U.S. Nuclear Reactors (NRC, 2003) METHODOLOGY Several NRC and DOE reports rely on GTCC LLW estimates originally developed in two NRC documents: 1) Technology, Safety, and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Pressurized Water Reactor Power Station (NUREG/CR- 0130) (NRC, 1978), and 2) Technology, Safety, and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Boiling Water Reactor Power Station (NUREG/CR-0672) (NRC, 1980). Both of these documents were updated in 1995 (as NUREG/CR-5884 [NRC, 1995a] and NUREG/CR-6174 [NRC, 1995b], respectively). NUREG/CR-5884 [Vol.1, Section 3.6 (p. 3.60)] estimates 386 ft 3 or 11 m 3 of GTCC LLW for the reference PWR, and NUREG-/CR-6174 [Vol. 1, Section 3.6 (p. 3.40)] estimates 244 ft 3 or 6.90 m 3 of GTCC LLW for the reference BWR. An appendix to the DOE document, Integrated Data Base Report 1994: U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, Rev. 11 (DOE/RW-006) (DOE, 1995), established scaling factors from the reference reactor estimates to scale the volumes and activities of GTCC LLW resulting from the 2 Since 1993, six nuclear reactors have shut down (Big Rock Point, Millstone 1, Haddam Neck, Maine Yankee, Zion 1, and Zion 2), and one, Watts Bar 1, started operation. 2-3

24 decommissioning of BWRs and PWRs to reactor power capacities, as shown below in Table 2.1. Table 2.1. DOE/RW-006 Estimating Factors GTCC LLW Waste Volume Reactor Type Estimating Factor (m 3 /MW(e)) GTCC LLW Activity Estimating Factor (Ci/MW(e)) BWR 5.93 x x PWR 9.36 x x These factors are also derived from the earlier NRC reference reactor decommissioning analyses, NUREG/CR-5884 (NRC, 1995a) and NUREG/CR-6174 (NRC, 1995b). For the current study, an attempt was made to reproduce the reference reactor analysis, which resulted in slightly different scaling factors (6.03 x 10-3 and 9.40 x 10-3 m 3 /MW(e) GTCC LLW waste volume estimating factors, and 5.97 x and 3.65 x Ci/MW(e) GTCC LLW activity estimating factors for BWRs and PWRs, respectively), which were used for the analysis. For example, the GTCC LLW waste volume estimated for the Columbia Generating Station 1,155 MW(e) plant selected as the reference BWR in the above reference would be x 10-3 m 3 /MW(e) * x MW(e) = 6.89 m 3. Applying these estimating factors (given as GTCC LLW volume and activity per megawatt-electric [MW(e)]) to the known power capacity of the 2007 operating reactor fleet of 104 reactors leads to an estimated projected total volume upon decommissioning of 813 m 3 of GTCC LLW and a total activity of 438 MCi. Using these same factors for 16 decommissioned reactors as of 2007 leads to an estimated stored volume of 58 m 3 and activity of 27 MCi, yielding a total (stored plus projected) volume of 871 m 3 and activity of 465 MCi. Two reactors, Shoreham and Trojan, were decommissioned without generating any GTCC LLW. The Shoreham reactor, a small BWR, was never operational and it is assumed that it did not generate any GTCC LLW. The Trojan reactor, similar to a large Westinghouse PWR, was uniquely decommissioned with no GTCC LLW GTCC LLW volumes and activities estimated using this methodology appear reasonable in comparison with known volumes and activities from the few commercial reactors that have been decommissioned and for which data is available. Some detailed information is available on the actual packaging of the Connecticut Yankee (2007) and Maine Yankee (2003), which support the observation that the method of packaging described for the reference reactors is consistent with standard practice (EPRI 2003, EPRI 2005, Niles 2006, and Niles 2007). For the Connecticut Yankee 602 MW(e) PWR, 67 FAS (Fuel Assembly Sized) canisters of 0.24m 3 (assumed) volume (i.e., 16 m 3 total) were used. Maine Yankee, a slightly larger PWR (891 MW(e)) was inferred to have used the equivalent of about 20 m 3. In comparison, the DOE/RW-006 scaling factor yields volumes of 6 and 8 m 3 under assumptions of highly efficient packaging and separation of GTCC LLW from other waste. 2-4

25 Stored Inventory To estimate the stored GTCC LLW inventory, the scaling factor methodology was applied to 16 decommissioned reactors, including: BWR: Big Rock Point, Dresden 1, General Electric VBWR, Humboldt Bay 3, La Crosse, Millstone 1, and Pathfinder PWR: Haddam Neck, Indian Point 1, Maine Yankee, Rancho Seco, San Onofre 1, Saxton, Yankee-Rowe, Zion 1, and Zion 2. Ten shutdown reactors were not addressed in the analysis, including the 5 DOE/AEC-owned (Bonus, Elk River, Hallam, Piqua, and Shippingport) reactors, the Fermi 1 sodium-cooled fast reactor, the Carolinas-Virginia Tube Reactor pressurized heavy water reactor, the Ft. St. Vrain and Peach Bottom 1 high-temperature gas reactors, and Three Mile Island 2. These reactors were not included in the inventory because no information on GTCC LLW from these reactors was available. The exclusion of these reactors has minimal impact on the GTCC LLW estimates given in this report. This evaluation resulted in an estimate of the existing volume GTCC LLW inventory of 7.1 m 3 from BWRs and 50.6 m 3 from PWRs for a total of 58 m 3. The activity estimate at shutdown for the existing inventory using this method resulted in 7.0 MCi for BWRs and 19.7 MCi for PWRs for a total of 26.7 MCi. Allowing decay from shutdown to 2007 lowers the total activity to 3.5 MCi. Projected Inventory Following the same methodology, it is estimated nuclear utilities will produce 813 m 3 of GTCC LLW with an activity of 438 MCi by This includes 203 m 3 from the BWRs with an activity estimate of 200 MCi and 610 m 3 from the PWRs with an activity estimate of 238 MCi. The total projected activity is lowered to 106 MCi if decayed for a minimum of six years prior to disposal ASSUMPTIONS AND UNCERTAINTIES The methodology uses rough scaling factors for estimating volume and activity of GTCC LLW produced as a function of net capacity, but does not account for other design and operational parameters, operational life, or decommissioning techniques. As described above, the study did not consider ten shutdown reactors, which is not expected to significantly impact the overall results. It was also assumed that no GTCC LLW was generated by the decommissioning of the Shoreham reactor, which was never operational, or the Trojan reactor, which was uniquely decommissioned as Class C LLW. The volume of GTCC LLW generated, but not the activity content, is essentially independent of reactor operational time. During the time a reactor operates, short-lived radionuclides reach an equilibrium concentration, but longer-lived radionuclides continue to slowly increase in concentration. The results shown in this study, however, are based 2-5

26 on assumed reactor lifetimes. Alternative decommissioning practices (e.g., stabilization in place or concentration averaging over the entire reactor vessel as was done in the case of the Trojan plant) were not applied in the current study. Early license termination for a few plants could also affect the timing of waste availability, and certainly, the number of effective full power years (EFPY) of an operating nuclear reactor affects the inventory of GTCC LLW generated SUMMARY RESULTS OF THE CURRENT STUDY Total Estimated Inventory The results for both the estimated stored and projected GTCC LLW inventory for are summarized in Table 2.2. Table 2.2. Summary of Stored and Projected GTCC LLW Inventories (activated metals) Activity (MCi) Reactor Type Volume (m 3 ) at shutdown after 6-yr cooling BWR Stored PWR Stored Total Stored BWR Projected PWR Projected Total Projected TOTAL Figures illustrate the annual and cumulative volumes and activities upon availability for the current operational fleet plotted against the availability dates (40 year original license, 20 year license extension, and six year cooling period assumed before the waste becomes available for disposal). The Atomic Energy Act authorizes the NRC to initially issue operating licenses for a 40-year period and allows license renewal for another 20 years. To date, license extensions have been requested and approved for 40% of the operating reactor fleet (NRC, 2006). GTCC LLW activities are approximate and represent the activity at shutdown assuming 30 EFPY (DOE, 1995). 2-6

27 Volume (cu. m.) Year Figure 2.4. Projected Annual GTCC LLW Volumes Based on a 60 Year Plant Life Volume (cu. m.) Year Figure 2.5. Cumulative GTCC LLW Volumes Based on a 60-Year Plant Life (including pre-existing wastes) 2-7

28 Activity (MCi) Year Figure 2.6. Projected GTCC LLW Activities Based on a 60-Year Plant Life Activity (MCi) Year Figure 2.7. Cumulative GTCC LLW Activity at End of 60-Year Plant Life (including preexisting wastes) 2-8

29 3. SEALED SOURCES 3.1. WASTE DESCRIPTION Sealed sources are typically small, high-activity radioactive materials encapsulated in closed metallic containers (DOE, 1994b). They are used for a variety of purposes, including irradiating medical products for sterilization, detecting flaws and failures in pipelines and other metal welds, calculating moisture and density content in soil and other materials, and diagnosing and treating illnesses (see Figure 3.1) (GAO, Figure 3.1. Typical Sealed Source 2003). A September 2005 Source capsule (ca. 1950s) used in medical Government Accountability Office teletherapy units to treat cancer. The radioactive (GAO) report includes an appendix source (lower right) is contained in a stainless steel presenting the variability of cylinder approximately 1-inch in diameter. radioactive sealed sources used in devices and their potential U.S NRC waste classifications (GAO, 2005). There are likely several million sealed sources worldwide. A 1998 article in the Health Physics journal entitled Radioactive materials in recycled metals an update estimated two million sealed sources in existence in the United States alone (Lubenau et al., 1998). However, most of these sealed sources are small and of too low an activity to be considered potential GTCC LLW. Because no governmental agency currently tracks the number of sealed sources in existence, it is extremely difficult for DOE to estimate the number of sources that will require disposal in the future. Under the current regulatory structure, NRC authorizes the uses and maximum quantities allowed for each licensee, but does not currently track all sealed sources that could become GTCC LLW when no longer needed by the licensee. This chapter discusses both GTCC LLW sealed sources and DOE GTCC-like sealed sources. Possession of sealed sources by commercial firms is licensed by NRC or an Agreement State. DOE sealed sources are managed in accordance with DOE policy and procedure. Through the OSRP, a component of the DOE Global Threat Reduction Initiative, DOE recovers sealed sources that are in the possession of domestic licensees in situations that represent threats to public health and safety or national security. DOE also recovers sealed sources of U.S. origin from entities outside the U.S. when these sources present national security threats. 3-1

30 In addition, DOE and NRC consult and coordinate pursuant to a memorandum of understanding allowing for information exchanges and related activities that assist in prioritizing, recovering, and storing sealed sources. In situations that are outside the normal operation of the OSRP, NRC may request that DOE take certain actions to mitigate or eliminate threats to public health and safety or national security, after other reasonable alternatives have been explored. Figure 3.2 shows a storage facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for sources recovered by the OSRP. The sealed sources recovered by OSRP in response to public health and safety and security threats are primarily GTCC LLW sealed sources in possession of domestic licensees. When OSRP recovers any sealed sources, they are considered DOE sealed sources. If they meet the waste acceptance criteria of DOE disposal facilities, they may be disposed of at those facilities. Figure 3.2. Waste Storage Facility. Located at LANL for sealed sources recovered by the OSRP (OSRP, 2005). GTCC sealed sources. The inventory of DOE GTCC-like sealed sources in storage includes only those sealed sources that may not have an identified disposal path. The projected inventory for DOE GTCC-like sealed sources does not include sources that may, in the future, be recovered by OSRP. Any such sources are the responsibility of the licensees until the point at which they are recovered by OSRP and, therefore, are included in the projected inventory for commercial 3.2. SUMMARY OF PREVIOUS STUDIES Two previous studies examined GTCC LLW sealed sources in detail: DOE LLW- 163, Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C Sealed Sources (DOE, 1994b) and DOE/LLW-114, Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE, 1994a). DOE/LLW-163 was the initial study that examined all sealed sources and identified those with the potential to become GTCC LLW based on the radionuclide concentration of individual sealed sources. DOE/LLW-114 used the data from DOE/LLW-163 to estimate the inventory and activity of sealed sources that would be GTCC LLW in 1993 and It was assumed for the base case DOE/LLW-114 study that sources were removed from their devices, loaded into shielded 55-gallon drums, and packaged by device type and primary radionuclide. A maximum of 500 curies of alpha/beta activity and low activity gamma sources (less than 30 millicuries) was assumed for each drum. Only five gamma 3-2

31 and neutron sources with an activity greater than 30 millicuries each were packaged in each drum, and the total activity was averaged over the volume of a drum. Table 3.1 summarizes the base case estimates for the 1993 and 2035 inventories presented in DOE/LLW-114 (DOE, 1994a). Table 3.1. Total GTCC LLW Base Case Sealed Source Inventory for 1993 and Projected for 2035 (DOE, 1994a). Summary Inventory Estimates Number of Sources 10,134 98,198 Activity (MCi) Unpackaged Volume (m 3 ) Disposal Packaged Volume (m 3 ) CURRENT STUDY METHODOLOGY Due to the lack of a national database that specifically tracks the number of GTCC LLW sealed sources 3, there continues to be a high level of uncertainty in the estimates of the GTCC LLW sealed source inventory. The major objective of the current study is to develop updated GTCC LLW inventory estimates, including inventories for an additional waste stream that was not included in the DOE/LLW-114 study. The additional waste stream is the DOE GTCC-like waste inventory of DOE sealed sources similar to GTCC LLW that may not have a path to disposal. The sealed source inventory estimates developed for this study are based on the following information: NRC Interim Sealed Source Database, DOE Radiological Source Registry and Tracking (RSRT) Database, and Forecasts of projected GTCC LLW sealed sources, based on the DOE OSRP source recovery rate. The stored inventory of DOE GTCC-like sealed sources was based on information from the RSRT database for GTCC-like sealed sources not in active use and which do not have a known disposal path. The projected GTCC LLW sealed source inventory was based on estimates of sources from the NRC Interim Sealed Source database and forecasts using the OSRP recovery rate. In addition, the six largest sealed source manufacturers were contacted for information on future sealed source production. 3 In 2006 NRC finalized plans for a National Source Tracking System (NSTS) for use in tracking certain sealed sources, including IAEA Category 1 and 2 sources by the U.S. Government and 34 Agreement States. The NRC published its final rule establishing the requirements for the NSTS on November 8, 2006 (FR , Nov 8, 2006). 3-3

32 However, because production information is proprietary, none of the identified sealed source manufacturers were willing to provide this information. The NRC Interim Sealed Source Database contains information on commercial sealed sources compiled in response to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for sources requiring higher security and control, some of which are likely to become GTCC LLW. Because the NRC Interim Sealed Source Database was focused on identifying higher activity sources, a number of sources of lower activity (e.g., IAEA Category 3 sources (IAEA, 2003)) that may result in GTCC LLW, long-lived radionuclide sources in particular, will not have been captured in that database. For this reason and to provide a conservative estimate of projected inventories, this report bases the GTCC LLW sealed source estimates for long-lived transuranic nuclides on the experience of the OSRP in recovering sealed sources, as described below. Recent information from the NRC database, which was updated in 2006, provides source activities as of January 1, The NRC database was used for the projected inventory of Cs-137 sources (and one Cm-244 source), which are assumed will become GTCC LLW by The RSRT Database contains information on DOE-owned sealed sources, including those that may become DOE GTCC-like waste. The RSRT Database includes all DOE sealed sources accountable under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR Part 835), which establishes controls at very low activity thresholds for all radionuclides. Activities of sources from the 2005 DOE database were decayed to January 1, 2007 for consistency with the NRC data. The OSRP forecasts a total annual recovery of approximately 2,250 sealed sources per year through the year 2011, based on average annual rates of recovery from 1999 through (OSRP, 2007) Most of these sources contain the long-lived transuranic nuclides Pu-238, Pu-239, or Am-241, and are likely not captured in the NRC Interim Sealed Source Database because they are smaller sources (e.g., IAEA Category 3). Approximately 2,000 sources are registered for recovery each year. Most of the sources registered for recovery are low in activity, but may be classified as GTCC LLW prior to their recovery due to their concentration of long-lived transuranic nuclides. Although OSRP only forecasts the annual recovery rate through the year 2011, to develop an upper bounding estimate for the purposes of the GTCC EIS analysis and because of the lack of information on the inventory of lower activity sealed sources that may become GTCC LLW, this report uses the OSRP forecast rate to estimate the projected inventory of GTCC LLW sources containing Pu-238, Pu-239, and Am-241 through Of the 2,250 OSRP annual forecast rate, 2,020 sources are estimated to contain Pu-238, Pu-239, and Am-241. For conservatism, this report assumes that all Pu- 238, Pu-239, and Am-241 sources would be GTCC LLW prior to recovery. Applying the forecast rate for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Am-241 sources through the year 2035 results in a projected GTCC LLW inventory of 54,532 sources containing those radionuclides. Using Class C radionuclide-specific concentration limits from Tables 1 and 2 in 10 CFR 61.55, the sealed source datasets from the NRC Interim Sealed Source Database and the DOE RSRT Database were refined by removing sealed sources not containing the radionuclides specified in Tables 1 and 2. Sources with a definite disposal path were also 3-4

33 removed. The NRC and DOE datasets were further reduced by removing sources that would not exceed Class C concentration limits if the activity of an individual source was averaged over the volume of a 55-gallon drum (see Table 3.2). Concentration averaging in this manner is described in Appendix C of NRC s Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, which states that a maximum solidified volume or mass for encapsulation of a single discrete source (from which concentrations are determined) should be 0.2 cubic meters or 500 kilograms (typical 55-gallon drum) (NRC, 1995). Pu-238, Pu-239, and Am-241 sources added to the inventory using the OSRP recovery rate were assumed to exceed Class C concentration averaging limits. Table 3.2. Maximum Class C Concentration Limits from 10 CFR and Calculated Maximum Class C Activity Limits per Drum. Radionuclide Maximum Maximum Class C Activity Class C Concentration (Ci per 55-gal Drum) I Ci/m Nb-94 in activated metal 0.2 Ci/m Tc-99 3 Ci/m C-14 8 Ci/m C-14 in activated metal 80 Ci/m 3 16 Ni-59 in activated metal 220 Ci/m 3 44 Ni Ci/m Cs-137 4,600 Ci/m 3 30 a Ni-63 in activated metal 7,000 Ci/m 3 1,400 Sr-90 7,000 Ci/m 3 1,400 Alpha-emitting transuranics with 100 nci/g 0.05 half-lives greater than five years b Pu-241 3,500 nci/g 1.75 Cm ,000 nci/g 10 a Although the maximum Class C concentration for Cs-137 is 4,600 Ci/m 3, because it is a strong gamma emitter, only 30 Ci can be packaged in a 55-gallon drum under the NRC guidance on concentration averaging (NRC, 1995). b These radionuclides include Am-241, Am-243, Bk-247, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Cm-250, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, and Pu-244. To develop more realistic volume estimates, the sources were conceptually packaged into 55-gallon drums by radionuclide based on packaging factor limits from the OSRP, which are summarized in Table

34 Table 3.3. OSRP Packaging Limits Name Basis of Packaging Limit Application The maximum activity of special form DOT A1 Limit Class 7 (radioactive) material permitted in a 240 Pu: 270 Ci/drum Type A package (49 CFR ). Special 243 form materials include sealed sources. A Am:140 Ci/drum shielded 55-gallon drum is a Type A 244 Cm: 540 Ci/drum package. Fissile Gram Limit 239 Pu Equivalent Limit Contact Dose Limit An isotopic mass of radionuclide normalized to 239 Pu (WIPP, 2006). An equivalent radiotoxic hazard of a radionuclide normalized to 239 Pu. As a common component of most defense transuranic waste, 239 Pu was selected as the radionuclide to which the radiotoxic hazard of other transuranic radionuclides could be indexed (WIPP, 2006). The limiting surface dose rate of 200 mrem/hr for contact handling (WIPP, 2006). 239 Pu/Be neutron sources: 12.4 Ci/drum 238 Pu: 88 Ci/drum 241 Am: 80 Ci/drum 100 mrem/hr ALARA limit estimated at 35 Ci/drum for neutron sources containing 241 Am or 238 Pu Cs-137 sources, which are strong gamma emitters, were assumed to be disposed of individually as shielded devices, using a representative volume of 0.71 m 3 for each ASSUMPTIONS No allowance has been made for imports of isotopes into the U.S. from countries such as Russia and Canada, which are used to produce sealed sources. Recycling was not taken into account for inventory projections. Additionally, in projecting future GTCC LLW and DOE GTCC-like sealed source volumes, manufacturing trends were not considered because sealed source manufacturers did not provide data on future production rates to use as a basis for generating reasonable projections. The projected Pu-238, Pu-239, and Am-241 GTCC LLW inventories assumed a constant generation rate of approximately 2,020 sources per year through the year 2035, based on an application of the OSRP recovery rate. For the DOE sealed sources inventory, it was assumed that sealed sources listed as active in the RSRT Database were currently being used and were included in the projected inventory; otherwise, they were assumed to be waste and were included in the stored inventory. 3-6

35 3.4. SEALED SOURCE INVENTORIES Stored Inventory of GTCC LLW Sealed Sources For purposes of this report, the inventory of stored GTCC LLW was taken to be zero due to the lack of information on the current status (i.e., whether they were waste, in storage, in use, etc.) of sources in the NRC-licensed sector. Therefore, such sources are included in the projected GTCC LLW inventory. Stored Inventory of DOE GTCC-like Sealed Sources Following the methodology described in Section 3.3.1, a total of 25 DOE GTCClike sealed sources with a total activity of 13 kci and a total conceptually packaged volume of 8.7 m 3 were identified in the RSRT dataset as not in active use and did not have an identified path to disposal, and therefore were included in the DOE stored inventory. Table 3.4 below shows more information on the inventory of stored DOE sealed sources. Table 3.4. Stored DOE GTCC-like Sealed Source Inventory. Waste No. of 55-gallon Drums No. of Sources Activity (Ci) a Volume (m 3 ) Transuranic radionuclides Cm x Non-transuranic radionuclides Cs-137 b N/A x Total N/A x a Activities are given as of January 1, b These high activity Cs-137 irradiator sources exceed 55-gallon drum packaging limits, and were assumed to be disposed as a unit with their shielding devices; a representative device volume of 0.71 m 3 was used to estimate volume. Projected Inventory for GTCC LLW Sealed Sources The NRC Interim Sealed Source Database dataset provided to DOE included information on 17,389 sealed sources. After reducing the dataset to GTCC LLW sources, 1,787 sources remained, 1,435 of which were Cs-137 sources included in the projected 2035 inventory and assumed to be packaged individually for disposal. In addition, the NRC data identified one Cm-244 source, which was assumed packaged in a single 55- gallon drum. As described above, the NRC database does not capture lower activity, long-lived sources for the transuranic nuclides such as Pu-238, Pu-239, and Am-241. An estimate of the projected inventory of these sources was based on the OSRP recovery rate. For conservatism, packaging limits for neutron sources from Table 3.3 were used to estimate volumes for these sources. Refer to Table 3.5 for more information on the projected inventory for GTCC LLW sealed sources. 3-7

36 Table 3.5. Projected Inventory of GTCC Sealed Sources. No. of 55- No. of Waste gallon Sources Drums Activity (Ci) a Volume (m 3 ) Transuranic radionuclides Am-241 1,593 44, x Cm x Pu-238 1,269 8, x Pu , x Subtotal 3,133 54, x Non-transuranic radionuclides Cs-137 b N/A 1, x ,019 Subtotal N/A 1, x ,019 Total N/A 55, x ,671 N/A = Not Applicable. a Activities are assumed current as of January 1, b These high activity Cs-137 irradiator sources exceed 55-gallon drum packaging limits, and were assumed to be disposed as a unit with their shielding devices; a representative device volume of 0.71 m 3 was used to estimate volume. Projected Inventory for DOE GTCC-like Sealed Sources A total of 43 DOE GTCC-like sealed sources with a total activity of 30.3 kci and a total conceptually packaged volume of 24.7 m 3 were identified in the RSRT dataset as projected DOE GTCC-like sealed sources. Table 3.6 shows more information on the projected DOE sealed source inventory. Table 3.6. Projected (2035) Inventory of DOE GTCC-like Packaged Sealed Sources. Waste No. of 55- No. of Activity gallon Drums sources (Ci) a Volume (m 3 ) Transuranic radionuclides Am x Cm x Pu x Subtotal x Non-transuranic radionuclides Cs-137 a N/A x Subtotal N/A x Total N/A x a Activities are given as of January 1, b These high activity Cs-137 irradiator sources exceed 55-gallon drum packaging limits, and were assumed to be disposed as a unit with their shielding devices; a representative device volume of 0.71 m 3 was used to estimate volume. 3-8

37 3.5. SUMMARY As summarized in Table 3.7, the inventory of sealed sources (both GTCC LLW and DOE GTCC-like) in storage is estimated to have a total packaged volume of approximately 9 m 3 and an activity (as of January 1, 2007) of 12.9 kci. The projected inventory is estimated to have a total packaged volume of 1,705 m 3 and an activity (as of January 1, 2007) of 2.48 MCi. Table 3.7. Sealed Source Summary Inventory Volume (m 3 ) Activity (Ci)* GTCC DOE Subtotal GTCC DOE Subtotal LLW GTCC- Like LLW GTCClike Stored x x10 +4 Projected 1, , x x x10 +6 Total 1, , x x x10 +6 * Activities as of January 1,

38 This page intentionally blank. 3-10

39 4. OTHER GENERATORS 4.1. WASTE DESCRIPTION The Other Generators category of GTCC LLW includes all GTCC LLW that is not generated by commercial nuclear utilities and sealed source licensees. It does not include DOE GTCC-like waste, which is discussed in Chapter 5. Examples of other generators include industrial research and development firms, fuel fabrication and irradiation research (burnup) laboratories, research nuclear reactors, and sealed source manufacturers, including sealed source waste, gloveboxes, etc. (DOE, 1994a) SUMMARY OF PREVIOUS STUDIES In 1993, the GTCC LLW Management Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) 4 initiated a program to identify the volume, radionuclides, and radionuclide activity of GTCC LLW produced by other generators, the results of which are presented in DOE (1994a). Ninety potential generators were identified in the DOE (1994a) study; thirteen were generating GTCC LLW, and seven planned to continue generating GTCC LLW beyond The GTCC LLW generators were grouped into the following business types: C-14 users, industrial research and development laboratories, irradiation laboratories, fuel fabricators, university reactors, sealed source manufacturers, and nonmedical academic institutions. Total volumes and activities, including projections to 2035, were estimated and are shown in Table 4.1. Table 4.1. Estimated Inventory of Other Generators GTCC LLW (DOE, 1994a). Year Volume (m 3 ) Activity (Ci) x x CURRENT STUDY Potential other generators in the current study were identified from a variety of available sources including: DOE Manifest Information Management System (MIMS) and other databases, Barnwell Approved Waste Brokers list, Washington State Permit-holders list, and Potential other generators identified in DOE (1994a) 4 Formerly the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory 4-1

40 Potential other generators were contacted to obtain information on waste volumes for their stored and projected inventories. The method is outlined in Figure 4.1. Figure 4.1. Method Used to Identify Other Generators ESTIMATING THE STORED INVENTORY The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) contacted INL in June 2005 to obtain the names of the thirteen other generators identified in reference DOE 1994a. These generators were then contacted to determine if they still possessed GTCC LLW. DOE also reviewed the MIMS Database for information on Class C LLW generators. The MIMS Database, created in 1996, categorizes LLW shipments that have been sent to operating LLW disposal sites. A waste generators list was compiled using the MIMS Database by identifying registered shipments of Class C waste to the Barnwell LLW disposal facility. This approach assumed that generators of waste shipments with high activities and/or large volumes of Class C waste could be potential GTCC LLW generators. Eleven waste brokers were identified from the Barnwell Approved Waste Brokers list, and sixteen waste brokers were identified from the Washington State Permit-holders list obtained from US Ecology, Inc. Waste brokers are companies that are called upon by 4-2

Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Facility

Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Facility 1 Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Abstract Boyd D. Christensen Battelle Energy Alliance, Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 208

More information

Spent Fuel Project Office Interim Staff Guidance - 17 Interim Storage of Greater Than Class C Waste

Spent Fuel Project Office Interim Staff Guidance - 17 Interim Storage of Greater Than Class C Waste Spent Fuel Project Office Interim Staff Guidance - 17 Interim Storage of Greater Than Class C Waste Issue: Guidance is necessary on the interim storage of greater than Class C (GTCC) waste due to the revision

More information

SECTION TWO PACKAGING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

SECTION TWO PACKAGING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SECTION TWO PACKAGING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this section, participants will be able to: Identify three types of packaging for radioactive

More information

High Bridge Associates, Inc.

High Bridge Associates, Inc. High Bridge Associates, Inc. November 16, 2015 Supplemental Report Independent Assessment of the Impact of Disposing of Surplus Weapons Plutonium at WIPP prepared for the MOX Services Board of Governors

More information

WM2012 Conference, February 26-March 1, 2012, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

WM2012 Conference, February 26-March 1, 2012, Phoenix, Arizona, USA Radioactive Waste Characterization Strategies; Comparisons Between AK/PK, Dose to Curie Modeling, Gamma Spectroscopy, and Laboratory Analysis Methods- 12194 Steven J. Singledecker, Scotty W. Jones, Alison

More information

MATERIALS LICENSE. In accordance with the letter dated January 15, 2009,

MATERIALS LICENSE. In accordance with the letter dated January 15, 2009, NRC FORM 374 U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PAGE 1 OF 5 PAGES Pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-438), and Title 10, Code of

More information

GAO. LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE Status of Disposal Availability in the United States and Other Countries

GAO. LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE Status of Disposal Availability in the United States and Other Countries GAO For Release on Delivery Expected at 10:00 a.m. EDT Tuesday, May 20, 2008 United States Government Accountability Office Testimony before the Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality, Committee on Energy

More information

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE S MACROENCAPSULATION PROCESSING OF LESS THAN 3700 BQ/GM1 TRU ISOTOPIC MIXED WASTE FOR DISPOSAL AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE S MACROENCAPSULATION PROCESSING OF LESS THAN 3700 BQ/GM1 TRU ISOTOPIC MIXED WASTE FOR DISPOSAL AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE S MACROENCAPSULATION PROCESSING OF LESS THAN 3700 BQ/GM1 TRU ISOTOPIC MIXED WASTE FOR DISPOSAL AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE ABSTRACT Glenn W. Siry, Luke T. Reid Washington Savannah River

More information

Transportation of Radioactive Material

Transportation of Radioactive Material Haza rdo us Reactor Concepts Manual Transportation of Radioactive Material Santa Fe The issues associated with the transportation of radioactive material are very complex due in part to the regulatory

More information

APPENDIX CC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE

APPENDIX CC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE APPENDIX CC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE APPENDIX CC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE MICHIEL P.H. BRONGERS 1 SUMMARY Nuclear wastes are generated from spent nuclear fuel, dismantled weapons, and products such as radio

More information

RDCH 702: Lecture 10 Radiochemistry in reactors

RDCH 702: Lecture 10 Radiochemistry in reactors RDCH 702: Lecture 10 Radiochemistry in reactors Readings: Radiochemistry in Light Water Reactors, Chapter 3 (on readings webpage and lecture webpage) Outline Speciation in irradiated fuel Utilization of

More information

Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Provisional Translation Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management National Report of Japan for the Second Review Meeting October 2005 Government

More information

MATERIALS LICENSE. 1. Honeywell International, Inc. 3. License Number: SUB-526, Amendment 6-1

MATERIALS LICENSE. 1. Honeywell International, Inc. 3. License Number: SUB-526, Amendment 6-1 NRC FORM 374 U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Page 1 of 5 Pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-438), and Title 10, Code of Federal

More information

NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION. [Docket No. 72-27; NRC-2011-0115] Pacific Gas and Electric Company;

NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION. [Docket No. 72-27; NRC-2011-0115] Pacific Gas and Electric Company; This document is scheduled to be published in the Federal Register on 09/16/2013 and available online at http://federalregister.gov/a/2013-22468, and on FDsys.gov [7590-01-P] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION

More information

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Technology Demonstration Program

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Technology Demonstration Program Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Technology Demonstration Program Dave Hill Deputy Director, Science and Technology Idaho National Laboratory August 10 2006 Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Goals of

More information

Evaluation of 55-gallon Lead-Lined Calibration for the Gamma Modality of the High Efficiency Neutron Counter

Evaluation of 55-gallon Lead-Lined Calibration for the Gamma Modality of the High Efficiency Neutron Counter Evaluation of 55-gallon Lead-Lined Calibration for the Gamma Modality of the High Efficiency Neutron Counter S.B. Stanfield 1, J.R. Wachter 1, D.L. Cramer 1, S. L. Chambers 1, R.C. Baumann 1, J.P Harvill

More information

Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy - energy from the atomic nucleus. Nuclear fission (i.e. splitting of nuclei) and nuclear fusion (i.e. combining of nuclei) release enormous amounts of energy. Number of protons determines

More information

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND THE NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND THE NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND THE NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CONSULTATION AND FINALITY ON DECOMMISSIONING AND DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAMINATED SITES I. Introduction

More information

August 21, 2012. Dear Mr. Marcinowski:

August 21, 2012. Dear Mr. Marcinowski: August 21, 2012 Mr. Frank Marcinowski Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technical and Regulatory Support Office of Environmental Management U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington,

More information

NRC s Program for Remediating Polluted Sites J.T. Greeves, D.A. Orlando, J.T. Buckley, G.N. Gnugnoli, R.L. Johnson US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

NRC s Program for Remediating Polluted Sites J.T. Greeves, D.A. Orlando, J.T. Buckley, G.N. Gnugnoli, R.L. Johnson US Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC s Program for Remediating Polluted Sites J.T. Greeves, D.A. Orlando, J.T. Buckley, G.N. Gnugnoli, R.L. Johnson US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Background The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

More information

Decommissioning situation of Nuclear Power Plant in Japan

Decommissioning situation of Nuclear Power Plant in Japan Decommissioning situation of Nuclear Power Plant in Japan April, 2015 The Japan Atomic Power Co. The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. General Description 1 Operational years of commercial NPP in Japan 40

More information

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS DESCRIPTION AND SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR BIOSPHERE MODEL TO ESTIMATE RADIOLOGICAL DOSE IN THE GOLDSIM ENVIRONMENT

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS DESCRIPTION AND SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR BIOSPHERE MODEL TO ESTIMATE RADIOLOGICAL DOSE IN THE GOLDSIM ENVIRONMENT SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS DESCRIPTION AND SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR BIOSPHERE MODEL TO ESTIMATE RADIOLOGICAL DOSE IN THE GOLDSIM ENVIRONMENT Prepared for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Prepared by

More information

Japan s current Nuclear Energy Policy

Japan s current Nuclear Energy Policy Japan s current Nuclear Energy Policy Hirobumi Kayama Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, METI December, 2014 Evaluation and Policy Timeframe of Nuclear Power

More information

DOE Policy- Reporting of. Update

DOE Policy- Reporting of. Update DOE Policy- Reporting of Rdi Radioactive Sealed ldsources Update Melanie P. May, Peter V. O Connell, Robert McMorland U.S. Department of Energy EFCOG (Radiation Protection Subgroup) October 18-19, 2011

More information

This document was prepared in conjunction with work accomplished under Contract No. DE-AC09-08SR22470 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

This document was prepared in conjunction with work accomplished under Contract No. DE-AC09-08SR22470 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Contract No: This document was prepared in conjunction with work accomplished under Contract No. DE-AC09-08SR22470 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Disclaimer: This work was prepared under an agreement

More information

Developing a Safety Case for Ontario Power Generation s L&ILW Deep Geologic Repository

Developing a Safety Case for Ontario Power Generation s L&ILW Deep Geologic Repository Developing a Safety Case for Ontario Power Generation s L&ILW Deep Geologic Repository T. Kempe, P. Gierszewski, R. Heystee, M. Jensen and H. Leung Ontario Power Generation, Canada NEA/EC/IAEA Symposium

More information

Radiological mapping and characterization at the Barsebäck nuclear power plant

Radiological mapping and characterization at the Barsebäck nuclear power plant Radiological mapping and characterization at the Barsebäck nuclear power plant Leif Spanier, Scandpower AB Lars Håkansson, Barsebäck Kraft AB Radiological Characterisation for Decommissioning Workshop

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS TEMPLATES AS A PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT

DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS TEMPLATES AS A PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS TEMPLATES AS A PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT ABSTRACT William G. Jasen, Project Enhancement Corporation Thomas W. Halverson, Fluor Hanford, Inc. Steven

More information

Generation IV Fast Reactors. Dr Richard Stainsby AMEC Richard.Stainsby@amec.com

Generation IV Fast Reactors. Dr Richard Stainsby AMEC Richard.Stainsby@amec.com Generation IV Fast Reactors Dr Richard Stainsby AMEC Richard.Stainsby@amec.com Contents The Generation IV international research programme on advanced reactors The case for fast reactors The technology:

More information

Nuclear Waste A Guide to Understanding Where We've Been and Where We're Going

Nuclear Waste A Guide to Understanding Where We've Been and Where We're Going Nuclear Waste A Guide to Understanding Where We've Been and Where We're Going National Conference of State Legislatures The presentation was created by the National Conference of State Legislatures and

More information

Fukushima Accident: Radioactive Releases and Potential Dose Consequences

Fukushima Accident: Radioactive Releases and Potential Dose Consequences Fukushima Accident: Radioactive Releases and Potential Dose Consequences Peter F. Caracappa, Ph.D., CHP Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ANS Annual Meeting Special Session: The Accident at Fukushima Daiichi

More information

Part 1 General and Administrative Information. Part 3 Applicant s Environmental Report Combined License Stage

Part 1 General and Administrative Information. Part 3 Applicant s Environmental Report Combined License Stage Part 16 South Carolina Electric and Gas V. C. Summer Nuclear Station, Units 2 & 3 COL Application COLA Table of Contents Navigation Page Part 1 General and Administrative Information Part 2 Final Safety

More information

Advancing the Used Fuel Management Agenda

Advancing the Used Fuel Management Agenda Advancing the Used Fuel Management Agenda Everett Redmond, Ph.D. Nuclear Energy Institute August 13, 2013 What Will We Do with Nuclear Waste? Decisions to build new nuclear plants will turn on electricity

More information

Importing and Exporting Radioactive Materials and Waste for Treatment, Processing and Recycling

Importing and Exporting Radioactive Materials and Waste for Treatment, Processing and Recycling Importing and Exporting Radioactive Materials and Waste for Treatment, Processing and Recycling J.T. Greeves, J. Lieberman Talisman International, LLC 1000 Potomac Street, NW, Suite 300 Washington, DC

More information

NORTH CAROLINA EASTERN MUNICIPAL POWER AGENCY SHEARON HARRIS NUCLEAR POWER PLANT, UNIT 1. Renewed License No. NPF-63

NORTH CAROLINA EASTERN MUNICIPAL POWER AGENCY SHEARON HARRIS NUCLEAR POWER PLANT, UNIT 1. Renewed License No. NPF-63 CAROLINA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY NORTH CAROLINA EASTERN MUNICIPAL POWER AGENCY DOCKET NO. 50-400 SHEARON HARRIS NUCLEAR POWER PLANT, UNIT 1 RENEWED FACILITY OPERATING LICENSE 1. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission

More information

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES IN OECD/NEA MEMBER COUNTRIES AUSTRALIA NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY CONTEXT

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES IN OECD/NEA MEMBER COUNTRIES AUSTRALIA NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY CONTEXT RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES IN OECD/NEA MEMBER COUNTRIES AUSTRALIA NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY CONTEXT Australia is one of the only developed countries that does not use electricity, either indigenous

More information

Chemical Decontamination and Fluid Handling Services

Chemical Decontamination and Fluid Handling Services Chemical Decontamination and Fluid Handling Services Westinghouse is a global industry expert in decontamination and fluid handling processes, with proven abilities in decontamination and remediation work.

More information

IMPROVING NUCLEAR POWER PLANT'S OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCES IN THE USA

IMPROVING NUCLEAR POWER PLANT'S OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCES IN THE USA 19th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering May 16-19, 2011, Chiba, Japan ICONE19-43791 IMPROVING NUCLEAR POWER PLANT'S OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCES IN THE USA Joseph S. Miller President and Principal

More information

WASTE STREAM 2Y51 Analytical Services Process Facilities - North Labs

WASTE STREAM 2Y51 Analytical Services Process Facilities - North Labs WASTE STREAM 2Y51 Analytical Services Process Facilities North Labs SITE SITE OWNER WASTE CUSTODIAN WASTE TYPE Sellafield Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Sellafield Limited LLW WASTE VOLUMES Stocks:

More information

Three Mile Island Unit 2 Overview and Management Issues

Three Mile Island Unit 2 Overview and Management Issues Three Mile Island Unit 2 Overview and Management Issues OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency 12 th Meeting of the WPDD November 2011 Paris France Andrew P. Szilagyi U.S. Department of Energy Office of 1 Subjects

More information

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES IN OECD/NEA MEMBER COUNTRIES MEXICO [2005] NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY CONTEXT

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES IN OECD/NEA MEMBER COUNTRIES MEXICO [2005] NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY CONTEXT RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES IN OECD/NEA MEMBER COUNTRIES MEXICO [2005] NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY CONTEXT Commercial utilisation of nuclear power in Mexico started in 1990 and by 2002 there were

More information

10 Nuclear Power Reactors Figure 10.1

10 Nuclear Power Reactors Figure 10.1 10 Nuclear Power Reactors Figure 10.1 89 10.1 What is a Nuclear Power Station? The purpose of a power station is to generate electricity safely reliably and economically. Figure 10.1 is the schematic of

More information

11. Radioactive Waste Management AP1000 Design Control Document

11. Radioactive Waste Management AP1000 Design Control Document 11.4 Solid Waste Management The solid waste management system (WSS) is designed to collect and accumulate spent ion exchange resins and deep bed filtration media, spent filter cartridges, dry active wastes,

More information

INFO-0545 RADIOISOTOPE SAFETY MONITORING FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

INFO-0545 RADIOISOTOPE SAFETY MONITORING FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION INFO-0545 RADIOISOTOPE SAFETY MONITORING FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION 1. INTRODUCTION This document provides general guidance for monitoring and controlling radioactive contamination, and relating the

More information

Strategies for Application of Isotopic Uncertainties in Burnup Credit

Strategies for Application of Isotopic Uncertainties in Burnup Credit NUREG/CR-6811 ORNL/TM-2001/257 Strategies for Application of Isotopic Uncertainties in Burnup Credit Prepared by I. C. Gauld Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear

More information

WM2012 Conference, February 26 -March 1, 2012, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

WM2012 Conference, February 26 -March 1, 2012, Phoenix, Arizona, USA Upgrade and Certification of the Los Alamos National Laboratory SHENC 2011-12270 ABSTRACT S.B. Stanfield 1, M. Villani 1, P. T. Barton 1, C. Gerlock 1, D. Nakazawa 1, R. C. Baumann 1, R. Mowry 1, J.P Harvill

More information

Radioactive waste managment in Estonia past, present and future

Radioactive waste managment in Estonia past, present and future Radioactive waste managment in Estonia past, present and future Ivo Tatrik ivo.tatrik@alara.ee Content 1. Status of ALARA 2. Decomission of Paldiski Former Navy Submarine Training Centre 3. Decomission

More information

DEMONSTRATION ACCELERATOR DRIVEN COMPLEX FOR EFFECTIVE INCINERATION OF 99 Tc AND 129 I

DEMONSTRATION ACCELERATOR DRIVEN COMPLEX FOR EFFECTIVE INCINERATION OF 99 Tc AND 129 I DEMONSTRATION ACCELERATOR DRIVEN COMPLEX FOR EFFECTIVE INCINERATION OF 99 Tc AND 129 I A.S. Gerasimov, G.V. Kiselev, L.A. Myrtsymova State Scientific Centre of the Russian Federation Institute of Theoretical

More information

Office for Nuclear Regulation

Office for Nuclear Regulation ONR GUIDE CONTAINMENT: CHEMICAL PLANTS Document Type: Nuclear Safety Technical Assessment Guide Unique Document ID and Revision No: NS-TAST-GD-021 Revision 2 Date Issued: March 2013 Review Date: March

More information

DECOMMISSIONING OF THE GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH REACTOR. Steve Marske, Robert Eby, Lark Lundberg CH2M HILL

DECOMMISSIONING OF THE GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH REACTOR. Steve Marske, Robert Eby, Lark Lundberg CH2M HILL ABSTRACT DECOMMISSIONING OF THE GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH REACTOR Steve Marske, Robert Eby, Lark Lundberg CH2M HILL Nolan Hertel, Rod Ice Georgia Institute of Technology On July 1, 1997, the Georgia Institute

More information

apon a medical isotopes corn ee least three members, one of whom

apon a medical isotopes corn ee least three members, one of whom U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION OFFICE OF NUCLEAR REGULATORY RESEARCH April 1982 Division 8 DRAFT REGULATORY GUIDE AN1D VALUE/IMPACT STATEMENT Task OP 722-4 * Contact: J. M. Bell (301) 443-5970 QUALIFICATIONS

More information

Categorisation of Active Material from PPCS Model Power Plants

Categorisation of Active Material from PPCS Model Power Plants SESE-IV Categorisation of Active Material from PPCS Model Power Plants Robin Forrest, Neill Taylor and Raul Pampin Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association Culham Science Centre This work was funded jointly by

More information

WM2013 Conference, February 24 28, 2013, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Classified Component Disposal at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) 13454

WM2013 Conference, February 24 28, 2013, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Classified Component Disposal at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) 13454 WM2013 Conference, February 24 28, 2013, Phoenix, Arizona, USA DOE/NV/25946--1648 Classified Component Disposal at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) 13454 Jeanne Poling*, Pat Arnold,* Max Saad,**

More information

Long Term Operation R&D to Investigate the Technical Basis for Life Extension and License Renewal Decisions

Long Term Operation R&D to Investigate the Technical Basis for Life Extension and License Renewal Decisions Long Term Operation R&D to Investigate the Technical Basis for Life Extension and License Renewal Decisions John Gaertner Technical Executive Electric Power Research Institute Charlotte, North Carolina,

More information

Position paper on the implications of deep sea disposal of radioctive waste

Position paper on the implications of deep sea disposal of radioctive waste Agenda Item 4 English only OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic Meeting of the Radioactive Substances Committee (RSC) Stockholm (Sweden): 20-23 April

More information

Incoming Letter. 01/10/1994 Final No Comments 8/18/00. 01/01/1994 Final No Comments 10/25/1995. 10/15/1994 Final No Comments 08/18/2000

Incoming Letter. 01/10/1994 Final No Comments 8/18/00. 01/01/1994 Final No Comments 10/25/1995. 10/15/1994 Final No Comments 08/18/2000 STATE REGULATION STATUS State: North Carolina Tracking Ticket Number: 16-26 Date: [ 6 amendment(s) reviewed identified by a * at the beginning of the equivalent NRC requirement.] RATS ID NRC Chronology

More information

WASTE STREAM 2F35 Excellox-Type Transport Flasks and French-Design Dry Flasks

WASTE STREAM 2F35 Excellox-Type Transport Flasks and French-Design Dry Flasks SITE SITE OWR WASTE CUSTODIAN WASTE TYPE Sellafield Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Sellafield Limited LLW WASTE VOLUMES Stocks: At 1.4.2013... Future arisings - Total future arisings: 45.4 m³ Comment

More information

Nuclear Emergency Response Program

Nuclear Emergency Response Program Nuclear Emergency Response Program NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS In California, there are two operating nuclear power plant sites: Diablo Canyon in San Luis Obispo County has two active units and San Onofre Nuclear

More information

Issue: Burnup Credit in the Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Spent Fuel in Transportation and Storage Casks

Issue: Burnup Credit in the Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Spent Fuel in Transportation and Storage Casks Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance - 8 Revision 3 Issue: Burnup Credit in the Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Spent Fuel in Transportation and Storage Casks Introduction:

More information

Fission fragments or daughters that have a substantial neutron absorption cross section and are not fissionable are called...

Fission fragments or daughters that have a substantial neutron absorption cross section and are not fissionable are called... KNOWLEDGE: K1.01 [2.7/2.8] B558 Fission fragments or daughters that have a substantial neutron absorption cross section and are not fissionable are called... A. fissile materials. B. fission product poisons.

More information

NUCLEAR SERVICES & TECHNOLOGY

NUCLEAR SERVICES & TECHNOLOGY The Most Important Substance You ve Never Heard Of (Probably) The story of Molybdenum-99 Michael Washer, PE, Merrick and Company Martin Biggs, Chief Engineer, Phoenix Engineering NUCLEAR SERVICES & TECHNOLOGY

More information

Introduction to Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Advanced Nuclear Fuels

Introduction to Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Advanced Nuclear Fuels Introduction to Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Advanced Nuclear Fuels Jon Carmack Deputy National Technical Director Fuel Cycle Technology Advanced Fuels Program February 27, 2011 The Evolution of Nuclear Power

More information

PERSONNEL MONITORING AND DOSIMETRY POLICIES

PERSONNEL MONITORING AND DOSIMETRY POLICIES PERSONNEL MONITORING AND DOSIMETRY POLICIES All individuals who are required to have their exposure to ionizing radiation monitored must be trained prior to using the source(s) of radiation. The radioactive

More information

MATERIALS LICENSE. Delaware City, Delaware 19706 5. Docket No. 030-38418 Reference No.

MATERIALS LICENSE. Delaware City, Delaware 19706 5. Docket No. 030-38418 Reference No. NRC FORM 374 U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PAGE 1 OF 5 PAGES Pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-438), and Title 10, Code of

More information

Determination of the Distribution and Inventory of Radionuclides within a Savannah River Site Waterway - 13202

Determination of the Distribution and Inventory of Radionuclides within a Savannah River Site Waterway - 13202 Determination of the Distribution and Inventory of Radionuclides within a Savannah River Site Waterway - 13202 R.A. Hiergesell, M.A. Phifer Savannah River National Laboratory SRNS Bldg. 773-43A, Aiken,

More information

All nuclear power in the United States is used to generate electricity. Steam coming out of the nuclear cooling towers is just hot water.

All nuclear power in the United States is used to generate electricity. Steam coming out of the nuclear cooling towers is just hot water. Did You Know? All nuclear power in the United States is used to generate electricity. Did You Know? Steam coming out of the nuclear cooling towers is just hot water. Nonrenewable Uranium (nuclear) Uranium

More information

Examination of National and International Impacts of Adoption of ICRP Recommendations

Examination of National and International Impacts of Adoption of ICRP Recommendations Examination of National and International Impacts of Adoption of ICRP Recommendations Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has engaged in multiple domestic and international

More information

GUIDE FOR THE PREPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL APPLICATIONS FOR WELL LOGGING OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY

GUIDE FOR THE PREPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL APPLICATIONS FOR WELL LOGGING OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY GUIDE FOR THE PREPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL APPLICATIONS FOR WELL LOGGING OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY Radiation Control Cabinet for Human Resources 275 East Main Street Frankfort, Kentucky 40621 JANUARY

More information

FOR U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Region IV, ATTN: License Assistant, I 6GQ East Lamar Boulevard, Arlington, TX 7601 ~i -4125

FOR U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Region IV, ATTN: License Assistant, I 6GQ East Lamar Boulevard, Arlington, TX 7601 ~i -4125 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY WHITE SANDS TEST CENTER U.S. ARMY WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE 100 Headquarters Avenue WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, NEW MEXICO 88002-5000 REPLY TO ATTENTION OF TEDT-WS-ISO 0 3 MAR 2014

More information

March 21, 2012. Environmental Management Program Strategies: A National Responsibility

March 21, 2012. Environmental Management Program Strategies: A National Responsibility Written Statement of David Huizenga Senior Advisor for Environmental Management United States Department of Energy Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development Committee on Appropriations United

More information

This document is the property of and contains Proprietary Information owned by Westinghouse Electric Company LLC and/or its subcontractors and

This document is the property of and contains Proprietary Information owned by Westinghouse Electric Company LLC and/or its subcontractors and This document is the property of and contains Proprietary Information owned by Westinghouse Electric Company LLC and/or its subcontractors and suppliers. It is transmitted to you in confidence and trust,

More information

WM2010 Conference, March 7-11, 2010, Phoenix, AZ

WM2010 Conference, March 7-11, 2010, Phoenix, AZ ABSTRACT Historical Data Recovery for Accelerated Site Closure, Nevada Test Site, Nevada 1336 Anne White*, Annette Primrose* *National Security Technologies, LLC Atmospheric nuclear tests at the Nevada

More information

Fission Product Poisons

Fission Product Poisons Topic 6 Fission Product Poisons BWR Generic Fundamentals, Sykesville, MD USA Copyright Statement This publication contains valuable proprietary and confidential information of IntelliQlik, LLC ( IQ ) who

More information

Bulk Waste Disposal and Treatment Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria

Bulk Waste Disposal and Treatment Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria Revision 7 (Includes Class A LLRW, Mixed Waste, and 11e.(2) Disposal Embankments) Corporate Office 423 West 300 South, Suite 200 Salt Lake City, UT 84101 Phone: (801) 649-2000 Fax: (801) 537-7345 Disposal

More information

Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involves

Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involves 1 General Chemistry II Jasperse Nuclear Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involved The

More information

Case Study: Fission Yield Module and the Oklo Nuclear Geyser

Case Study: Fission Yield Module and the Oklo Nuclear Geyser Radioactivity - Radionuclides - Radiation 8th Multi-Media Training Course with Nuclides.net (Institute Josžef Stefan, Ljubljana, 13 th -15 th September 2006) Thursday, 14 th September 2006 Case Study:

More information

Perspective on Trends in U.S. Electricity Markets and Nuclear Power Plant Shutdowns. September 2013

Perspective on Trends in U.S. Electricity Markets and Nuclear Power Plant Shutdowns. September 2013 Perspective on Trends in U.S. Electricity Markets and Nuclear Power Plant Shutdowns September 2013 Nuclear Plant Shutdowns: The Situation Five reactors shut down Four in 2013 One at the end of 2014 Crystal

More information

Facility Hazard Categorization and Change Management Process

Facility Hazard Categorization and Change Management Process HANFORD MISSION SUPPORT CONTRACT Facility Hazard Categorization and Change Management Process MSC-PRO-8366 Revision 4 Effective Date: December 12, 2013 Topic: Nuclear and System Safety Approved for Public

More information

abstract NRC Headquarters United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

abstract NRC Headquarters United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission abstract The Strategic Plan Fiscal Years 2008-2013 describes the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s mission and defines the strategic goals and outcomes the agency intends to pursue. NRC Headquarters

More information

radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms

radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms CHAPTER 20: Atomic Structure Nuclear Chemistry radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms Historical Background Roentgen (1895) discovery

More information

DECOMMISSIONING COST ANALYSIS. for the MONTICELLO NUCLEAR GENERATING PLANT

DECOMMISSIONING COST ANALYSIS. for the MONTICELLO NUCLEAR GENERATING PLANT Document X01-1617-004, Rev. 0 DECOMMISSIONING COST ANALYSIS for the MONTICELLO NUCLEAR GENERATING PLANT prepared for Xcel Energy Services, Inc. prepared by Bridgewater, Connecticut September 2011 Decommissioning

More information

MATERIALS LICENSE. 1. American Centrifuge Operating, LLC 3. License Number: SNM-2011, Amendment 4

MATERIALS LICENSE. 1. American Centrifuge Operating, LLC 3. License Number: SNM-2011, Amendment 4 NRC FORM 374 U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Page 1 of 8 Pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-438), and Title 10, Code of Federal

More information

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 DEFINING THE ATOM Early Models of the Atom In this chapter, we will look into the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. An atom

More information

SAFE MANAGEMENT OF SMOKE DETECTORS CONTAINING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

SAFE MANAGEMENT OF SMOKE DETECTORS CONTAINING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES SAFE MANAGEMENT OF SMOKE DETECTORS CONTAINING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES Salgado M.1; Benítez J.C.1; Castillo R.A.1; Berdellans A.1; Hernández J.M1.; Pirez C.J.2; Soto P.G.2 1 Centre for Radiation Protection

More information

SOURCES OF RADIOACTIVITY

SOURCES OF RADIOACTIVITY Section 10: FISSION POWER This section briefly describes the basic principles underlying the development of the fission power reactor, some examples of commercial reactors in use today and issues about

More information

NRC INSPECTION MANUAL INSPECTION PROCEDURE 88045

NRC INSPECTION MANUAL INSPECTION PROCEDURE 88045 NRC INSPECTION MANUAL INSPECTION PROCEDURE 88045 NMSS/FCSS EFFLUENT CONTROL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM APPLICABILITY: 2600 88045-01 INSPECTION OBJECTIVES The objectives of this procedure are

More information

The Parties agree as follows: ARTICLE I. For the purposes of this Agreement:

The Parties agree as follows: ARTICLE I. For the purposes of this Agreement: AGREEMENT FOR COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA CONCERNING CIVIL USES OF ATOMIC ENERGY Whereas the Government of the United

More information

Nuclear accidents and radioactive contamination of foods 30 March 2011

Nuclear accidents and radioactive contamination of foods 30 March 2011 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Nuclear accidents and radioactive contamination of foods 30 March 2011 This document is intended to provide basic background information and not

More information

POLICY ISSUE (INFORMATION)

POLICY ISSUE (INFORMATION) POLICY ISSUE (INFORMATION) October 26, 2011 SECY-11-0149 FOR: FROM: SUBJECT: The Commissioners Eric J. Leeds, Director Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation SUMMARY FINDINGS RESULTING FROM THE STAFF REVIEW

More information

Q1 2014. Environmental Emissions Data for Pickering Nuclear ONTARIO POWER GENERATION ONT

Q1 2014. Environmental Emissions Data for Pickering Nuclear ONTARIO POWER GENERATION ONT OVERVIEW This quarterly report summarizes s environmental emissions data for the year-to-date, including: Radioactive Effluents: Releases to air and water, including discharges to the municipal sewage

More information

Nuclear Waste Management in Finland

Nuclear Waste Management in Finland Nuclear Waste Management in Finland Facts about Finland Independent Republic since 1917 Member State of the European Union since 1995 Capital: Helsinki Neighbouring countries: Estonia, Norway, Russia and

More information

REGULATORY GUIDE 5.29 (Draft was issued as DG 5028, dated May 2012) SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

REGULATORY GUIDE 5.29 (Draft was issued as DG 5028, dated May 2012) SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION June 2013 Revision 2 REGULATORY GUIDE OFFICE OF NUCLEAR REGULATORY RESEARCH REGULATORY GUIDE 5.29 (Draft was issued as DG 5028, dated May 2012) SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL

More information

RC-17. Alejandro V. Nader National Regulatory Authority Montevideo - Uruguay

RC-17. Alejandro V. Nader National Regulatory Authority Montevideo - Uruguay RC-17 Radiation Protection in Waste Management and Disposal Implementing the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Alejandro V. Nader

More information

NRC REGULATORY ISSUE SUMMARY 2007-28 SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PORTABLE GAUGES

NRC REGULATORY ISSUE SUMMARY 2007-28 SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PORTABLE GAUGES ADDRESSEES UNITED STATES NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION OFFICE OF FEDERAL AND STATE MATERIALS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS WASHINGTON, D.C. 20555 December 7, 2007 NRC REGULATORY ISSUE SUMMARY 2007-28

More information

Audit Report. Implementation of the Recovery Act at the Savannah River Site

Audit Report. Implementation of the Recovery Act at the Savannah River Site U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Audit Report Implementation of the Recovery Act at the Savannah River Site OAS-RA-L-11-12 September 2011 Department

More information

International Action Plan On The Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

International Action Plan On The Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities International Action Plan On The Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities A. Introduction Decommissioning is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (the Agency) as the administrative and technical

More information

Economics of Thorium and Uranium Reactors

Economics of Thorium and Uranium Reactors Sherman Lam HSA 10-05 The Economics of Oil and Energy April 30, 2013 Economics of Thorium and Uranium Reactors In February 2012, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved a license for two new nuclear

More information

Treatment Centers for Radioactive Waste

Treatment Centers for Radioactive Waste Treatment Centers for Radioactive Waste TREATMENT CENTERS FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE Introduction Nuclear facilities such as nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants, nuclear fuel cycle production units, laboratories

More information

NUCLEAR FISSION DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION

NUCLEAR FISSION DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION NUCLEAR FISSION DOE-HDBK-101/1-3 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION Nuclear fission is a process in which an atom splits and releases energy, fission products, and neutrons. The neutrons released

More information

Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis )

Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis ) Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis ) Nucleosynthesis reactions in the interior of stars have produced nearly all of the naturally occurring elements on earth. In a nuclear transmutation a nucleus

More information