Danish research results in blackcurrants

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1 Danish research results in blackcurrants Hanne Lindhard, Department of Horticulture

2 Productions factors and crop physiology 1. Nitrogen fertilization. conventional 2. Fertilizations. organic 3. Cover crops as fertilizer in organic production 4. Planting distance 5. Hot water to secure healthy plant material. 6. Simulation of leaf damage

3 Nitrogen fertilization

4 Nitrogen fertilization Leaf analyses average of Treatment N P K Mg 1. No Nit r ogen 2.44 c 0.18 a 1.01 a 0.24 a kg spring, 25 kg a. h arv es 2.59 abc 0.17 a 1.00 a 0.24 a kg after harvest 2.50 bc 0.18 a 0.99 a 0.24 a kg spring, 50 kg a. harv e 2.64 ab 0.16 a 0.92 a 0.27 a kg a. harv est 2.60 ab 0.17 a 0.99 a 0.25 a kg sprin g 2.73 a 0.16 a 0.99 a 0.26 a kg spring, wh ole a rea 2.67 a 0.16 a 1.02 a 0.26 a kg bef. flower, 33.3 kg a. flower, and 33.3 kg a. harvest a 0.17 a 0.97 a 0.27 a Optimum values: N: P: K: Mg: kg potassium. spring as PK

5

6 Cultivar Ben Alder - tonne/ha Tonnes ha Ugødet No nitrogen Treatments bredsp

7 Quality of the juice Treatment Sugar Colour Vit C Acid 1. No Nitrogen 14.1 a 521 ab 106 a 36.3 c kg spring, 25 kg a. h arv est 13.8 b 502 c 108 a 37.1 abc kg after harvest 14.0 a 529 a 104 ab 36.3 c kg spring, 50 kg a. harv est 13.8 b 503 c 102 ab 37.5 a kg a. harvest 13.8 b 512 bc 103 ab 36.4 bc kg spring 13.8 b 507 bc 102 ab 37.0 abc kg spring, whole area 13.8 b 500 c 103 ab 36.9 abc kg bef. flower, 33.3 kg a. flower, and 33.3 kg a. h arv est 13.8 b 512 bc 100 b 37.3 ab

8 Conclusions Nitrogen did not have as big effect on yield as expected Spreading the supply gave the highest yield Nitrogen supply reduced sugar and vitamin C content and increased acid content in the berry juice Some of the effects may be due to nitrogen increase of the vegetative growth and thereby later ripening of the berries. The bushes were harvested at the same day Earlier results: Nitrogen supply in spring and early summer is important for growth and yield in blackcurrants. Supply after harvest gives better flower buds and thereby a better potential harvest the following year A lack of water it is more important than nitrogen. Do not give nitrogen the last month before harvest during berry development. this reduces the sugar and colour in the juice

9 Organic fertilizing and irrigation of black currants

10 Material and Methods Planted April 2003 at Danish Research Centre Aarslev cv. Ben Alder Planting distance 3 x 0.5 m Unsprayed production 14 treatments. replicated in 4 blocks. treatments randomized inside blocks Plots of 10 or 13 bushes Machine harvested Grass alley ways

11 Treatments Soil management treatment. Plastic, no water, no manure Plastic, water, no manure Plastic, fertigation, liquid manure 25 kg N Plastic, fertigation, liquid manure 50 kg N Plastic, fertigation, liquid vinasse 25 kg N Plastic, fertigation, liquid vinasse 50 kg N Mechanical, no water, no manure Mechanical, water, no manure Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets 25 kg N Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets 50 kg N Mechanical, water, poultry pellets 25 kg N Mechanical, water, poultry pellets 50 kg N Mechanical, no water, Agrigro 25 kg N Mechanical, no water, Agrigro 50 kg N

12

13 % Soil water content cm top soil % soil water Plastic, no water, no manure Plastic, water, no manure Plastic, fertigation, liquid manure Plastic, fertigation, liquid vinasse Mechanical, no water, no manure Mechanic, water, no manure Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets Mecahnical, water, poultry pellets Date

14 Nitrogen content in leaf samples and growth. Average of Soil management treatment. Nit rogen % dry matter Growth cm/bush Plastic, no water, no manure 2.53 bcd 535 bc Plastic, water, no manure 2.42 d 503 bc Plastic, fertigation, liquid manure 25 kg N 2.50 cd 586 ab Plastic, fertigation, liquid manure 50 kg N 2.63 abc 584 ab Plastic, fertigation, liquid v inasse 25 kg N 2.59 abc 516 bc Plastic, fertigation, liquid v inasse 50 kg N 2.57 abcd 520 bc Mechanical, no water, no manure 2.58 abc 549 bc Mechanical, water, no manure 2.48 cd 564 abc Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets 25 kg N 2.61 abc 540 bc Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets 50 kg N 2.69 a 687 a Mechanical, water, poultry pellets 25 kg N 2.50 cd 597 ab Mechanical, water, poultry pellets 50 kg N 2.66 ab 612 ab Mechanical, no water, Agrigro 25 kg N 2.55 abcd 437 c Mechanical, no water, Agrigro 50 kg N 2.57 abcd 496 bc

15 Leaf samples P K Mg Plastic, no water, no manure 0.25 ab 1.12 cd 0.24 abc Plastic, water, no manure 0.25 ab 1.08 cd 0.25 bcd Plastic, fertigation, liquid m anure 25 kg N 0.23 ab 1.14 cd 0.22 cde Plastic, fertigation, liquid m anure 50 kg N 0.24 ab 1.18 bcd 0.21 def Plastic, fertigation, liquid vinasse 25 kg N 0.22 b 1.39 a 0.20 ef Plastic, fertigation, liquid vinasse 50 kg N 0.20 b 1.31 ab 0.20 f Mechanical, no water, no manure 0.25 ab 1.08 cd 0.24 abc Mechanical, water, no manure 0.29 a 1.10 cd 0.26 a Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets 25 kg N 0.20 b 1.10 cd 0.20 ef Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets 50 kg N 0.19 b 1.21 bc 0.22 cdef Mechanical, water, poultry pellets 25 kg N 0.22 ab 1.08 cd 0.25 ab Mechanical, water, poultry pellets 50 kg N 0.21 b 1.19 bcd 0.23 bcd Mechanical, no water, Agrigro 25 kg N 0.24 ab 1.02 d 0.24 abc Mechanical, no water, Agrigro 50 kg N 0.26 ab 1.10 cd 0.23 bcd Optim ised v alues P: , K: , Mg:

16 Yield and berry size g100 tons/ha g100 tons/ha Plastic, no water, no manure 85 a bcde 4.1 Plastic, water, no manure 85 a bcde 4.7 Plastic, fertigation, liquid m anure 25 kg N 90 a de 5.3 Plastic, fertigation, liquid m anure 50 kg N 88 a e 4.9 Plastic, fertigation, liquid vinasse 25 kg N 85 a ab 4 Plastic, fertigation, liquid vinasse 50 kg N 84 a ab 4.2 Mechanical, no water, no manure 78 a abcde 2.9 Mechanical, water, no manure 83 a 4 48 cde 3.1 Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets 25 kg N 88 a abc 3 Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets 50 kg N 83 a a 4.2 Mechanical, water, poultry pellets 25 kg N 85 a abcd 4 Mechanical, water, poultry pellets 50 kg N 89 a abcd 4.2 Mechanical, no water, Agrigro 25 kg N 78 a e 2.5 Mechanical, no water, Agrigro 50 kg N 80 a cde 2.1

17 Leaf quality and disease infections Soil management treatment. June 2006 September 2006 Leaf Healthiness Leaf spot Aphids 1-10, 1-10, 1-10, 1= no 1= no 1= no growth infection infection Leaf Healthiness Rust leaf spot 1-10, 1-10, 1-10, 1= no 1= no 1= no growth infection infection Plastic, no water, no manure 6.0 cd 2.6 ab 2.1 ab 1.8 a 2.8 ab 9.0 abcd Plastic, water, no manure 5.8 cd 2.8 a 2.1 ab 1.8 a 2.7 ab 9.1 abcd Plastic, fertigation, liquid manure 25 kg N 6.3 cd 2.4 ab 2.4 a 1.8 a 2.0 ab 8.5 d Plastic, fertigation, liquid manure 50 kg N 5.5 d 2.4 ab 2.2 ab 1.9 a 2.6 ab 8.6 cd Plastic, fertigation, liquid vinasse 25 kg N 6.3 cd 2.1 b 2.1 ab 1.9 a 4.0 a 8.9 bcd Plastic, fertigation, liquid vinasse 50 kg N 6.0 cd 2.4 ab 1.8 abc 1.9 a 2.7 ab 9.4 abcd Mechanical, no water, no manure 6.5 bcd 2.5 ab 1.9 abc 1.6 ab 2.5 ab 9.1 abcd Mechanical, water, no manure 6.8 abc 2.3 ab 1.5 bc 1.9 a 2.3 ab 8.5 d Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets 25 kg N 7.3 ab 2.3 ab 1.9 abc 1.5 ab 2.3 ab 9.5 abc Mechanical, no water, poultry pellets 50 kg N 7.4 ab 2.1 b 1.9 abc 1.5 ab 2.0 ab 9.6 ab Mechanical, water, poultry pellets 25 kg N 7.6 a 2.1 b 1.4 bc 1.6 ab 1.2 b 8.8 bcd Mechanical, water, poultry pellets 50 kg N 7.5 a 2.4 ab 1.3 c 1.1 b 1.0 b 9.9 a Mechanical, no water, Agrigro 25 kg N 6.1 cd 2.8 a 1.4 bc 1.8 a 2.4 ab 8.6 cd Mechanical, no water, Agrigro 50 kg N 6.8 abc 2.5 ab 2.0 abc 1.4 ab 2.0 ab 9.5 abc

18 Conclusions The water content in the soil was highest in treatments with water supply and no manuring. independent of plastic covering. The lowest content of soil water occurred with no water supply and manuring. Nitrogen content in the leaves was highest in mechanically weed cleaned bushes supplied with 50 kg nitrogen from poultry pellets in spring. The lowest contents occurred where bushes had water supplied without nitrogen. Fertigating with liquid manure and production in plastic produced the highest yields and supply of Agrigro resulted in the lowest yields. but differences were small. Yields where acceptable for young bushes in but in 2006 the crop was very low probably due to a cold flowering and heavy infections of leaf spot (Gloeosporidiella ribis).

19 Cover crops as fertilizer in organic blackcurrant Treatment Yield 1999 Tons/ha Yield 2000 Tons/ha Yield 2001 Tons/ha Yield 2002 Tons/ha Annual (Rye og vetch) 2.14 a 2.93 a 4.70 a 4.10 a Clover grass mulched 2.11 a 2.53 a 3.93 a 3.60 a Clover grass + slurry 2.17 a 2.53 a 3.97 a 3.66 a Clover grass 2.07 a 2.56 a 4.41 a 3.87 a

20 Cover crop organic blackcurrant Cultivar Yield 1999 Tons/ha Yield 2000 Tons/ha Yield 2001 Tons/ha Yield 2002 Tons/ha Ben Alder 2.06 b 1.77 d 4.31 c 3.3 c Ben Lomond 0.00 c 0.61 e 2.39 d 2.2 d Farleigh 1.81 b 3.55 b 0.02 e 4.4 b Intercontinental 3.57 a 2.36 c 5.14 b 3.6 c Titania 3.80 a 4.27 a 6.14 a 5.4 a

21 Root development in blackcurrants Depth of the roots in cm ,5 1 1,5 Distance from centre of the row in meter Ben Lomond Depth of the roots in cm Titania 0 0,5 1 1,5 Distance from the centre of the row in meter

22 Planting distance blackcurrant cv. Titania Planting distance Bushes ha Yield Yield Yield Yield Yield Yield m in bush row kg/bush tonne/ha kg/bush tonne/ha kg/bush tonne/ha c d b c a b a ab a a a a m 0.6 m 0.9 m 1.5 m

23 Hot water dipping of blackcurrant cuttings controlling gall mites and increase plant growth Hanne Lindhard Pedersen. Klaus Paaske. Lis Sørensen and Kaspars Kampuss. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Horticulture and Department of Integrated Pest Management.. Postbox 102. DK-. Denmark. Latvia University of Agriculture. Liela street 2. Jelgava. LV Latvia.

24 Background Black currant gall mites (Cecidophysis ribis) is a very severe pest in blackcurrant production. Big-buds measuring up to 15 mm may occur. No leaves or flowers are produced. Heavy infestations of buds and shoots affect bush development and reduce cropping. The mites transmit the virus causing reversion disease. This virus can limit the economic life of a plantation and fruit production and cropping is seriously damaged. Plant material free of black currant gall mites is stressed in Denmark because no pesticides are allowed to control gall mites in the field.

25 Blackcurrant gall mites how they look. Adult female 0.25 mm long Photo: Rex Brennan. SCRI. Scotland

26 Equipment for hot water treatment Floating cuttings total under water Thermostat regulated Insulated water bath 40 litre water 0.1 C variation

27 Research plan Late April: Treatments and planting in the field Cultivar: Ben Alder Plant material: Healthy plant material (AAE) and material infested with gall mites Temperatures: C Duration: minutes 20 cuttings per plot. 4 replicates 10 cuttings for mite control 10 cuttings for growth control/planting in the field

28 Percent buds with living blackcurrant gall mites per cutting (infested material) and percent survival of hard wood cuttings of blackcurrants (healthy material) for cv. Ben Alder Percent living cuttings (healthy material) Duration of hot water treatment Temperature Not treated 0 C 76 b a 95 a 100 a 100 a 100 a 90 ab a 100 a 95 a 100 a 57 c 19 d ab 10 d 0 d 0 d 0 d 0 d 55 0 d 0 d 0 d 0 d 0 d 0 d Percent but with living gall mites (Infested material). 0 C 84.8 a b 19.7 c 8.2 d 5.3 de 0 e 0 e 45 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e 50 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e 55 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e

29 Percent gall mite infested buds with living gall mites (infested material) and percent survival of hard wood cuttings of black currants (healthy material) for cv. Ben Alder. Percent living cuttings (healthy material) (min) Duration of hot water treatment Temperature Not treated C 79 abc ab 88 ab 85 abc 90 ab 42½ 90 ab 82 abc 83 abc 73 c abc 82 abc 87 ab 87 ab 47 ½ 89 ab 91 a 84 abc 78 bc abc 60 e 3 e 0 e Percent gall mite infested buds with living gall mites (infested material) 0 C 100 a a 100 a 81 b 58 c 42½ 87 ab 74 b 20 e 0 e d 0 e 0 e 0 e 47 ½ 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e 50 0 e 0 e 0 e 0 e

30 Effect of hot water treatment on growth and homogeneity of growth 1= very weak growth and homogeny. 3=weak growth. not homogeny. 5=middle growth and homogeny. 7=growth and homogeny over middle. 9=strong growth and homogeny. Healthy plant material Duration of hot water treatment (min) Temperature Not treated C Gall mite infested plant material Duration of hot water treatment (min). Temperature Not treated C

31 Not hot water treated. Ben Alder one-year old AAE plants. Treated 45 0 C. 20 min.

32 Research caused big interest Many growers have had their cuttings hot water treated either private or at the Elite plant station.

33 Long time effect of hot water treatment. Research at growers (organic and conventional). Planted autumn 2004

34

35 Hot water dipping surviving plants 3 month after planting. 100 Organic Conventionelt % Planter ½ 45 47½ 50 % p la n te r Dipping time in i t 40 42½ 45 47½ Tid

36

37

38 Ben Alder Yield first harvest year - T/ha 6 Organic 6 Conventional T o n / h a ½ 45 47½ 50 Ton/ha ½ 45 47½ Dipping time in minutes Dipping time in minutes

39 Hot water treatment research carried out in spring. Growers normally establish plantings during autumn. Does hot water treatment kill gall mites at autumn YES!

40 Ben Alder cuttings. AAE. Hot water treated (10 min at 45 0 C) in October 2001 and planted after cool storage. Plant quality determined autumn % surviving plants Number main branches Fresh weight branches Da y s of cool storage Normal Hot water Normal Hot water Normal Hot water a 100 a 4.3 a 3.7 bc 140 a 118 c a 100 a 3.8 ab 4.4 ab 121 ab 152 bc a 96.4 a 3.3 b 4.3 ab 119 ab 174 ab a 96.4 a 3.6 ab 4.9 a 131 ab 188 a a 96.4 a 3.6 b 3.3 c 101 b 119 c

41 Cultivar differences AAE plant material hot water treated 45 0 C for 10 min in spring Plant quality autumn Num ber surv iv ing plants Sh oot g r ow th cm /pla n t No. Ma in br a n ch es Cu ltiv a r n or m a l Hot w a ter n or m a l Hot w a ter n or m a l Hot w a ter Ben Lomond 3.2 b 4.4 a a a 2.1 a 2.4 a Ben Alder 4.6 a 4.5 a b a 1.9 a 2.1 a Ben Tirran 5.0 a 5.0 a a a 2.4 a 2.6 a Ben Tron 2.8 a 2.4 a 84.9 a 69.0 a 1.6 a 1.8 a Ben Connan 3.4 a 3.4 a a a 1.8 a 2.0 a Ben Hope 2.0 a 2.0 a a 93.9 b 2.3 a 1.8 a Titania 3.8 a 4.2 a a a 2.5 a 2.5 a Narv e Viking 4.3 a 3.3 b a 64.2 a 1.5 a 1.2 a Rondom 1.8 a 1.8 a 9.6 a 10.4 a 0.6 a 0.6 a av erage 3.4 a 3.5 a a a 1.9 a 2.1 a

42 Simulation leaf damage caused by mechanical harvest. wind. pest and diseases Remove leaves Powdery mildew Leaf midge

43 Number of leaves and leaf area on the black currant cultivar 'Ben 3,5 Rua' , , , Date Number Leaves Leaf area in square meter per bush Antal blade/busk Antal blade nyvækst/busk Total bladareal/busk

44 Effect of leaf removing in 2000 on yield in 2000 and 2001 Yield, kg per bush. 3,5 2,5 3 1,5 2 0, pct Nov. 50 pct Dec. 50 pct. Jan Kontrol 100 pct Jan. 100 pct Dec. 100 pct Nov. Udbytte 2001 Udbytte 2000 Hand picking Treatment

45 Effect of leaf removing on berry internal colour at harvest, Colour Farve 100 pct Jan 100 pct Dec. 100 pct Nov Control 50 pct. Jan. 50 pct. Dec 50 pct Nov. Treatment

46 Effect of leaf removing on berry content of sugar at harvest, Sugar % RT % 50 pct. Dec 50 pct Nov. 50 pct. Jan. Control 100 pct Nov 100 pct Dec. 100 pct Jan Treatment

47 Photosynthesis in single leaves after removing leaves on new growth Carbon optake in single leaves Kontrol 50 pct Nov. 50 pct. Dec 50 pct. Jan. 100 pct Nov 100 pct Dec. 100 pct Jan 19. Jan 7. Jan. 21. Dec. 8. Dec 22. Nov. Date

48 Conclusions Blackcurrant bushes are very dense and leaves on older and central stems drop due to lack of sun light. Leaves inside the bush have low photosynthesis due to lack of sun light but have the potential if outer leaves are removed. If all leaves on every 2. annual shoot is removed there is no effect on the yield in the present year. Yield in the following years will be reduced 7-49% depending on the time of leaf removing. If all leaves on all annual shoots are removed 1 2 month before harvest the yield was reduced 22-38% in the present year and 18-81% the following year.

49 Remove leaves in shoot tips continuously 3 time during summer Simulated powdery mildew or leaf midge infections May July June

50 Ben Alder Total yield , T/ha T/Ha Kontrol Maj Juni Juli Time of treament

51 Bud quality, average of 2001, 2002 and 2003 Precent buds on the whole bush Ben Lomond % dead % leaf % flower Control 34 c 10 b 56 a May 44 a 14 a 41 c June 38 b 10 b 52 b July 33 c 10 b 58 a Ben Alder % dead % leaf % flower Control 26 c 5 c 69 a May 38 a 11 a 52 c June 31 b 8 b 62 b July 26 c 6 c 69 a Bee

52 Ben Alder, flower buds, % flower buds Treatment kontrol Maj Juni Juli Year

53 Annual growth and berry quality 2001 and 2002 Growth 2001 Growth 2002 Colour Colour Ben Lomond m/bush m/bush Control b a 307 a 366 ab May c b 257 b 353 b June ab a 275 b 360 ab July a a 298 a 372 a Ben Alder Control a 9.05 a 393 a 388 a May b 4.27 b 313 b 348 c June a 5.48 b 395 a 353 bc July a 4.97 b 434 a 372 ab

54 Conclusions Removing leaves in shoot tips reduced the growth and number of flower buds and thereby the yield. but not the first year of treatment. The earlier the leaves were removed the bigger the yield reduction. Removing in May reduced the yield 50% for the cultivar Ben Lomond and 62% for Ben Alder in the third harvest year. Leaf removal in July did not reduce the yield in the first 3 years. Juice colour was reduced due to early leaf removal. Flower bud formation was reduced due to leaf removal. Flower initiation starts in July in blackcurrants in Denmark. We found 18-51% dead buds in blackcurrants depending on cultivar and treatment.

55 Thank you very much for your attention

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