To protect the safety of all citizens of Cherokee County: An Evaluation of the Cherokee County DUI & Drug Court

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1 To protect the safety of all citizens of Cherokee County: An Evaluation of the Cherokee County DUI & Drug Court Prepared by: The A. L. Burruss Institute of Public Service and Research Kennesaw State University 1000 Chastain Road Kennesaw, Georgia (FAX)

2 INTRODUCTION In the Spring of 2009, the Cherokee County DUI Court contracted with the A.L. Burruss Institute of Public Service and Research to conduct an evaluation of the program. The program has been in operation since February of This evaluation is based on the mission of the Cherokee County DUI Court: To protect the safety of all citizens of Cherokee County; To give participants an opportunity to become productive members of our community; To provide the necessary treatment, services, and tools through intensive judicial supervision. This evaluation report is organized according to the goals and objectives of the Cherokee County DUI Court which are as follows: Reduce the number of traffic accidents, injuries and deaths related to DUI offenses. Reducing the recidivism rate of DUI offenders. Reduce the expense of DUI offenses on the criminal justice system. Reduction of the significant time spent between arrest and sentencing of DUI offenses Identify and fast track eligible participants Develop partnerships among drug courts, public agencies, and community based organizations that generate local support and enhance overall program effectiveness. Develop and maintain a coordinated system of sanctions and rewards to motivate and facilitate participant compliance. Increase the number of productive members of our community. Integrate substance abuse treatment with participant accountability and enhanced supervision with continued judicial monitoring. Provide access to a continuum of alcohol, drug, and other related treatment and rehabilitation services. Monitor, by frequent alcohol and other drug testing utilizing current technologies that will help maintain abstinence. 1

3 Implement core components to each phase of the program which are mandated for license reinstatement. Gainful employment for all participants who are able to work in order that they make a financial investment in their treatment program. Effective case management and increased accountability based on a team approach involving the judiciary, prosecutor, law enforcement, treatment, local bar, drug court coordinator, and probation. Seek independent evaluation of the overall program goals to gauge the program s effectiveness. The last objective is met by this report and the process which it details. METHODOLOGY The data collection methodology for the Cherokee County DUI Court (CCDC) project was comprised of two components. These data collection components consisted of conducting a web survey of program Stakeholders and a paper and pencil survey, conducted on-site, of program participants. The survey instruments used as part of the evaluation were developed in conjunction with Lynn Epps of the Cherokee County DUI Court. The web survey ran from July 16 August 6, The paper and pencil survey was distributed at the two court sessions held on July 2 nd which participants were required to attend. The purpose of the web survey was to ascertain what the stakeholders felt was the primary goal of the program and how effective it is in achieving that goal. Additional questions focused on identifying strengths and weaknesses of the program. The survey instrument is included in this report, in Appendix A. addresses were obtained for 43 stakeholders. Three personalized requests for participation were sent to each respondent over a period of one month. All respondents received the initial invitation. A respondent received additional s only if they had not completed the survey. Forty completed surveys were collected, for a response rate of 93%. Some notable characteristics of the surveyed stakeholders were: Average length of time involved with the program was 2.8 years, Average number of hours spent conducting CCD business was a 8 ½ hours per week, Average number of hours worked per week was 37.7, 2

4 53% of those who responded received some sort of training specifically related to their involvement with the program In the second component of data collection, Cherokee County DUI Court program participants were asked to complete a paper and pencil survey during the July 2 nd, 2009 meeting of the court (1 st and 2 nd sessions). Like the web Stakeholder s survey, the intent behind this survey was to identify strengths and weaknesses of the program. However, this portion of the project was aimed at obtaining the perceptions and goals of the participants. The survey instrument is included in this report, in Appendix B. The survey was completed by 80 program participants. The average age of the respondents was 38. Sixty-nine percent (69%) of the respondents were male and 31% female. Almost half of the respondents had children (46%). The respondents represented participants at all phases of the program, with the majority of respondents in Phase IV (39%). A few participants were remanded to jail at the conclusion of the session and during the second session, one participant attended in an orange jumpsuit and shackles. He was dismissed from the program at that time, but did complete an evaluation. Education Level of Program Participants 4.0% 6.0% 6.0% Less than a high school grad 15.0% 41.0% High school grad, GED Some college, Associates degree College Grad, Bachelors degree Some grad school Proofessional degree or Grad degree 28.0% 3

5 Marital Status of Program Participants 18.0% 1.0% 9.0% 46.0% Single Married Living with partner Divorced/Separated Widowed 26.0% GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Reduce the number of traffic accidents, injuries and deaths related to dui offenses. REDUCE THE RECIDIVISM RATE OF DUI OFFENDERS. Reducing the recidivism rate of DUI offenders was selected as the primary goal of the DUI Court by 63% of court stakeholders. When asked to rate the DUI Court s success in achieving this goal on a scale of 1 to 7 with 1 being Not at all Successful and 7 being Very Successful, the average rating given was When asked who they thought benefited most from the DUI Drug Court Program, 37% stated that the participant received the most benefit. However, an almost equal number, 39%, indicated that they believe that the community benefits the most. 17% chose other when asked this question, and wrote in all of the above as their answer. An all of the above response includes; the participant, his/her family, the judicial system, the community, and the taxpayer. DUI recidivism is high. Overall, it has been estimated that one-third of all drivers arrested, convicted, or adjudicated for DUI are repeat offenders 1. However, nationwide, 75% of Drug Court graduates remain arrest-free at least two years after leaving the program and in one study, DUI Court participants are up to nineteen times less likely to get a new DUI offense than DUI offenders sentenced by a traditional court. Typical re-arrest rates on those in a traditional 1 (NHTSA, 1995b). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Repeat DWI offenders in the United States. Traffic Tech 85 Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1995b 4

6 court reveal that 46% of probationers commit a new offense and over 60% commit a probation violation 2. Other evidence from an unpublished study of three DUI courts in Georgia show DUI court graduates had a 9% recidivism rate versus 24% for traditional courts. The authors estimate that DUI courts resulted in, between 47 and 112, fewer DUI arrests for those jurisdictions. Reduce the Expense of DUI Offenses on the Criminal Justice System. REDUCE THE TIME SPENT BETWEEN ARREST AND SENTENCING OF DUI OFFENSES The Cherokee County drug court sampled 100 random cases each from Non-DUI Court cases and DUI Court cases. For Non-DUI court cases, the average time from arrest to disposition was 5.6 months. For the DUI Court cases, the average time of arrest to disposition was considerably less at 3.8 months. (The program) saves lives and prevents serious injury to both the DUI offenders and innocent victims. It rehabilitates broken lives of chemically addicted individuals and returns them to productive citizen status. It reduces taxpayer burden and frees up space in our jails. It reduces recidivism and is nearly ten times more effective in doing so than the old, outdated method of incarceration. 2 Introductory Handbook for DWI Court Program Evaluations, Douglas B. Marlowe, J.D., Ph.D. 5

7 Identify and Fast Track Eligible Participants Effectiveness of Program Participant Identification Process 17.0% 2.0% 37.0% Very Effective Effective Ineffective Don't Know 44.0% Develop Partnerships Among Drug Courts, Public Agencies, and Community -Based Organizations that Generate Local Support and Enhance Overall Program Effectiveness. Stakeholders (board members) were asked to rate the DUI Court s success in achieving its most important goal on a scale of 1 to 7 with 1 being Not at all Successful and 7 being Very Successful. The average rating given was 5.0. One hundred percent (100%) of stakeholders rated the overall DUI Court program effectiveness as Effective (32%) or Very Effective (68%). We were interested in finding out how often the various agencies were in contact with each other, regarding CCDC business. Fortyfour percent of the stakeholders reported having contact with other stakeholders/agencies on a frequent or very frequent basis. was chosen most often as the mode of communication By changing the life path of drug abusers, innocent lives are saved from accidents that would otherwise happen. between stakeholders. The most common reason for the communication was information gathering or sharing. 6

8 Develop and Maintain a Coordinated System of Sanctions and Rewards to Motivate and Facilitate Participant Compliance. Perceived Effectiveness of Sanctions Increased Testing Probation Hearing Additional 12-Step Meetings Additional time on Alcohol Monitor Curfew Admonishment by Court Community Service Work Jail time Very Effective Effective Ineffective Very Ineffective DK/NA 0% 20% 40% 60% Perceived Effectiveness of Rewards Gift Certificates Early Dismissal of court Waiver of 2nd Court Session Being Allowed to Travel Very Effective Effective Ineffective Very Ineffective DK/NA Recognition by Judge 0% 20% 40% 60% 7

9 Effectiveness of Program Sanctions and Rewards as Rated by Stakeholders Very Effective 40% Effective 47% Ineffective 3% Don't Know 10% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Increase the Number of Productive Members in Our Community. INTEGRATE SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT WITH PARTICIPANT ACCOUNTABILITY AND ENHANCED SUPERVISION WITH CONTINUED JUDICIAL MONITORING Twenty-nine percent (29%) of stakeholders saw increasing the number of productive members in the community, as the primary goal of the DUI Court. These respondents were then asked to rate the success of the DUI Court in achieving this goal on a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 is Not at all Effective and 7 is Very Effective. The average rating was The program is a positive change in lifestyle for the participants and their family. It truly makes participants realize that they cannot continue to let their addiction control them. Because when they are controlled by an addiction, they are a danger to themselves and others. The team itself is strong in its commitment to the program and to the community. 8

10 Provide Access to a Continuum of Alcohol, Drug and Other Related Treatment and Rehabilitation Services. Ease in Accessing Treatment and Rehabilitation Services? 3.0% 23.0% 28.0% Very Easy Easy Difficult Very Difficult 46.0% Monitor by Frequent Alcohol and Other Drug Testing Utilizing Current Technologies that Will Help Maintain Abstinence. Eighty-nine percent of program participants reported submitting to drug testing 1 2 times during the previous 30 day period. Seven percent stated that they had not been tested in the last 30 days. During that same time period 16 % of participants were visited at home. At the time of the survey, 8% wore an electronic monitoring device and 6% were currently under curfew. The lack of individual sessions do not allow clinicians to be as involved with the participants as we would like. Because we only see them in groups, some people do not get the attention they may need to make progress. 9

11 FEB'07 MAR'07 APR'07 MAY'07 JUN'07 JUL'07 AUG'07 SEP'07 OCT'07 NOV'07 DEC'07 JAN'08 FEB'08 MAR'08 APR'08 MAY'08 JUN'08 JUL'08 AUG'08 SEPT'08 OCT'08 NOV'08 DEC'08 A.L. Burruss Institute of Public Service and Research Implement Core Components to Each Phase of the Program Which Are Mandated For License Reinstatement. "Upon the conviction of a second DUI, such person may apply for and be issued an ignition interlock device limited driving permit at the end of 12 months after the suspension of the driver's license. To be eligible for an interlock permit the licensee must submit proof of completion of DUI alcohol or drug risk reduction program, clinical evaluation, enrollment in treatment or completion of treatment if required by evaluation and installation of an interlock device. At the end of such sixmonth ignition interlock device limited driving permit, driver may apply for reinstatement of driver's license upon payment of the proper fee." 3 The CCD program focuses on clinical evaluation and treatment (and is recognized as such by the State and DHS). A Phase IV requirement is that they must have completed Risk Reduction before going to Phase V Participants Eligible for re-licensure 3 Georgia Department of Driver Services 10

12 Of the program participants, 33% were licensed to drive in the state of Georgia at the time of the survey. Twenty-four percent (24%) reported prior convictions for driving without a license. Primary Form of Transportation 3% 28% Taxi Friend/Family Walk 4% Bicycle Own Vehicle 3% 62% Driving without a License 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Are there any risks to driving without a license? Have you received any education regarding the consequences of driving without a license? Yes No When asked to rate the risk of driving without a license on a scale of 1 to 10, where 1 is no risk at all and 10 is highly risky, program participants rated driving without a license 8.65 on average. A majority (59.7%) rated driving without a license a

13 GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT FOR ALL PARTICIPANTS WHO ARE ABLE TO WORK IN ORDER THAT THEY MAKE A FINANCIAL INVESTMENT IN THEIR TREATMENT PROGRAM. Employment Status of Program Participants 20.0% 5.0% 14.0% 61.0% Yes, Full Time Yes, Part Time No, unable to work No, but looking for work Income of Program Participants over $100,000 $75,000-$99,999 $50,000-$74,999 $25,000-$49,999 $15,000-$24,000 less than $14, % 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 12

14 EFFECTIVE CASE MANAGEMENT AND INCREASED ACCOUNTABILITY BASED ON A TEAM APPROACH INVOLVING THE JUDICIARY, PROSECUTOR, LAW ENFORCEMENT, TREATMENT, LOCAL BAR, DRUG COURT COORDINATOR AND PROBATION. Ninety percent (90%) of program participants agreed that the different professionals involved in DUI court worked together as a team to manage their cases. Ninety-one percent of the stakeholders agreed that the agencies involved in Drug Court worked together Very Well (74%) or Well (17%). How well do you think the agencies involved with Drug Court work together? 7.0% 2.0% 17.0% Very well Well Adequately Don't Know 74.0% SEEK INDEPENDENT EVALUATION OF THE OVERALL PROGRAM GOALS TO GAUGE THE PROGRAM S EFFECTIVENESS. I feel like the team has a united approach to the program. (It is ) very rare that there are disagreements over the direction of the program. When there are disagreements we are able to resolve issues quickly with compromise. When dealing with the participants, we try hard not to give mixed signals. There is a team concept with different specialties represented and an aggressive exchange of ideas 13

15 Appendix A Web Survey of Stakeholders

16 Cherokee County DUI Drug Court Provider's Survey 1) What role have you played in the DUI/Drug Treatment Court Program? Please provide your title and a short description of your duties, as they relate to the DUI/Drug Treatment Court Program Job Title: Short description of your duties: 2) Is your role in drug court different from your role in non-drug court processes? Yes No Not Sure 3) How is your role in drug court different from your role in non-drug court processes? 4) How long have you been involved in the drug court program? (enter 1 for less than 1 year) 5) What do you see as the primary goal of the DUI/Drug Treatment Court Program? Reduce the recidivism rate af DUl offenders Reduce the expense DUl offenses on the criminal justice system Reduce the time spent between arrest and sentencing DUI offenders Develop partnerships among drug courts, public agencies, and community based organizations that generate support and enhance overall program effectiveness Develop and maintain a coordinated system of sanctions and rewards to motivate and facilitate participant compliance Integrate substance abuse treatment with participant accountability and enhanced supervision with continued judicial monitoring Provide access to a continuum of alcohol, drug, and other related treatment and rehabilitation services Ability to monitor participants by frequent alcohol and other drug testing utilizing current technologies that will help maintain abstinence Reinstatement of participant's driver's license by inserting/implementing core components to each phase of the program Gainful employment for all participants who are able to work in order that they make a financial investment in their treatment program

17 6) You said that you see, answer from q5 inserted here as being the primary goal of the Drug Treatment Court Program. How successful do you think the program has been in achieving this goal? Please use a scale from 1-7, where 1 means not at all successful and 7 means very successful. 1 - Not at all successful Very successful 7) Who do you think benefits most from a program like this? The program participant The participant's family The judicial system The county The tax payor Other 8) What do you feel are some notable or unique characteristics of the Cherokee drug court? 9) How would you rate the overall effectiveness of the Drug Court team? Would you say the team is; Very effective, Effective, Ineffective, or Very ineffective? Very effective Effective Ineffective Very ineffective Don't know 10) Using the same scale, please rate the effectiveness of the following court functions... Very Very Don't Effective Effective Ineffective Ineffective Know Participant identification process Status conferences Drug screens Curriculum Sanctions and rewards

18 11) How often would you say that you have any communication with staff from other agencies involved in the drug court? Never Rarely Sometimes Frequently Very Often 12) What type of communication do you have? Staffing in a common physical location Staffing via conference call - information sharing - information gathering Telephone conversation - information sharing Telephone conversation - information gathering Business Meeting in a common physical location Business meeting via conference call Impromptu meeting with other member(s) - just running into someone in court, etc. Other 13) How would you rate the quality of that interaction? Very effective Effective Ineffective Very ineffective Don't know 14) How well do you feel the agencies involved in Drug Court work together? Very well Well Adequately Poorly Very poorly Don't know 15) How many hours in an average week do you spend on DUI/Drug Court activities? hours 16) On average, how many hours per week do you work? hours 17) In the previous question, you responded that you spend, an average of, answer to q16

19 inserted here hours per week on Drug Court duties. If you had to divide up the time you spend on DUI/Drug Court activities into the following categories, how many hours in an average week do you think you would put into each category? Please make sure the total is equal to answer to q16 inserted here DRUG COURT (attending court sessions, attending team meetings & planning meetings, preparing for court, and doing progress reports on participants) CASE MANAGEMENT (meeting with clients and making referrals, phone calls, answering questions, determining appropriate treatment, home visits, monitoring progress, contacting treatment providers, screenings and evaluations, assessments) TREATMENT SESSIONS (preparing for and conducting individual or group treatment sessions) DRUG TESTS (administering UAs and other drug tests) COORDINATION AND/OR SUPERVISION (writing grants, data management, doing reports for the state, supervising employees, program development, doing the budget, billings and invoices, coordinating the courts, trainings) OTHER DUTIES AS ASSIGNED (duites that you perform on a fairly regular basis that are not, however, mentioned above) hrs. 18) If you entered a number in the "OTHER" category above, please list those duties here: 19) Did you receive any training, specifically related to your involvement with the program. Yes No Not Sure 20) What kind of training have you received related to drug courts? Drug Court Planning Initiative Training Program National Association of Drug Court Professionals Conferences Other 21) How often do you receive training for you Drug Court duties? Just once when I took the position Once a year 2 to 4 times a year More than 4 times a year

20 22) Are there any issues (idiosyncratic problems) that you have found at your particular part of the drug court process? Yes No Not Sure 23) Please explain any issues you have in your particular part of the Drug Court process. 24) In your opinion, what are the strengths of this program? 25) In your opinion, what are the weaknesses of this program? 26) In your opinion, what are the major accomplishments of this program? 27) In your opinion, what are the major challenges to meeting the goals of this program? 28) What changes would you make to improve this program? 29) Are there any other suggestions or information you would like to provide about this program?

21 Appendix B Paper and Pencil Survey of Participants

22 Cherokee County DUI/Drug Court Evaluation- Client Survey 1. What is the most helpful aspect of the DUI court? (mark only 1 item) Counseling Court sessions Sanctions & incentives 12-step meetings Alcohol/drug testing Probation Monitoring (SCRAM) Other specify 2. What is the least helpful aspect of the DUI court? (mark only 1 item) Counseling Court sessions Sanctions & incentives 12-step meetings Alcohol/drug testing Probation Monitoring (SCRAM) Other specify 3. What suggestions do you have that would make the DUI court a better program? 4. Are/were there any obstacles to you successfully completing the drug court program? No (Go to question #5) Yes Please use this space to tell us what obstacles you encountered. 5. Why did you decide to participate in drug court? 6. What stage/phase of the program are you in currently? Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Phase V 7. How were you treated by the drug court staff? Very well Well Poorly Very Poorly 8. How were you treated by the treatment providers? Very well Well Poorly Very Poorly

23 9. How were you treated by the probation officers? Very well Well Poorly Very Poorly 10. Did you feel the different professionals involved in the DUI/DRUG Court worked together as a team to manage your case? Yes No 11. How effective were the following sanctions on your compliance with the program? Jail time Community service work Admonishment by the court Curfew Additional time on alcohol monitor Additional 12-step meetings Probation hearing Increased testing Very Effective Effective Ineffective Very Ineffective DK/NA 12. How effective were the following as a reward in motivating you to comply with the program? Very Very Effective Effective Ineffective Ineffective Gift certificates Early dismissal from court Waiver of second court session Being allowed to travel Recognition by the judge Recognition by fellow participants DK/NA 13. How easy was it to access treatment and rehabilitation services? Very easy Easy Difficult Very Difficult 14. In the last 30 days, how many times were you required to submit to alcohol/drug testing? times 15. How many times were you visited at home? times 16. Are you required to wear any electronic drug/alcohol monitoring device? Yes No 17. Are you currently under a curfew? Yes No

24 18. Are you currently licensed to drive in the state of Georgia? Yes No 19. Do you have any prior convictions for driving without a license? Yes No 20. What is your primary form of transportation? Taxi Friend/family Walk Bike Other 21. As part of the program, have you received any education regarding the legal consequences of driving without a license? Yes No 22. Are there any risks to driving without a license? No (Go to question #23) Yes, Please use this space to tell us what the risks are. 23. On a scale of 1 to 10, where 1 is no risk at all and 10 is highly risky, how risky is it to drive without a license? Are you currently employed? Yes, Full Time Yes, Part-Time No, unable to work No, but are looking for work No, not looking for work 25. What is your marital status? Single Married Living with Partner Divorced/Separated Widowed 26. Do you have any children? Yes No

25 27. What year were you born? Are you male or female? Male Female 29. What was your total household income in 2008? Less than $14,999 $15,000 - $24, 999 $25,000 - $49, 999 $50,000 - $74, 999 $75,000 - $100,000 Over $100, What is the highest level of education that you have completed? Less than a high school graduate High school graduate, GED Some college, Associate's degree College graduate, Bachelor's degree Some Graduate School Professional or Graduate degree Thank you very much for your participation. Please return the completed survey to the person at the front of the room. We wish you good luck and much success in the program.

26 Appendix C Frequencies for Web Survey of Professionals

27 Is your role in drug court different from your role in non-drug court processes? Frequency Valid Valid Yes No Not Sure Total How long have you been involved in the drug court program? Frequency Valid Valid Total Missing System Total What do you see as the primary goal of the DUI/Drug Treatment Court Program? Frequency Valid Valid Reduce the recidivism rate af DUl offenders Develop and maintain a coordinated system of sanctions and rewards to motivate and facilitate participant compliance Integrate substance abuse treatment with participant accountability and enhanced supervision with continued judicial monitoring Ability to monitor participants by frequent alcohol and other drug testing utilizing current technologies that will help maintain abstinence Total

28 You said that you see, as being the primary goal of the Drug Treatment Court Program. How successful do you think the program has been in achieving this goal? Please use a scale from 1-7, where 1 means not at all successful and 7 means very successful Frequency Valid Valid Very successful Total Who do you think benefits most from a program like this? Frequency Valid Valid Other The program participant The participant's family The judicial system The community The tax payor Total How would you rate the overall effectiveness of the Drug Court team? Would you say the team is; Very effective, Effective, Ineffective, or Very ineffective? Frequency Valid Valid Very effective Effective Total Participant identification process Frequency Valid Valid Very Effective Effective Ineffective Don't Know Total

29 Status conferences Frequency Valid Valid Very Effective Effective Don't Know Total Drug screens Frequency Valid Valid Very Effective Effective Ineffective Don't Know Total Missing System Total Curriculum Frequency Valid Valid Very Effective Effective Don't Know Total Sanctions and rewards Frequency Valid Valid Very Effective Effective Ineffective Don't Know Total Missing System 1 2.4

30 Sanctions and rewards Frequency Valid Valid Very Effective Effective Ineffective Don't Know Total Missing System Total How often would you say that you have any communication with staff from other agencies involved in the drug court? Frequency Valid Valid Never Rarely Sometimes Frequently Very Often Total What type of communication do you have? : Staffing in a common physical location Frequency Valid Valid No Yes Total What type of communication do you have? : Staffing via conference call Frequency Valid Valid No Yes Total

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