D anish Road Traffic Accidents Investigation Board. Motorcycle Accidents

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1 D anish Road Traffic Accidents Investigation Board Motorcycle Accidents Report no. 6, 2009

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3 D anish Road Traffic Accident Investigation Board Motorcycle Accidents Report no. 6, 2009 Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 1

4 DANISH ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION BOARD The purpose of the Danish Road Traffic Accident Investigation Board is to increase knowledge of traffic accidents. This new knowledge will be used to improve traffic safety. AIB is a multidisciplinary group performing thorough investigations of frequent and serious accident types. To gain a more precise picture of the underlying factors, the conditions of every accident are investigated. AIB s analyses are based on material from the Police, car inspectors, road authorities, hospitals/ A&E s and forensic institutes. The material is supplemented by AIB s own investigations of the implicated vehicles, the accident site and interviews with the parties and witnesses. In special circumstances the police, rescue personnel and relatives are interviewed. AIB s knowledge of actual accident types will aid the responsible institutions and the authorities in reducing traffic accidents. It is not our purpose to apportion responsibility in a legal sense. AIB has previously analysed and published reports on the following accident types: Single vehicle accidents with motorists under 25 Accidents on motorways Accidents involving large delivery vehicles Accidents involving right turning trucks and cyclists cycling forward Crossroad accidents between bicycles and cars 541 TRYKSAG 473 Title: Published: Photo: Layout: Copyright: Circulation: Printer: ISSN: Net-ISSN: ISBN: Net-ISBN: Motorcycle accidents 2009 Christoffer Askman, Christoffer Askman Photograhphy Ole Søndergaard Danish Road Traffic Accident Investigation Board 1500 copies, 1st edition Nofoprint Reprinting of extracts with the permission of source 2 Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS

5 PREFACE Danish Road Traffic Accident Investigation Board (AIB) has now completed its sixth investigation. The theme is "Motorcycle Accidents". This theme was chosen because motor cycle accidents represent a growing traffic safety problem. AIB s primary target group is the boards, authorities and organisations working with traffic safety, while the media will support the dissemination of the results. With the increasing interest in procuring and using motorcycles, AIB expects a dialogue with motorcyclists on the prevention of motorcycle accidents. AIB has received a lot of cooperation from all parties in collecting information for use in the analysis of accidents. Permission to interview the people involved in, and witnesses to accidents has been a significant boon to the work of the commission. In several cases, we have also been helped by the relatives of dead motorcyclists. AIB is very grateful for these very significant contributions to our investigations. The commission is also very grateful for the positive cooperation received from a range of organisations and authorities, especially the Police, car inspectors, road authorities, ambulance services and hospitals. We have also received a lot of help collecting supplementary knowledge, conducting trials and performing counts. In this we have received help from motorcycle organisations, the Police s motorcycle experts, Jyllandsringen race track, importers and distributors of motorcycles and motorcycle equipment, The Danish Road Safety Council, and the Road Directorate s Traffic Division. We are grateful for the large interest in our work. Sven Krarup Nielsen Chairman for the Danish Road Traffic Accident Investigation Board Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 3

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7 D anish Road Traffic Accident Investigation Board AIB MEMBERS The commission s members Chairman, Sven Krarup Nielsen; The Road Directorate Deputy secretarial manager, Civil engineer Lars Klit Reiff; Road Directorate Vice Police Commissioner Ib Jensen, National Danish Police, National Traffic Centre Deputy, Vice Police Commissioner Poul Andersen, National Danish Police, National Traffic Centre Psychologist Gitte Carstensen, DTU Transport Institute Deputy, psychologist Lotte Larsen, DTU Transport Institute Car inspector Victor Hollnagel, Denmark s Road Safety and Transport Agency Deputy, car inspector Peter Dyrelund, Denmark s Road Safety and Transport Agency Car inspector Palle Kofoed, National Danish Police, National Traffic Centre. Deputy, Peder Kjærgaard, National Danish Police, Police division, National Traffic Centre until September 2008 Deputy Erling Vestergaard Jensen, National Danish Police, Police division, National Traffic Centre until September 2008 Chief physician Lars Binderup Larsen, Odense University hospital, Accident Analysis Group Psychologist Tanja Legind Rendsvig, Road Directorate. Civil engineer Marlene Rishøj Kjær, Road Directorate Deputy, civil engineer Winnie Hansen, Road Directorate Secretariat Secretarial manager, Civil engineer Lars Klit Reiff, Road Directorate Secretary Bo Mikkelsen, Road Directorate until June 2009 Secretary Henriette Ussing, Road Directorate from August 2009 Technical assistant Annie Knudsen, Road Directorate Consultant, bachelor of engineering Thomas Wind, DanCrash Consultant, civil engineer Henrik Værø, Trafiktastatoriet Consultant, psychologist Pete Kines Assistant, psychology student Shereen Horami Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 5

8 CONTENTS Summary 9 1. Background The 41 analysed accidents Why do accidents happen - accident factors Accident factors and underlying factors related to the road user Accident factors related to roads and surroundings Accident factors related to vehicles Characteristics of the 4 consistent accident types How Do Injuries Occur Injury Factors Injury factors related to road users Injury factors related to roads and surroundings Injury factors related to vehicles Other Circumstances Of The 41 Accidents Road users The road and surroundings Vehicles Performance of safety equipment The effect of safety equipment on motorcycles The effect of personal safety equipment Did we find what we expected Recommendations 75 Appendices 80 A AIB S working procedures 81 B AIB S analysis methods 87 C Data Basis 95 D Extra counts and measurements 111 E Provisions 115 F Accident, injury and underlying factors Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS

9 Overview of the location of the consistent accident types Accident type 1 24 Motorcyclist crashes in a curve Accident type 2 32 The overtaking motorcyclist collides with a left-turning motorist Accident type 3 38 The motorcyclist collides with an on-coming, left-turning car Accident type 4 48 Motorcyclists driving forward collide with motorists from a side road Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 7

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11 SUMMARY For its sixth theme, AIB has investigated motorcycle accidents. The reason for choosing this theme is the increasing number of motorcycle accidents: For many years until 2004, motorcyclists made up 5-6% of all deaths and serious injuries on our roads. This changed from 2005 and in 2007, motorcyclists made up 9% of all deaths and serious injuries. This figure must be seen in light of the fact that motorcyclists share of total road traffic is a lot less than 9%. The many serious motorcycle accidents in 2007 attracted a lot of media coverage, and many reasons were suggested. As there were no newer recent Danish investigations in the field, there was a need for an investigation which could highlight the reasons for the accidents, and establish a starting point for a goal orientated initiative for motorcyclists safety. The 41 accidents AIB has investigated 41 motorcycle accidents. In 30 cases, the accident involved another party, typically a passenger car. The remaining 11 were single vehicle accidents. In the accidents, 14 of the motorcyclists were killed, 9 were seriously injured and 18 were moderately or slightly injured. There were pillion passengers in 6 of the accidents. All 6 were injured; 3 seriously. In only one case was the other party killed, otherwise the other party was generally unhurt or only suffered a minor injury. In all of the accidents, there was at least one road user related accident factor, i.e. all of the accidents could have been avoided with more careful traffic behaviour. In approximately 1/3 of the accidents involving another party, the accident factor belonged to the motorcyclist; in 1/3, it was the second party and in 1/3 both the motorcyclist and second party were responsible. In 10 of the accidents, there was also an accident factor related to the road or surroundings, and in 5 accidents, the accident factor was related to one or both of the vehicles. The age distribution for the motorcyclists in the investigated accidents roughly reflects the age distribution of the accident statistics with an age dispersion of 19 to 69. Common to the 41 accidents was that by far the majority of motorcyclists were men and they were enjoying a hobby or pleasure trips. Often the ride itself was partly or wholly the reason for the trip. Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 9

12 AIB s recommendations From an analysis of the 41 motorcycle accidents AIB has put forward a range of recommendations aimed at road users and various authorities. For each of the recommendations, a summary of which investigation results they primarily arise from is provided. Overall, AIB s analysis shows that it was very much the behaviour of road users which caused the 41 accidents. The roads and vehicles were less complicit in the accidents. The current general experience is that it is much harder to change the behaviour of road users than the design of roads and vehicles. In the weighting of the recommendations, as much weight must be put on carrying out those related to roads and vehicles, as there is guaranteed benefits to be gained in the form of fewer and less injurious accidents. Motorcyclists can themselves contribute to traffic safety AIB recommends campaigns aimed at motorcyclists. Motorcyclists high speeds, possible over-acceleration and their reduced visibility in traffic means they must be especially aware of other road users. From a driving technique perspective, it is important the motorcyclist knows their limits and participates in a technical driving course. Protective clothing with luminescent colours can have a huge affect on the motorcyclist s safety. The background to the recommendations In 19 of the 30 multi-party accidents, one accident factor was that the other party was not sufficiently aware and overlooked the motorcyclist. But in half of these cases, where a motorcyclist was not seen, the motorcyclist s speed was higher than the speed limit, and the excessive speed was an accident factor. Respect for the speed limit and more conspicuous clothing with luminescent colours would have ensured that the other party would have seen the motorcyclist in time. Excessive speed was the dominating accident factor for motorcyclists. Approximately half of the 41 accidents could have been avoided if the motorcyclists had adapted their speed. In nine of the accidents, the motorcyclist wrongly interpreting the situation was an accident factor; typically the motorcyclist misread the road s course or condition, or misread the intentions of other road users. In 10 cases, a wrong manoeuvre or reaction by the motorcyclist was an accident factor. Usually this involved an incorrect braking manoeuvre: In 3 of the cases, the accident could have been avoided if the motorcyclist s braking technique had been good enough. In another 4 cases, braking in a curve was an accident factor. Every fourth accident happened on a curve, and typically the motorcyclist s driving behaviour, e.g. turning technique, braking and awareness contributed to the accident. 10 Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS

13 Many of the motorcyclists had sought smaller roads with sharp bends and thereby greater driving challenges, over larger roads of a better standard. The sharp curves gave some of the motorcyclists problems, especially where the acuteness of the curves came as a surprise. With the exception of 3, all motorcyclists in the 41 accidents wore a crash helmet. AIB has concluded that the helmet reduced head injuries for half of the motorcyclists who used a crash helmet. In 2 of the 3 cases where a helmet wasn t worn, the helmet would have reduced injuries. In one case the motorcyclist would have survived. AIB has also assessed the injury reducing effects of protective clothing, motorcycle boots and gloves. The main conclusion is that in many cases, protective equipment prevents injuries, but not against the more serious injuries. The second party can contribute to motorcyclists safety AIB recommends campaigns focusing on motorcyclists being more easily seen and encouraging road users to be more observant, especially at crossroads and curves. Focus must be placed on safety in relation to driving with trailers. The background to the recommendations Insufficient awareness was the dominating accident factor for the second party. If the second party had made himself sufficiently aware, 19 of the 30 multi-party accidents could have been avoided. Typically these second parties had a duty to give way, either due to road marking or manoeuvring. However, insufficient awareness was also a factor for 11 of the motorcyclists. Many of the accidents happened while the motorcyclist overtook a car which then made a left turn. In these accidents the second party s rear awareness was inadequate. The second party apparently did not consider the presence of motorcyclists. In two of the accidents, the second party's trailer was an accident factor. Increased policing will ensure more motorcyclists observe the traffic laws AIB recommends the Police increase their patrols on the less busy roads where motorcyclists often choose to ride. The focus must be on speed, drink-driving and checking of driving licences. The background to the recommendations As mentioned before, excessive speed is the dominating accident factor for motorcyclists. Risk taking while driving (11 cases) was the underlying explanation for this accident factor. In 7 other cases, alcohol was the underlying explanation for the accident factors for motorcyclists. There were also 7 motorcyclists who did not have valid driving licences for a motorcycle. Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 11

14 Safer roads can prevent accidents and make accidents less serious AIB recommends roads are designed to take account of the special conditions which affect the safety of motorcyclists. High edges and fixed objects in the in the safety zone, e.g. trees and abrupt endings of ditches, must be avoided. The road s design and markings must help the motorcyclist determine the road s course and any possible risks. The background to the recommendations In every fourth accident, the conditions on the road or its surroundings were an accident factor. This was mostly due to a lack of maintenance, e.g. high verges and poor asphalt bonding agent, and inconsiderate design of roads, e.g. high verges, limited overview and insufficient markings and signage so that the road s course surprises road users. In a range of other accidents, where the road or its surroundings were not accident factors, better road design would have been an advantage. The problems consist of road design and course which are difficult for the road user to interpret, from which unexpected situations arise. Accidents in such places are often, but not always, related to the motorcyclist driving at the edge of their capabilities. Many of the accidents occurred when the second party turned left. Very often the motorcyclist did not notice that the second party intended to turn. These accidents typically occur on three lane crossings with a duty to give way, and often there was a minor side road which could be easily overlooked from the main road used by the motorcyclist and second party. Many of the accidents where the motorcyclist attempted to overtake the person turning left could have been prevented by a left turning lane. In 5 of the accidents, the road or its surroundings exacerbated the personal injuries. In all 5 accidents the motorcyclists drove off the road and into a fixed object or into a ditch with steep sides. New technical requirements must be introduced for motorcycles Better brakes must be promoted and legislation must be introduced so that motorcycles must use more powerful headlights during the day. This should then be made a requirement. Moreover, AIB recommends automatic speed limiters, alcohol locks for motorcycles and electronic motorcycle driving licence which will prevent people driving without a valid driving licence. The background to the recommendations Only 2 of the motorcycles in the 41 accidents had ABS brakes. As a significant percentage of the motorcyclists were not competent in braking techniques without ABS, AIB concludes that ABS brakes offer a large potential for increased safety. In many cases, incorrect braking technique among motorcyclists led to the collision speed being higher than necessary and personal injuries thereby increased. 12 Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS

15 Through supplementary investigations of the consequences of lighting for motorcyclists visibility, AIB has concluded that it will increase visibility if motorcyclists drive with more powerful headlights during the day. As mentioned before, excessive speed is the dominating accident factor for motorcyclists. Approximately half of the 41 accidents could have been avoided if the motorcyclists had adapted their speed. As mentioned, in 7 cases alcohol was the underlying explanation for the accident factors related to the motorcyclist. As mentioned, 7 of the motorcyclists did not hold a valid motorcycle driving licence. What we did not find Middle aged and young motorcyclists An often suggested explanation for the rise in motorcycle accidents is the number of middle-aged men with increased financial means buying motorcycles. These motorcyclists are supposedly in more traffic accidents as they are inexperienced or their motorcycling experience is from many years previously. Another presumption is that young men with no motorcycling experience are often involved in traffic accidents. Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 13

16 The middle aged motorcyclists in the accidents analysed were often experienced. Inexperienced, middle aged motorcyclists were found but did not pose a problem. Moreover, they shared no common traits, either in relation to accident types or factors. The same applied to the inexperienced motorcyclists under 25. Confusing a motorcycle with a slower vehicle An often mentioned explanation for motorcycle accidents is that the motorcycle is confused with a moped or similar and its speed misjudged. In only one accident had the second party confused the motorcycle with a slower two-wheeled vehicle. Roads with sporadically reduced grip In the debate of motorcycle driving, it is often suggested that sporadically reduced friction can cause accidents, e.g. gravel on the driving surface. In only 2 of the cases was the motorcyclist driving on roads with sporadically reduced friction. In both cases, AIB has concluded that the motorcyclist could have continued their journey unchanged and proceeded without any problem. The accidents were as a result of the motorcyclists reaction to the changed friction. Traffic safety and guard rails It is also suggested that guard rails are designed for cars and heavier vehicles, and can be less safe for vehicles which can be regarded as soft road users. In none of the 41 accidents AIB analysed were the guard rails considered a danger to motorcyclists safety. In 2 cases, the motorcyclist came into contact with the guard rails which did not add to their injuries. 14 Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS

17 Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 15

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19 1. BACKGROUND Danish Road Traffic Accident Investigation Board has, for its sixth theme analysis, analysed motorcycle accidents. There are several reasons why AIB focused on motorcycle accidents in 2008: For many years until 2004, motorcyclists made up 5-6% of all deaths and serious injuries on our roads. Motorcycle accidents followed the general fall in the number of accidents. This changed from 2005, and in 2007 the accident numbers for motorcycles was at the same level as 10 years earlier. The number of motorcyclists killed or seriously injured made up 9% of all traffic deaths and serious injuries. The many serious motorcycle accidents in 2007 attracted a lot of media coverage, and many reasons were suggested. As there were no newer recent Danish investigations in the field, there was a need for an investigation which could highlight the reasons for the accidents, and establish a starting point for a goal orientated initiative for motorcyclists safety. The development in the numbers of motorcyclists killed or seriously injured is illustrated in figure Figure 1.1: The development in the numbers of motorcyclists killed or seriously injured from It can be seen from the diagram that serious personal injuries among motorcyclists generally fell from In the later years, an upward trend can be seen in the number of motorcyclist deaths or serious injuries. There are no safe figures for how many kilometres are driven on motorcycles annually. But there is a lot of evidence that the amount of motorcycle traffic has increased in the last few years and probably at a higher rate than the number of accidents. It can therefore be argued that each kilometre driven on a motorcycle has become safer. But at the same time, the growing number of motorcyclists is an argument for focusing on the safety of motorcyclists. It can also be safely stated that motorcyclists' share of the dead and injured is much Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 17

20 larger than their share of road traffic. And that motorcycling therefore involves a significantly higher risk than driving a car. 1 Motorcycle accidents background memorandum. AIB, September (see hvu.dk). In September 2008, AIB published a background memorandum on motorcycle accident 1. You can read more statistics on motorcycle accidents and accident development here. You can also find a range of information related to motorcycling and safety on the website. Experiences abroad It is not only Denmark which has seen a rise in motorcycle accidents. This is a development seen in many countries. Several investigations have been carried out abroad. The one most referred to in Europe is the MAIDS project, in which more than 900 accidents involving motorcycles and mopeds were analysed (www.maids-study.eu). The project was commissioned by the European motorcycle industry with the support of the EU Commission. AIB has decided that the results, for several reasons are not directly relevant to Denmark. This is due to an apparently different motorcycle culture; 40% of the motorcycles are large scooters, and the results do not differentiate between motorcycle and moped accidents. There are also significant differences in methods used, in that the MAIDS investigation operates with one primary factor/cause for each accident. It is AIB s experience that there are often several corollary factors which can explain the accident s cause. And analysing the accident from this angle has a big impact on the results. To gain input to the analysis, AIB has, during the investigation period, participated in international conferences on motorcycle accidents. AIB has tried to keep itself updated on and inspired by foreign research. Currently, it is outside of the framework of this investigation to detail the foreign results. Preparation and supplementary investigations As preparation for the investigation, AIB has tried to gain an insight into the motorcycle world. Meetings have been held with representatives from MC Touring Club Denmark, and AIB has participated in a driving course and a motorcycle exhibition and studied the motorcycle clothes and other safety equipment on the market. AIB s general work procedures and investigative methods are described in appendices A and B. For the motorcycle theme, AIB s normal investigative methods have been supplemented by other types of investigation: In connection with the motorcycle exhibition in Herning in 2008, AIB performed a crash test of motorcycles against cars as well as roll testing of motorcycles. The aim was to relate the recorded injuries to the collision, e.g. collision speed. AIB has tested motorcycle visibility depending on lighting and tested curving with differing levels of friction. 18 Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS

21 At all accident screens, AIB has measured the friction with a motorcycle. The aim was to establish whether there was a problem with the road s friction, either generally reduced friction or sporadically reduced friction. All accidents have been investigated for the protection of motorcycle clothes and also for any possible effects of technical improvements to motorcycles, e.g. ABS brakes, protective bars etc. As a supplement to the investigation of protective clothing, AIB has investigated motorcyclists use of helmets and high-visibility vests. Data material In total, AIB has investigated 41 motorcycle accidents which occurred between March and July This includes accidents where at least one of the involved died or was brought to hospital. The investigation was performed in a demarcated geographic area. In this period, the police registered a total of 84 accidents of the same type in the same area, and AIB has investigated almost half of the police-registered accidents. AIB has investigated all of the accidents the police have notified us of. AIB has contacted the road users, passengers and witnesses involved and in certain cases, the relatives and requested permission to interview them. The majority have chosen to be interviewed. A total of 139 persons were contacted and 121 have been interviewed. Of the 41 motorcycle victims, 14 died. Of the 30 second parties, 1 died. None of the passengers of the motorcyclists or second parties died. Of the 71 drivers involved, 37 were tested for alcohol; 22 by blood testing and 15 by breathalyser. AIB has previously had blood tests screened for drugs and medicine by the forensic institutes. Unfortunately this has not been possible in this investigation. In none of the motorcycle accidents have the Police requested a screening for drugs and medicine. Of the 14 motorcyclists killed, approximately half were subjected to an autopsy. The autopsies gave precise knowledge of the injury s type and scope, which is significant information when AIB must ascertain the specific circumstances which caused death. There were a total of 73 vehicles involved in the accidents, including 1 bicycle and 2 trailers. All vehicles were investigated by a car inspector, and the Police s car inspector produced a statement for 64 of the vehicles. These are part of AIB's analysis. Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 19

22 20 Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS

23 2. THE 41 ANALYSED ACCIDENTS This chapter contains a short introduction to the 41 motorcycle accidents the analysis is based upon. The information presented gives a broad picture of the analysed motorcycle accidents, but the accidents are too few to constitute long-lasting statistical results. For more detailed data on the accidents, refer to appendix C, which contains the base data for the analysis. The accidents Half of the accidents occurred at the weekend, and the majority occurred in the afternoon of early in the evening. Almost all accidents occurred in good weather and in daylight. The majority of the accidents occurred in rural areas, while only one in four accidents occurred in an urban setting. In total, 16 of the accidents occurred at a crossroads. In 7 cases, the accident occurred in connection with entry or exit driving, and in 18 cases, the accident occurred on straights. In total, 11 of the accidents occurred in a curve. In total, 4 of the 5 accidents occurred on municipal roads while the remainder occurred on the national road network. Of the 41 accidents, 11 were solo accidents, and 30 involved a second party. The vast majority of second parties were passenger cars. The motorcyclists The 41 motorcyclists involved were between 19 and 69, and the average age was 38. Only 5 of them were under 24, while almost half were 40 or above. Of the 41 motorcyclists, 3 were women. A total of 14 motorcyclists were killed, 9 were seriously injured, 12 moderately injured and 6 slightly injured. There were pillion passengers in 6 of the accidents. All 6 pillion passengers were injured; 3 seriously. The second parties The 30 second parties in the motorcycle accidents were between 20 and 81. The average age was 48. One fifth of them were 67 years or older. Of the second parties, 18 were men and 12 were women. One of the second parties was killed and 3 were slightly injured. Vehicles 22 of the 30 second parties were passenger cars, 5 were delivery vehicles, 2 were trucks and one was a bicycle. Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS 21

24 Of the 41 motorcycles involved, 40 were "correct" motorcycles of general construction. The last one was of a type which could not be approved for driving according to road traffic regulations. Only 3 motorcycles could be driven by a rider with a "restricted" driving licence and all had an output of 25kW or below. Consistent accident types Through its analysis of accidents AIB has encountered 4 consistent accident types. These are: Motorcyclist crashes in a curve This was either a solo accident where the motorcyclist left the road, or an accident where the motorcyclists collided with a second party in a curve. This accident type covers a total of 11 accidents. The overtaking motorcyclist collides with a left-turning motorist In this accident type, the motorcyclist was overtaking the second party when they swung to the left (in front of the motorcyclists). This accident type covers a total of 8 accidents. The motorcyclist collides with an on-coming, left turning car In these situations, a second party turned left in front of the motorcyclist approaching from the opposite direction. This accident type consists of 6 accidents. Forward driving motorcyclists collide with a car coming from a side road In this type of accident, a second-party turned from a side road in front of a motorcyclist approaching from the opposite direction. This accident type consists of 6 accidents. In total, 31 accidents are thus covered by the 4 accident types, while 10 accidents cannot be included in these types Accidents outside the 4 types above are solo accidents where the motorcyclist has fallen on a straight road or an accident involving a trailer. The 4 accident types are exemplified by small illustrated stories in the following chapters (see pages 24, 32, 38 and 48) 22 Theme report MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS

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