1 World Class Water Chemistry By Accident? BRO Chemistry Session 8/5/2014
2 From Safe by Accident? by Judy Agnew & Aubrey Daniels Despite decades of reduction in safety related deaths and injuries on the job, catastrophic accidents appear to be on the rise. In the last ten years, there have been at least nine industrial accidents that resulted in more than 125 deaths.
3 From Safe by Accident? by Judy Agnew & Aubrey Daniels BP s Deepwater Horizon offshore oil rig operated for seven consecutive years without a single lost time incident or major environmental event. By these measures they were safe. Safe by Accident?
4 Supposedly World Class Stuff? We benchmark numbers going down each year No blade failures due to water chemistry No single phase FAC catastrophic failures Water Chemistry Related Boiler tube failures trending downward We have required cycle chemistry instrumentation We have training We have management support We measure carryover quarterly We conduct complete cation and anion analysis of cycle, stator systems, water plant quarterly We have boiler water chloride analyzers etc., etc., etc.
5 Last 36 months Operator not tripping unit when ph was below 7.0 Operator not tripping unit when boiler water chlorides were 30,000 ppb Open turbines and see deposition. Post chemical cleaning tube samples indicate unit not successfully chemical cleaned. Operator not tripping unit when boiler water chlorides were 15,000 ppb Tube deposit weight of over 70 g/ft2 Replacement of approximately 120 tubes due to severe pitting.
6 Assessment Is AEP s cycle water chemistry program world class by accident? We have everything we need to be successful so how does events like this occur at AEP? Should we accept these events as unavoidable events that just periodically happen?
7 A New Concept Repeat Situations Cycle Chemistry Influenced BTF and HTF Can Be Directly Related to Repeat Situations in Cycle Chemistry 2010 Paper Authored by Dr. Barry Dooley, Kevin Shields, Steve Shulder Structural Integrity Associates Inc.
9 Unintended Messages Is your cycle water instrumentation all in alarm on startup? Do you tell operators to ignore because it is due to CO2? What is the unintended message you send operators with this approach? Starting up unit more important than chemistry? Don t believe online instrumentation?
10 The Reality of Life One Ahh (bleep) wipes out all Atta boys This concept is AEP s attempt to eliminate the Ahh (bleep) that we have every 5 to 7 years. You will leave this years BRO Forum with the tools you need to use this concept.
11 Breakdown of Repeat Situations World Class Water Chemistry By Accident?
12 High Levels of Corrosion Product Corrosion product indicates a non optimized corrosion program. It can indicate flow accelerated corrosion is occurring. Very small increases in corrosion product transport can be significant Water chemistry influenced boiler tube failures start with tube deposition.
13 Where Do You Think All This Corrosion Product Went?
14 Severe FAC
15 High Levels of Corrosion Product (Subcritical/HRSG) Are you running Millipore's on your unit? Are your Millipore's snow white? Are you maintaining proper cycle ph per your unit specific chemical operating specification? Are your Dolan Lab feedwater total irons less than 5 ppb (dissolved iron <0.5 ppb) for subcritical/hrsg units? Are your Dolan Lab steam drum total iron less than 5 ppb (dissolved iron <0.5 ppb)? Are dissolved iron results samples at same conditions?
16 High Levels of Corrosion Product (Supercritical ) Are you running Millipore's on your deaerator inlet, deaerator outlet, economizer inlet, and hp heater drain? Are your Millipore's on your deaerator inlet, deaerator outlet, economizer inlet, and hp heater drain snow white? Are you maintaining proper cycle ph per your unit specific chemical operating specification? Are your Dolan Lab deaerator inlet, deaerator outlet, economizer inlet and hp heater drain sample total iron less then 3 ppb and/or dissolved iron less than 0.5 ppb? Are dissolved iron samples at same conditions?
17 High Boiler /HP Evaporator Deposition Is an indication of non optimized corrosion control of the condensate/feedwater cycle. For a subcritical unit is part of the mechanism for underdeposit corrosion tube failures (hydrogen damage, caustic gouging, acid phosphate attack)
18 >70 g/ft2 deposits
19 >100 g/ft2 deposits
20 High Boiler /HP Evaporator Deposition Are you experiencing phosphate hideout? Do you have piles of iron in your steam drum when you inspect steam drum? Are you experiencing any active underdeposit corrosion tube failures?
21 High Steam Generator Deposition Are chemical cleaning tube samples deposit thickness less then 40 micron (1.57 mils) Are prechemical cleaning samples taken from recommended locations per circular letter CH-O-Cl-010B Chemical Cleaning of Supercritical Units Is depoit thickness being used to determine need to chemical clean instead of deposit weight? Are you experiencing any supercritical waterwall cracking tube failures driven by ID deposits? Is dissolved oxygen detected at the hp heaters, economizer inlet cation conductivity below 0.15 mmhos, and the unit pressurized for a minimum of 2 hours before booster pump ph is allowed to be lowered during OT conversion during startup? Is booster pump specific conductivity increased and deaerator vents opened prior to removal of unit from service?
22 Non-Optimum Chemical Cleaning Chemical cleaning is the method used to remove deposition in our boilers and steam generators. This is a key tool in reducing the risk of underdeposit boiler tube failures on subcritical units AEP has recently had chemical cleans recently that have not removed all deposition.
23 Over 100 Waterwall Tube Leaks
24 Non-Optimum Chemical Cleaning Has it been more than 5 years for a subcritical or combined cycle unit since your last chemical cleaning? Are you using the proper chemical cleaning solvent for the deposits needing to be removed and the metallurgy of the unit? Are you maintaining proper temperatures during circulation? Are you ensuring proper circulation during chemical cleaning? Are you circulating chemicals for the required time?
25 Contaminant Ingress The introduction of sodium, chlorides and sulfates into the cycle from various sources, the most common being condenser leaks is also key in all water chemistry related boiler tube and turbine blade failures. These contaminants damage the protective passive layer and initiates damage mechanism.
26 SCC - Chlorides
28 Contaminant Ingress Subcritical/HRSG Are you experiencing hydrogen damage tube failures? Are you seeing turbine deposition due to chlorides, sodium, sulfate or silica during turbine outages? Are you exceeding action levels during contaminant ingress events? Are you operating with a condenser leak? Are you operating with attemperation sprays during condenser leaks? Do you track the amount of time core cycle chemistry parameters are within or outside of limits?
29 Contaminant Ingress - Supercritical Are you seeing turbine deposition due to chlorides, sodium, sulfate or silica during turbine outages? Are you exceeding action levels during contaminant ingress events? Are you operating with a condenser leak? At anytime including during resin transfer during regeneration, are you unable to maintain 100 % cleanup when operating with a condenser leak? Do you track the amount of time core cycle chemistry parameters are within or outside of limits?
30 Drum Carryover For subcritical & combined cycle units, drum carryover due to mechanical issues inside the steam drum or drum level control problems allows for chlorides, sulfates, and sodium to enter the steam circuits. These contaminants can initiate pitting and stress corrosion cracking (stainless material) in reheaters and superheaters. They can also initiate pitting of turbine blades that can lead to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue turbine blade failures
32 Drum Carryover Are you participating in the Dolan Lab Sampling Program? Do you know your % drum carryover? Do you have a sodium or cation conductivity spike on your saturated steam sample when you start your phosphate or caustic pump? Do you have phosphate or caustic on turbine when you perform inspection? Are you experiencing significant drum level swings during operation?
33 High Levels of Air in Leakage For subcritical units that have copper or copper alloy metallurgy in the condensate and feedwater cycle, the copper corrosion rate of this material is orders of magnitude higher when dissolved oxygen is present. Copper corrosion will redeposit in the boiler, superheat and more troubling on the HP turbine blades.
34 Copper Deposition on HP Turbine
35 High Levels of Air in Leakage Do you know what your air in leakage rate is? Are air in leakage tests performed? Does air in leakage change when equipment (FW heaters, condensate pumps, etc.) is placed into or removed from service?
36 Lack of Shutdown Protection All water chemistry related boiler tube and turbine blade failures start with the damaging of the protective passive layer. This layer needs to be protected 24/7 365 days/year when the unit is operating and also when the unit is out of service. If the protective layer is not damaged water chemistry related equipment failures will not occur. Failure mechanisms like pitting, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue start with pits forming. These pits form when the unit is out of service. So if 99.99% of water chemistry related boiler tube and turbine blade issues are associate with condenser leaks, why do we not have a layup plan for the condenser?
37 Inadequate Shutdown Protection
38 Inadequate Shutdown Protection
39 Inadequate Shutdown Protection
40 Pitting and Stress Corrosion Cracking
42 Lack of Shutdown Protection Does a procedure exist that describes plant shutdown practices for layup protection of the unit? This includes condensate, feedwater, boiler, turbine, LP and HP drains. Is this procedure followed? Is dehumidification of the LP turbine being used on shutdown?
43 Inadequate On-Line and Alarmed Chemistry Instrumentation On-line instrumentation are our tools to inform operations that damaging conditions are present.
44 AEP Hydrogen Damage
45 Inadequate On-Line and Alarmed Chemistry Instrumentation Are required cycle chemistry instruments installed, trended and alarmed in control room? Do operators know how to respond to cycle chemistry alarms that initiate in control room? Are operators told to ignore certain alarms on startup? Is there a pm schedule to service and calibrate the instruments? Is the pm and calibration schedule being performed? Are operators decommissioning audible alarms because of unrealistic or unobtainable limits? Are cycle chemistry instruments removed from service because they are not working without another plan in place to monitor the parameter that is being compromised with the analyzer out of service?
46 Not Challenging the Status Quo One of the most damaging cultures to a water chemistry program is the that is the way we always have done it Or that plant is really screwed up that would never happen on my unit. Or repeat situations another Columbus boondoggle. They need to get a clue!!
47 If You Don t Look, This is What You Have
48 Not Challenging the Status Quo Subcritical/HRSG Will operators trip a unit on high steam sodium >24 ppb? Will operators trip unit on low boiler ph? Will operators remove subcritical from service when boiler water chlorides exceed 1000 ppb? Do we have a chemistry inspection plan during major outages to assess chemistry program success? Is the correct cycle chemistry being used? Do operators and/or chemists monitor unit chemistry and make changes prior to action levels Do chemist review and track Dolan Lab data? Are cycle samples taken and forwarded to Dolan Lab during upset conditions?
49 Not Challenging the Status Quo Supercritical Will operators trip a unit on high steam sodium >24 ppb? Will operators trip unit on low economizer inlet ph? Will operators remove unit from service when economizer inlet cation conductivity is 2 mmho for 5 minutes? Will operators remove unit from service when economizer inlet cation conductivity is 5 mmho for 2 minutes? Do we have a chemistry inspection plan during major outages to assess chemistry program success? Is the correct cycle chemistry being used? Do operators and/or chemists monitor unit chemistry and make changes prior to action levels Do chemist review and track Dolan Lab data? Are cycle samples taken and forwarded to Dolan Lab during upset conditions? Does the plant have a forum for communication with operators, maintenance, and performance on chemistry issues?
50 No Action Plan For the Above Repeat Situations Each repeat situation needs a tracking mechanism and action plan developed to remedy repeat situation. Are you operating with more than three repeat situations at the same time?
51 How Does Concept Work A 4 hour presentation is given to plant to introduce this concept. It is up to the plant to decide who attends this presentation, but it is recommended that it be a cross section of leadership, maintenance, operators and technicians (very similar to the BRO Team concept) After presentation, the lab team breaks away with the regional or central engineer and completes the repeat situation assessment.
52 How Does Concept Work There are two parts to the concept: Repeat Situation Assessment Daily Repeat Situation
53 Repeat Situation Assessment There are approximately 47 questions on the subcritical repeat situation checklist. There are approximately 43 questions on the supercritical repeat situation checklist. The assessment is completed by the lab (with help from central or regional engineering if required.)
54 Hoe Does Concept Work After assessment is complete and the ongoing repeat situations determined, the lab team presents the findings to the group that underwent the training. The group then votes on the on going repeat situations (similar to Lean) to determine which repeat situations will be addressed first. Team leads are assigned
55 How Does the Concept Work The daily repeat situations are the repeat situations that can change day to day. For instance you may not have a condenser leak today but you may have one tomorrow. When the leak occurs a repeat situation occurs Contaminant Ingress The lab team should be keeping track of the daily repeat situations. The goal is to keep from having three or more of the daily repeat situations occurring at the same time.
56 Daily Repeat Situations Are your Millipore's showing any color on your deaerator inlet, deaerator outlet, economizer inlet, or hp heater drain? Is cycle water ph operating outside required limits as defined in unit specific chemical operating specification? Are Dolan Lab deaerator inlet, deaerator outlet, economizer inlet and hp heater drains total iron (hot acid digestion) greater than 3 ppb and/or dissolved iron (acid soluble) greater than 0.5 ppb? Are chemical cleaning tube samples deposit thickness greater than 40 microns (1.57 mils)? Is conversion to OT on startup not following these minimum requirements: 1.) dissolved oxygen detected at the hp heaters prior to lowering cycle ph, 2.) economizer inlet cation conductivity below 0.15 mmho prior to closing deaerator vent. 3.) The unit pressurized for a minimum of 2 hours prior to closing deaerator vent?
57 Daily Repeat Situations Has it been more than 15 years since the unit has been chemical cleaned? Are you exceeding action levels during contaminate ingress events? Are you operating with a condenser tube leak? At any time including during resin transfer during regeneration, are you unable to maintain 100 % cleanup when operating with a condenser leak? Is layup shutdown procedure not being followed? Is dehumidification of the LP turbine not being used on shutdown? Is the pm and calibration schedule not being performed?
58 Daily Repeat Situations Are cycle chemistry instruments removed from service because they are not working without another plan in place to monitor the parameter that is being compromised with the analyzer out of service? Are there any standing cycle chemistry alarms in control room? Are you operating with more than three daily repeat situations at the same time?
CYCLE CHEMISTRY COMMISSIONING Otakar Jonas, P.E., Ph.D. Lee Machemer, P.E. Jonas, Inc. 1113 Faun Road Wilmington, DE 19803 USA Abstract This paper presents an outline of cycle chemistry commissioning guidelines
The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, December 2002. Copyright 2002 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes
APPLICATION NOTE STEAM GENERATION IN POWER PLANTS Application description Water quality within power plants is of critical importance in maintaining efficient operation and in limiting downtimes due to
Steam Turbine Operating Conditions, Chemistry of Condensates, and Environment Assisted Cracking A Critical Review Shengqi Zhou and Alan Turnbull May 2002 Date: May 2002 Steam Turbine Operating Conditions,
Page 1 of 64 1.0 PURPOSE BOILER SYSTEMS Two utility boilers are designed to supply 125,000 lbs/hr each of superheated steam to maintain the Super High Pressure Steam Header at 1500 psig. They are to be
Essentials for a Sound Boiler Water Treatment Program Presented by Steve Connor & Debbie Bloom April 23, 2014 Today s Topics Chemical Aspects The Necessity of Water Treatment Mechanical Aspects Essentials
Application Data Sheet ADS 4900-87/rev.B January 2009 Power Industry Inferred ph in Steam Plant Water Chemistry Monitoring INTRODUCTION Inferred ph means ph calculated from straight and cation conductivity.
Prevention of the Material Degradation of Boilers 4 th March, 2014 Hiroki Kimoto Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. Technical & Engineering Center 1 Outline Introduction What is FAC? Experience of FAC damage Damages
BOILER WATER TREATMENT AND RELATED COSTS OF BOILER OPERATION: AN EVALUATION OF BOILERS IN THE LOUISIANA SUGAR INDUSTRY James A. Cuddihy, Jr., Walter J. Simoneaux, Robert N. Falgout, and James S. Rauh Midland
Application Note Power Monitoring Steam Purity in Power Plants Part 1: Using Conductivity Utility operators have long known that contaminated steam can cause severe damage to the turbine, leading to lengthy
A DB RILEY TECHNICAL PUBLICATION CURRENT EXPERIENCE IN TYPICAL PROBLEMS AND FAILURES WITH BOILER PIPING COMPONENTS AND SUPPORTS by James P. King, Design Manager DB Riley, Inc. Presented at the 1998 ASME
Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection Publications Steam Boiler Technology ebook Espoo 2002 Feedwater and Steam System Components
Case History Report The Dolphin Nonchemical Device Boilers and Cooling Tower Device Evaluated "The Dolphin HYTRONIC Series 1000" pulsed power water treatment device (Dolphin) manufactured by Clearwater
OPERATING EXPERIENCE OF LARGE REHEAT HRSGs in MERCHANT SERVICE Peter S. Jackson, PE David S. Moelling, PE Frederick C. Anderson, PE James W. Malloy TETRA ENGINEERING GROUP TETRA ENGINEERING GROUP TETRA
BOILER WATER TREATMENT FOR KILN DRY OPERATIONS Technical Presentation IMPORTANT TOPICS PRETREATMENT TEMPERATURE VS OXYGEN FEED WATER / DA BOILER WATER CONDENSATE 1 Boiler Water Pretreatment Purpose - Statistically
Keeping corrosion at bay Analysis in ultra-supercritical power plants Corrosion is the natural enemy of steam-electric power plants, eating away at pipes, turbine blades, and rotors. The lack of a separation
High-Pressure Steam Cycle and Boiler Water Treatment High Pressure Boilers Pressure range 60-84 bar Critical needs High quality makeup water External pre-treatment through distillation and mechanical deaeration
Fisher Power Solutions Control valves engineered to improve your plant performance. 6 Fisher Power Solutions The Condensate System Condensate Pump Recirculation Valve As one of the most critical pieces
BASIC WATER TREATMENT OF STEAM BOILERS Steve Kenny and Dave Pope Chemco Water Technology Vancouver, WA This is a brief discussion on low-pressure steam boiler chemistry. It provides dry kiln boiler operators
Boiler Chemicals 101 The primary function of a boiler is to transfer heat from hot gases generated by the combustion of fuel into water until it becomes hot or turns to steam. The steam or hot water can
Introduction Trace Contamination Measurement Sodium/Silica Sodium and Silica Measurements Reduce Corrosion and Deposition Long-term efficient power generation requires careful surveillance to guard against
IMPLEMENTATION OF BOILER BEST PRACTICES Natalie R. Blake Market Development Manager Nalco Chemical Company Naperville, IL ABSTRACT Boilers are an essential part of any industrial plant, and their efficient,
Ion Exchange for Industrial Applications Ion Exchange Technologies Softening Ion exchange equipment the ion exchange process is an exchange of one ion for another, using a synthetic resin to perform the
P R E P R I N T ICPWS XV Berlin, September 8 11, 2008 The control of corrosive conditions caused by concentration of low-volatility solutes in boilers and steam generators Geoffrey J Bignold GJB Chemistry
Boiler Preparation, Start-Up and Shutdown Learning Outcome When you complete this module you will be able to: Describe the basic preparation of a boiler for start-up, and the start-up and shutdown procedures.
Technical Paper Boiler Chemistry Management Using Coordinated Approach of Chemicals, Membranes and Online Monitoring Authors: Rajendra Prasad Kalakodimi, Lead Technologist, and Mel J. Esmacher, Engineering
Routine and Emergency Boiler Operation Learning Outcome When you complete this module you will be able to: Describe the routine safe and efficient operation of a packaged boiler. Learning Objectives Here
Best Practices: The Engineering Approach for Industrial Boilers Natalie R. Blake, ONDEO Nalco ABSTRACT A plant s boilers represent a large capital investment, as well as a crucial portion of overall plant
AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOVERY BOILER SAFETY AUDIT GUIDELINES March 1990 Revised July 2004 Revised May 2012 893 McLean
Recovery Boiler Research Needs An Industry Perspective Andrew Jones International Paper 7th International Colloquium on Black Liquor Combustion and Gasification International Paper Recovery Operation Goals
Global Journal of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering ISSN: XXXX-XXXX Vol. 2 (1), pp. 1-1, January, 214. Global Science Research Journals Full Length Research Paper Corrosion-erosion on waste heat recovery
SHIPS HEAT GENERATION PLANT Boilers Water Treatment 2014.07.14 Pag 1-94 INDEX 1. Introduction 2. Boilers water treatment three factors 3. Boilers water fundamental knowledge 4. Ships heat generation plant
Standard Recommendations for Pressure Part Inspection During a Boiler Life Extension Program M.N. Hovinga G.J. Nakoneczny Babcock & Wilcox Barberton, Ohio, U.S.A. Presented to: ICOLM (International Conference
Care and Maintenance of Steam Systems February 2010 Brrr. It's been a cold winter so far. Good thing we've all got heating systems that take care of us and take care of themselves, right? Of course not.
Sample Questions REVISED FIRST CLASS PARTS A1, A2, AND A3 (NOTE: these questions are intended as representations of the style of questions that may appear on examinations. They are not intended as study
General Electric Systems Technology Manual Chapter 2.8 Reactor Water Cleanup System TABLE OF CONTENTS 2.8 REACTOR CLEANUP SYSTEM... 1 2.8.1 Introduction... 2 2.8.2 System Description... 2 2.8.3 Component
TheNationalBoardofBoilerandPressureVesselInspectors 1055CrupperAvenue Columbus,Ohio43229 614.888.8320 NB-410, Revision 3 Sept, 2015 1 1.0 GENERAL The purpose of this document is to provide basic guidelines
SUPER CRITICAL POWER GENERATION - EXPERIENCE, ISSUES AND FUTURE CHALLENGES A PRESENTATION BY: ASHOK SARKAR, NTPC KAHALGAON, B. Tech (Mech Engg.) M. Tech (PGT) / IIT, DELHI. MBA ( FH LU), CERT ENERGY AUDITOR
THE NEED FOR CONTROL Vecom Marine clean ships - clean seas BOILER WATER TREATMENT Whether distilled or raw (city) water is used for boiler make-up, chemical treatment is necessary to counteract harmful
SUGAR MILL BOILER CYCLE CHEMISTRY: AN UPDATE ON BEST PRACTICES By DAVID RODMAN Nalco Australia Pty Ltd, Townsville KEYWORDS: Sugar, Boiler, Water Chemistry, Deposit, Water Treatment. Abstract SUGAR mill
Portable leak detection instrument improves heat rate at electric power plant. By Terrence O'Hanlon, CMRP Reliabilityweb.com By using a ruggedized portable ultrasonic leak detector, Mr. Brian Thorp, PdM
Feedwater Heater Application of T-22 Tubing By Aziz Siman, Thermal Engineering International, Los Angeles, CA Joe Shelton, Southern Company Services, Birmingham, AL ABSTRACT ASME SA213 Type T-22 tubing
WATER WALL BOILER FOR AIR AND OXYGEN FIRED CLAUS SULPHUR RECOVERY UNITS Abstract Mahin RAMESHNI, P.E. Technical Director, Sulphur Technology Mahin.Rameshni@worleyparsons.com WorleyParsons 125 West Huntington
Operational Flexibility Enhancements of Combined Cycle Power Plants Dr. Norbert Henkel, Erich Schmid and Edwin Gobrecht Siemens AG, Energy Sector Germany POWER-GEN Asia 2008 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia October
Case Study: Depressed Feedwater ph By James McDonald, PE, CWT Originally Published: CSTN August 2002 A client was having an unusual problem in their boiler feedwater tank. The ph would get very low. The
s/objectives Level F ADMN 6044: Post Job Management It is important to know the proper procedures for closing out a job so that rigging and equipment is maintained for future use and personnel are adequately
Trouble Shooting Ion Exchange Plant Problems Brian Windsor (Purolite International Ltd) Introduction This presentation is centred on 7 flow diagrams which can be used to track down the cause of Ion exchange
Technical Topic Technical Training Guide Turbine Oil Condition Monitoring Introduction Modern steam and gas turbines subject the turbine lubricant to ever greater demands. Higher temperatures are encountered
CONTAMINANT REMOVAL FROM CENTRIFUGAL SYSTEMS BULLETIN 240-10-3 June 2004 Supersedes June 1983 Many centrifugal systems get little maintenance. As a result they operate with the refrigerant highly contaminated
Increasing Natural Gas Boiler Efficiency by Capturing Waste Energy from Flue Gas Mark Schiffhauer, ATSI Engineering Services Cameron Veitch, Combustion and Energy Systems Scott Larsen, New York State Energy
HIGH PRESSURE FEEDWATER HEATER REPAIR B. W. Helton II Tennessee Valley Authority 1101 Market Street Chattanooga, Tennessee 37402 Peter Tallman CTI Industries Inc. 200 Benton Street Stratford, Connecticut
PRODUCT NAME NALCO BT-25 Boiler Internal Treatment PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION NALCO BT-25 is an innovative program that combines the use of polyphosphate and the most advanced synthetic organic
Sample Questions FOURTH CLASS PART B 1. Impulse turbines: 1. have a velocity increase through the nozzles 2. blades have the angle of inlet the same as the outlet 3. could have more than one set of blades
Newsletter: Summer 2005 G.L.A. WATER, INC. Boiler Lay-up Procedures There are many reasons for laying up a boiler (i.e., placing it out of service.) A primary influence revolves around the actual demand
Troubleshooting: Condensate Contamination By James McDonald, PE, CWT Originally Published: Ultrapure Water, July/August 2003, Volume 20, Number 6 In a well maintained, properly operating boiler system,
Condensate Management and Treatment for Campus Systems IDEA Campus Energy Conference Debbie Bloom, Principal Consultant Steve Spiwak, Market Development Mngr Overview Why corrosion occurs Condensate best
Hartford Steam Boiler One State Street P.O. Box 5024 Hartford, CT 06102-5024 Tel: (800) 472-1866 www.hsb.com July 2014 Safety should only be inspected, tested and maintained by qualified trained personnel.
CHALLENGES IN A DILUTION STEAM GENERATOR SYSTEM Lee Siang Hua Titan Petrochemicals (M) Sdn Bhd Cheah Phaik Sim Titan Petrochemicals (M) sdn Bhd email@example.com Karl Kolmetz Westlake Group, Lake Charles,
BOILER FEED AND CONDENSATE RECOVERY SYSTEMS Extend the life and efficiency of your boiler system INTEGRATE BOILER FEED AND RECOVERY TO GET THE MOST FROM YOUR BOILER SYSTEM. Increase the safety, reliability,
The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam London, United Kingdom September 2013 Technical Guidance Document: Corrosion Product Sampling and Analysis for Fossil and Combined Cycle
The Good, The Bad, The Ugly Fluids The Geothermal Institute University of Auckland Bridget Lynne Santiago de Chile, 26-29 May 2014 Bridget Y. Lynne FLUIDS Common fluid types in geothermal systems Alkali
GE Energy Consolidated* Pressure Relief Valves Power Service Valves Pressure relief solutions for the power industry Safety Relief Valves Safety Valves 2 GE Energy Design and Performance that Meets Customer
Technical Paper Effective Deoxygenation by a Hybrid Process Combining Gas Transfer Membranes with Catalytic Oxygen Reduction Authors: S. B. Gorry, GE, W. E. Haas, GE and J. W. Mahaffee, Baltimore Gas &
Common Problems with Online Water Quality Analyzers Greg Macy Director AquatiPro LLC Objectives Diagnosing Colorimetric Analyzers Identifying Common Problems with Sodium Analyzers Troubleshooting ph Analyzers
Deaerator White Paper for use with Industrial/Commercial and Institutional Boilers ABMA. representing the best of the boiler industry Page 1 of 7 Deaerator White Paper for use with Industrial/Commercial
Case Study: Excessive Sulfuric Acid Dosing Resulting in Irreversible Scale Formation M. Malki, American Water Chemicals, Inc. Abstract Many consultants in the RO water treatment industry recommend sulfuric
Page 1 Water Treatment, Cycle Chemistry, Boiler Operation and Related Problems/Failures on Steam Generator Systems > 30 bar By Mr. Ludwig Hoehenberger, TÜV SÜD, Munich,. Phone: +49 89 5791 1063; Telefax:
If you would like a more detailed version of this report, please request SOS from firstname.lastname@example.org along with your e-mail address. A. Introduction Sulfites for Oxygen Control Robert R. Cavano
Cautions Flames will be used and some of the chemicals will have odors and may stain your hands or clothes if you come into direct contact with them. Purpose In this experiment you will characterize common
A Guide to Trouble-Free Cooling Towers A basic understanding of cooling tower operation and maintenance will help keep a cooling water system running in top condition, year after year By David M. Suptic
Current state of plant Functioning as a peak and emergency centre Statistics Accumulated operating hours: D1-2-3-6-7: 43000 to 48000 hrs D4-5: 53000 to 57000 hrs D8: 33000 hrs Layout of the plant Index:
UNIT 61: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Unit code: D/601/1410 QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 4 STEAM AND GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT TUTORIAL No. 8 STEAM CYCLES 4 Understand the operation of steam and gas
GE Energy Consolidated* Pressure Relief Valves Condensed Catalog Pressure Relief Solutions Safety Relief Valves Safety Valves A extensive range of safety relief valve and safety valve styles, sizes, options
Superheaters and Reheaters Superheaters are one of the most important accessories of boiler that improves the thermal efficiency. In super heaters there should not be any fins as it increases the thermal
21, rue d Artois, F -75008 PARIS A1-107 CIGRE 2012 http : //www.cigre.or STATOR WATER SYSTEM MONITORING FOR LARGE TURBO- GENERATOR- A USER S PERSPECTIVE A.K. Gupta Dinkar Devate D.K. chaturvedi* NTPC Ltd.
Committed to make a better world 1. Higher Availability & Reliability 2. Highest Plant efficiency 3. Lower Heat Rate 4. Minimum Auxiliary Power Consumption 5. Minimum Emission of Pollutants Committed to
Power and Gas Division Coal-fired Steam Power Plants (SPP) Siemens Steam Turbines for coal-fired Steam Power Plants SST-5000 series for subcritical coal-fired Steam Power Plants and Combined Cycle Power