1 Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels - Update and Status David Henderson, Acting Director, Fuel Cycle R&D Office of Nuclear Energy NEAC Meeting December 10, 2014
2 Presentation Overview Background: Where does ATF fit in NE? Status: Where is the ATF Program and where is it going? Collaborations: University and International Partners Funding Questions
3 Office of Nuclear Energy NE-20 NE-21 Office of Human Capital & Business Services Deborah Sharpe Chief Operating Officer Dennis Miotla NE-22 Office of Budget & Planning Patrick Edgerton Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy NE-1/2 Dr. Peter B. Lyons, Assistant Secretary Dennis Miotla, Acting Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary Liz Ramsay, Chief of Staff Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Senior Advisors CASL HUB Alex Larzelere NE-3 Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Facility Operations Tracey Bishop NE-4 Deputy Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology Innovation Shane Johnson NE-5 Deputy Assistant Secretary for Fuel Cycle Technologies John Herczeg (Andrew Griffith, acting ADAS) NE-6 Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Nuclear Energy Policy and Cooperation Ed McGinnis NE-7 Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Reactor Technologies John Kelly Idaho Operations Office Richard Provencher, Manager NE-41 Office of Advanced Modeling & Simulation Marius Stan NE-51 Office of Systems Engineering & Integration Patricia Paviet NE-61 Office Bilateral Cooperation Sarah Lennon NE-72 Office of Light Water Reactor Technologies Rebecca Smith-Kevern Oak Ridge Site Office Larry Perkins, Acting Manager NE-42 Office of Innovative Nuclear Research Mike Worley NE-52 Office of Fuel Cycle Research & Development David Henderson, acting NE-62 Office of Multilateral Cooperation John Gross NE-74 Office of Advanced Reactor Technologies Tom O Connor NE-31 Office of Facilities Management Tracey Bishop NE-53 Office of Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Research & Development William Boyle NE-63 Office of International Commercial Activities Alan Brownstein NE-75 Office of Space & Defense Power Systems Alice Caponiti NE-54 Office of Uranium Management and Policy David Henderson, acting
4 FCRD Advanced Fuel Campaign Advanced LWR fuels with enhanced performance, safety, and reduced waste generation Transmutation fuels with enhanced proliferation resistance and resource utilization Capability Development for Science-Based Approach to Fuel Development - Advanced characterization and PIE techniques - Advanced in-pile instrumentation - Separate effects testing - Transient testing infrastructure Multi-scale, multi-physics fuel performance modeling & simulation ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN NEAMS
5 DOE-NE RD&D Activities for Enhanced Accident Tolerance in LWRs NE-3: Nuclear Facility Ops Steady State Rx Testing Transient Testing (TREAT) PIE Upgrades NE-7: Nuclear Reactor Technologies LWR Sustainability Program Accident Tolerant Equipment and Instrumentation RISMC Simulation of ATF impacts using advanced tools Adv Materials Development Accident Tolerant Reactor IRP (GA Tech) NE-4: S&T Innovation NEAMS Fuel Performance Code Development NEUPs, IRPs, NEET Adv Instrumentation High Temperature Materials Transient Experiment Support EPRI/DOE (BWR) SiC Channel Box R&D NE-6: International Cooperation Collaborations on ATF NE-5: Fuel Cycle Technologies ATF and Core Materials Industry, lab, university collaborations (FOAs/IRPs) Bilateral Collaborations Japan, EU, France, China, UK Infrastructure Development, Oxidation testing, ATR and TREAT Experiments, PIE Rx Graphic for Illustration Purposes only Activities have PWR and BWR applicability
6 Maximizing Overall Performance Benefits Multi-variable evaluation approach is designed to maximize improvement in several interrelated areas while identifying instances in which improvement in one area could negatively impact another area. Fuels with enhanced accident tolerance are those that, in comparison with the standard UO 2 Zr system, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations.
7 ATF Designs Must Meet Operations, Safety and Fuel Cycle Constraints ATF will be evaluated over all potential performance regimes Fabrication/Manufacturability (to include Licensibility) Normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs) Postulated accidents (Design Basis) Severe accidents (Beyond Design Basis) Used fuel storage / transport / disposition (to include potential for future reprocessing) See: U.S. DOE LWR ATF Performance Metrics Report, February
8 RD&D Strategy For Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels 10 Year Goal Phase 1 Feasibility Workshops Phase 2 Development/Qualification Fuel Selection Phase 3 Commercialization LFA/LFR Ready Feasibility studies on advanced fuel and clad concepts -- bench-scale fabrication -- irradiation tests -- steam reactions -- mechanical properties -- furnace tests -- modeling Assessment of new concepts -- impact on economics -- impact on fuel cycle -- impact on operations -- impact on safety envelope -- environmental impact Steady State Loop and Capsule Tests LOCA/Furnace Tests Fuel Performance Code Transient Irradiation Tests Fuel Safety Basis Future activities subject to program approval and funding availability. Industry led projects (Phase 1a) Industry led projects (Phase 1b) Industry led projects (Phase 2)
9 Path from Feasibility and Assessment to Development & Qualification Critical Outcomes of Funded Feasibility and Assessment Projects ATF Developers prepare base-lined development plans to insert LFR/LFA after 6 years. ATF Developers show their concept to be a technically feasible ATF Concept for maintaining normal operations and improving accident tolerance. ATF Developers mature their technologies and are ready for prototypic testing. Comprehensive review against technical and programmatic constraints Federal Merit Review Panel evaluates development plans and ranked list of technologies against programmatically prescribed criteria. Independent Technical Review Committee evaluates the feasibility and maturity of concepts and develops a ranked list of technologies based on defined metrics. (FCRD-FUEL ) Funded Development and Qualification Projects 1 or at most 2 ATF Development Projects are awarded with the goal of inserting a LTR/LTA into a Commercial reactor by Advanced Fuels Campaign continues to fund a prioritized portfolio of technologies which show promise as the next generation of LWR fuel.
10 Industry Teams completed Phase 1a of initial ATF projects. (Phase 1b authorized for FY FY2016) AREVA Develop coated Zr-alloy cladding for improved accident performance Increased fuel pellet conductivity: Fuel with reduced stored energy that must be accommodated during DBE Additives achieved: SiC powder or whiskers Diamond Chromia dopant GE Develop advanced ferritic/martensitic steel alloys (e.g., Fe-Cr-Al) for fuel cladding to improve behavior under severe accident scenarios Objectives: Characterize candidate steels Study tube fabrication methods, neutronics, fuel economy, thermo-hydraulic calculations, regulatory approval path Initiate ATR testing with UO 2 and two cladding materials. Westinghouse Cladding concepts: - SiC and SiC ceramic matrix composites; - coated Zr alloys High density/high thermal conductivity fuel pellets First batch of U 3 Si 2 pellets were sintered using finely ground powder Pellets were pressed using pressures of 6,000-10,000 psi and sintered at temperatures of 1400 C U 3 Si 2 Pellet 10
11 Integrated Research Projects (IRPs) on ATF and Advanced Reactor Design University of Tennessee Ceramic coatings for cladding: MAX phase and multi-layer ceramics Team: Penn State, U. Michigan, UC Boulder, LANL, Westinghouse, Oxford, U. Manchester, U. Sheffield, U. Huddersfield, ANSTO Approach: (i) MAX phase ceramic coatings and (ii) graded interface architecture (multilayer) ceramic coatings, using yttriastabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the outer protective layer Autoclave Tree University of Illinois Engineered Zr alloy cladding Team: U. Michigan, U. Florida, INL, U. Manchester, ATI Wah Chang Approach: (i) application of a coating layer to Zr base or (ii) modification of the bulk Zr cladding composition to promote precipitation of minor phase(s) during fabrication Georgia Institute of Technology Integral Inherently Safe Light Water Reactor (I2S-LWR) Team: U. Michigan, Virginia Tech, U. Tennessee, U. Idaho, Florida Tech, Morehouse College, INL, Westinghouse Electric, Southern Nuclear, Polytechnic of Milan, U. Cambridge, U. Zagreb Approach: (i) Focus on advanced LWR concepts (beyond Gen III+) and associated fuel designs (ii) Extend enhanced safety of SMRs to GWe-class PWR through integral primary configuration and high-performance fuel with enhanced accident tolerance (silicide fuel with FeCrAl cladding) (iii) Holistic/synergistic design to make the reactor inherently safe, while promoting economics (iv) Improvements to all GEN IV performance goals 11
12 Bilateral International Collaboration Includes Significant ATF Development France Currently defining bilateral activities with specific agreement to support international activities related to ATF, with joint development of attributes and metrics and coordination of facilities. CEA pursues ATF R&D through a tri-party agreement with AREVA and EDF. Japan Definition of attributes and metrics Coordination of technology research and development Coordination of facilities used for R&D China Attributes and metrics Information exchange on R&D facilities European Union 2 New INERI projects Horizon 2020 UK Bilateral activities currently under discussion (active partners in ATF FOAs and IRPs) Russian Federation (currently on hold) Advanced LWR fuels and ATF Exchange of attributes and metrics Others OECD/NEA Expert Group IAEA Expert Group 12
13 FY Budget Summary (dollars in thousands) Subprogram FY 2014 Current FY 2015 Request FY 2015 House Mark FY 2015 Senate Mark Material Recovery & Waste Form Development 34,170 35,300 b b Advanced Fuels 58,177 43,100 60,100 60,100 Systems Analysis and Integration 18,977 18,500 b b MPACT 7,358 7,600 b b Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Used Nuclear Fuel R&D 29,520 49,000 55,000 30,000 Integrated Waste Mgmt. System 29,520 30, ,000 Fuel Resources 3,485 5,600 b b Balance (b) 67,000 66,900 50,900 Total 181,207* 189, , ,000 * Total is post SBIR-STTR which is approximately $5M. FY 2015 House Mark $12,000 for additional support of feasibility studies for accident tolerant light water reactor fuels and $5,000 for additional support of capability development of transient testing. $6,000 is to support activities to design and certify a rail car or cars for use with licensed and anticipated transportation casks. There is $150M for Nuclear Waste Disposal to continue the Department of Energy s statutorily required activities for the Yucca Mountain license application. There is also $55M for the NRC to continue adjudication of the Yucca Mountain license application. The House directs the NRC to report not later than January 1, 2015, on its plan to complete the license application and its additional funding needs as necessary. FY 2015 Senate Mark: $3,000 is to design, procure, and test industry-standard compliant rail rolling stock; $30,000 is for activities on behavior of spent fuel in long-term storage, under transportation conditions, and in various geologic media. Priority should be placed on the on-going study of high-burnup fuel in dry storage. $10,000 is for the development and qualification of meltdown-resistant fuels based on ceramic-compacted coated particles. $3,000 is recommended to advance promising and innovative research, including ceramic cladding from qualified and competitively selected small business research task awards that complement industry and university projects and are focused on the development and testing of accident tolerant fuels.
14 Summary Very challenging goal and timeline Excellent support, interaction, and collaboration across the board Fully committed and making good progress
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