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2 BELOW THE EQUATOR TH E STOR! OF A TO U R TH R O U GH TH E CO U N TR IE S OF SO U TH A ME R I CA B! EDIT H O GDEN H A RRISO N A u t/z o r o f Tbe L ad y o f 1128! Pri nt en Sa y ra fle,! Clemencia 1! Criu 'i, Pri nce ' Sil c ver c wz n g x E, tc. CH ICA GO A. C. Mc CL U R G St CO

3 Cop y ri g ht A. C. M c c lu r g Co P ubli sh ed No vemb er,



6 A CKNO W L EDGMENT Fo r the use o f the photographs fro m which the pictures in this bo o k are made, I am indebted to Mr. E. M. New man, who se illustrated travel talks please and instruct enormous audiences, and to m y husband, Carter H. H arri so n, who se first tho ught when preparing fo r a trip to o ther lands and places is o f his camera. E. O. H. M


8 FO REW O RD U R vo y age down the South Seas began at the Isthmus o f Panama, and it is difficult to write without dwelling at least briefly o n the wo n ders of the great Canal. Never has the immensity o f gove rnment work impressed me so much as there. Never has the importance o f that work so forced itself upon my mind. From a jungle has sprung a beautiful land teeming with rich cultiva tion, with busy people. In place o f a pestilential hole o f death there now smiles a land o f health and pro sperity. We thrilled with the pride o f its ac c o m p lishm ent, and we gloried in belonging to a country that had made all this possible. In this lit tle book o n o u r South American travels there is no place to tell o f these wonders nor o f the many ac ts o f courtesy and kindness that made o u r visit pleas ant and instructive! I cannot refrain, however, from thanking General Clarence E dwards Co m manding General and his charming wife, Consul and Mrs. Dreher, and M r. and Mrs. Samuel M. Heald, to us. for the splendid hospitality they extended B ecause o f their warm and hospitable recep tion o f us we were able to partake t o the full o f

9 Foreword the many enjoyments the Isthmus has to offer.! Since thi s book was written General E dwards name has become famous in E urope. He has been cited by General Pershing f o r brave ry, and d eco rated fo r his valor and splendid service!

10 CO NT ENT S PA GE T he Spell o f S outh America Beginning the Journey T he Guano Islands So me Peculiar Custo ms T he Story o f Peru T City he o f the Kings Impressions Lima o f T Peru he o f day To Matucana and the S oroche T he S outhern Cro ss Verruga E l Misti and Q uinta Bates Earth q uakes and Indians Cuz c o Lake Titicaca B olivia La Paz Arica Tacna T he Cro ss o n the Mo untain T he Nitrate Fields T he! Tin King Valparaiso Santiago and Christo bal Mo untain T he Christ o f the Andes

11 Contents C H A PT E R T he Bird o f the Andes a Mendo z T he Pampas Bueno s Ai res Estancias Montevideo il Braz R io T he de Janeiro Ti j uca Jungle T he Trees o f il Braz Turning H o meward Sao Paulo T he Snake H o spital A Mo del Penitentiary

12 IL L U ST RA T IO N S PA GE Fountain in a Plaz de Mayo, Ai Bueno s res Fro n tispiec e Cathedral Payta Peru,, 2 6 A Street in Payta, Peru 2 6 Lake o f th e Incas 2 7 T r Throne Incas he Autho o n the o f th e 2 7 all In uisition Lima H f o the q,, Peru 3 8 Great Cathedral at Lima where Pi B, z arro Is uried 3 8 Cathedral Entrance Lima Peru,, 3 9 Santa Ro sa de lo s Mon j as, Lima, Peru 3 9 Cathedral Lima Peru,, 5 2 San os Marc U niversity Peru Lima,, 5 2 O ld Spanish Church Peru, Pisco, 53 Convent o f San Lima Peru Francisc o,, 53 Peru Indians Cuz, c o 60, Llamas in a Street at Matucana, Peru 60 O in Peru royarailroad the Andes 61 :, Crest o f the Andes 61 Landing a Passenger! M rs. Peru H arrison! at Mo lendo, Casa de To rrey Tagle, Lima, Peru H arvard O bservatory Are uipa, q, Pe ru Cathedral Are uipa, q Peru, Street in Cuz c o, Peru Cathed ral at Cu z c o, Peru A Narro w Cavernous Street in Cuz c o, Peru

13 Illu st ration s PA GE Gateway Cuz, co Peru, Ruins o f Ancient Inca Fo rts, Cu z c o, Pe ru To wn o f Juliaca, Peru Rapid Transit in Chile Group o f Resting Llamas La Paz, B olivia A Gathering o f Indians in La Paz, B olivia Balsa B oat Gro up o f Indians at La Paz Cathedral Chile Santiago, de E l Arica Chile Mo rro,, T Capitol Buenos Aires he, Cathedral, Buenos Aires Vista in an Argentinian Estancia Marble Spanish Monument, B ueno s Aires An Argentinian Estancia Municipal Theater il Santo, s Braz, Restaurant in R io de Janeiro Cathedral R, io de Janeiro B otanical Gardens R, io de Janeiro Avenida Central R, io de Janeiro Municipal Theater R, io de Janeiro Rue de Pa y sand a R, io de Janeiro S ugar Loaf R, io de Janeiro Municipal Theater il, Sao Paulo Braz, Snake Near Farm Sao Paulo Braz il,



16 B E L O W T H E E Q U A T O R CH A PT ER I T H E SP E L L O F SO UTH AMERI CA AD ne told me a m nth before anyo I started o to South America that I should really go I should have heard the statement with surprise. True for years my husband and I had cherished, the hope that some day we might Visit this wonder ful country where the snow-capped mountains dwarf the Alps, their smoking volcano es loftier than any the rest o f the world knows, and where lies a glori o us sheet o f water higher than the Rockies! B ut when the opportunity came we were almost unprepared to It chances that the man t o reali z e it. whom I am married is o ne who could never be counted as a drone among his fellow-creatures. During most of our life together his has been a areer of public duty c, having served Chicago mayo r five terms a s as, did also his father, Carter H. Harrison, whose namesake he is. These duties had always held him so closely that he was never. willing t o spend more than twentv - o n e consecutive days outside its limits. H o w, then, could we visit any portion o f the globe

17 2 Below th e E quator which lay more than a hundred miles away! And yet strange people and strange countries have always called to us. The rapid advancement o f any country, its manner and means o f achieving progress, were always studied closely by both o f us. We love old ruins, temples, and had made as much o f a study o f antiquities as we could. Dur ing these years it h ad been with a feeling o f envy that I had seen my friends c ome and go. B ut as a devoted wife I was never willing to leave the man whose highest duty, we both believed, lay in staying at home. Thus it happened that when the time cam e that we really felt we might indulge in this long-desired wish to j ourney t o strange lands, we scarcely knew where to begin. A terrible tragedy in E urope had horrified and saddened the whole world, and little we dreamed then that later we would, fo r humanity s sale, be obliged to take part m it. The war f course made E urope, o o ut f the o, question South America seemed beckon so to, us. The spell the lure o f this far-away land was upon,, We determined start at So it u s to both. once. came to pass that in about a month all prepara tions were complete. Trunks were packed and we were o ff to the land o f the Southern Cross, th e land o f great countries, wonderful cities, mines o f wealth untold. We were really to see the towering Andes and gaze in wonder at th e shimmering blue


19 o f many acts which revealed qualities o f bravery, 4 Below th e E quator South America the kind reception acc o rded them by the natives counted fo r nothing. They enslaved the people, treating them cruelly, and in thei r search f gold forgot every law f humanit o r o y. Horrible stories are told f their cruelty f o, o ne o which I will mention as an example. It is related by Padre Casas that when a famine threatened among those whom they had made slaves, the Spaniards killed daily a certain number o f the unfortunate victims, that they might serve as food for their beasts o f burden. Surely histo ry fur nishes no greater instance f hideous barbarit o y. The Spanish historians f course claim that o,, these actions were only in accord nce a with th e spirit f the B o ut th civilized world differs e age. from them, and common opinion is that in spite the early days o f Spanish rule in South America were nothing o f which to be proud. It cannot be denied however that the Spaniards posse sed per,, s sonal A soldiers they were s courage. invincible. They won their way in the face f incredible hard o T gain their ends they crossed bar o e ships. stretches f arid desert and although tortured o,, with thirst and gnawed with the pangs f hunger o, the never Sword in hand the y o ne complained., cross in the other, missionaries and soldiers alike did a stupendous work. It must not be forgotten that the polic y o f the Catholic Church in South

20 T h e S p ell o f South A meric a 5 America brought about in many ways the orderly conduct o f the natives. The unparalleled efforts o f this church in the early days established there the religion which no w h as so firm a grip in South America. In the early days o f the histor y o f this country the Pacific.slope o f the Andes was very di fferent from the Atlantic side. The Spania rds found at Cuzco, and the many cities ruled by the Incas and their tribes, great communities high in civilization. The people lived under settled conditions, had towns and roads, and cultivated agricultural fields. It deplorable is th conquerors did not at the enc o ur a ge them to preserve p thei r institutions while adopt ing the more modern One f the o civilization. greatest mistakes Spain ever made was the crush ing o ut of the individuality of these tribes, killing all ambition within them by enslaving them. Though the Spaniards recogni ed at once the z great possibilities of South a in her wealth Americ f material and precious stones they seem have o t o, forgotten conscience and all humanity. They were willing to face terrible hardships in this world and the loss o f heaven in th e next with their desire t o attain this wealth. However, the belie f of thos e early explorers and conquerors has been verified. We we have today in this country a land kn o wt hat whose possibilities in wealth have not been ex a g gerated.

21 CH A PT ER I I B EGINNING T H E J O URNE! R O M the Isthmus o f Panama we sailed via Cia : P e ruana d e Va p o res, o n a Peruvian steamer, the U rubamba, commanded by Cap tain All Peruvian steamers by the way Steers.,, bea r the names f the rivers comprising th source o e o f th e Amazon. A stiff breeze was with us. The air was cool, the boat clean, and the food good. E arly the next morning, however, I awoke under the impression that I was o n a farm. Somewhere in close proximity I heard cattle lowing, chickens crowing, ducks quacking, and lambs bleating soothing sounds which gave promise o f the nice long rest we had planned! The barnyard we car ried, however, held o n e pathetic note. E ach day we wandered in the vicinity o f it and could not help becoming interested in the inhabitants. All o f a sudden, however, we began to miss familia r faces. Day a fter day the tragedy continued, and we were impre ssed deeply with th e truth o f the old couplet : W e ma y live witho ut p o etr y, music, o r bo oks, B ut c iviliz ed man c an n o t live witho ut c o oks. 6

22 Be g innin g t h e Journe y 7 This charming menagerie was located just be neath o u r cabin. There was n o possibilit y o f escape from the delightful music, so we resigned ourselves to it. Day and night we enj oyed it. T h e boat carried its meat in this manner, killing what was needed fo r each day. In that climate it is no t possible to keep meat longer. On board we were a motley but interesting Many nations were In addi crowd. represented. tion t E nglish heard French German Ital o o ne,,, ian and Spanish Our most prominent, spoken. passenger was the greatest bullfighter in the world, from He accompanied by his Ca r was Mexico. men and they attracted much more attention than, did the owner f the richest mine in South Amer o ica. Carmen ninit y. She was a delightful little piece o f femi occupied a first-class cabin, while he went steerage. She owned a brilliantly colored macaw, and the two sat o n deck daily talking to the screeching bird. The man was a most inc o n Picture if you can a man g r f ath uo us o sight.,, figure and thick neck wearing the daintiest letic, f pink-satin slippers high French heels and the o,, finest f silk l o so cks As we j ourneyed along we listened to many marvelous tales of the country we were about t o visit and of the hardships we would have to endure in the interior. B y the time we arrived at o u r point o f departure for the interior we felt no t

23 8 Below th e E q uator unlike the intrepid Spaniards themselves who first entered it. B ut, imbued with their spirit o f enter prise, we were equally und aunted fin o u r desire for adventure. The first o f o ur many surprises came to us in crossing the equator. We had supposed that we would be stifled with the heat. Instead, we were wrapped in steamer rugs, wore fur coats, and were still cold. Hopes o f a delightful soft air and sunshine vanished. We were told that the cold weather we were encountering would continue for thousands o f miles down the coast. The Atlantic side is warm, even hot. B ut the western side o f the continent is cooled by the great Antarc tic cur rent the Humboldt current, as they call it, in honor o f the illustrious traveler who first observed and explained it. It carries up from southern Chile to a distance north o f the equator a vast body o f cold water which chills both ocean and air, fr e quently enveloping everything in clouds o In fact, these fogs are so heavy and frequent as to f' f o g. cause anxie ty to the navigator, f o r the impene t rahle mist makes traveling dangerous between the Isthmus and the Gulf o f Guayaquil. Along the coast o f Colombia and E cuador magnificent fo r ests are grown. The heavy rains come in summer the wet season. B ut at the boundary line b e tween E cuador and Peru the conditions c hange and there is a rainless tract which extends down the coast as far as Coquimbo and Chile. Here the

24 Be g innin g th e Jou rne y 9 Antarctic current causes heav and frequent mists y because the land is warmer than B the ut ocean. these mists provide the only moisture the country h as rain ever falls nearly as no Fo r two, there. thousand miles the coast is dry and sterile. It is a dism al, barren desert fo r all this distance, except for an occasional river made by the snows o f the Andes. Only where these rivers empty into the ocean does o ne find a strip of green. We passed many c harming islands. The Gala pagos were to o far away for us to see, but we knew that the United States was trying t o.buy them from E cuador. The latter countr y neither needs n o r wants them, but, like the proverbial do g in the mange r, she refuses t o let go. One very pretty island is called La Plata, and it is here that Sir Francis Drake is said to have hidden two hundred thousand pounds o f gold, the money he captured from the Spaniards. A charming little hamlet o n o ne of the islands is called Saint E smeraldas. A large church picturesquely situated o n an eminence made us long to ste p and g o through it. Flooded with sunshine, it looked attractive, set in the heart o f those barren hills. Oh, what a lonely country in which to live! Steaming up the beautiful Gulf o f Guayaquil, we entered the mouth o f the Guayas River. In th e distance were dim gray mountains. We were fast approaching o ur first port, Guayaquil, E cuador

25 10 Below th e E quator the prettiest spot o n the western coast, but, alas, the most unhealthy! Guayaquil is never free from th e yellow fever and the bubonic pla g ue. It is th e pest-hole f the As we sailed up the river o Pacific., however glimpsing the city f the first time it o, r, was hard to believe that its reputation was de Like the whited sepulcher its h rrors served., o are concealed, and that which we could see called forth only admiration. E cuador is not b y any means the most progressive o f South American coun tries. The deadly yellow fever h as been p racti cally exterminated from every portion o f South America except the Amazon R iver. It seems a shame, therefore, that lovely Guayaquil should have so bad a reputation. Havana, Colon, Rio de Janeiro, and Santos, even beautiful New Orleans in o ur o wn country, have all been purified and ren dered safe from this deadly disease which once ravaged these cities. Therefore it is not only deplorable, but criminal, that such a menace sho uld be permitted to continue in Guayaquil. B ut until her sanitation is looked after, the development o f E cuador will be slow indeed, if not actuall y arrested. It must be remembered that E cuador was a part o f the disputed territory which led to the sangui nar y struggle between Atahualpa and his brother Huascar a struggle which gave to Pizarro his op p ortunit y o f conquering Peru. The E cuadorians


27 1 2 Below th e E quator him. This took place at Guayaquil. At Q uito, the c apital, two hundred miles away, they were doing worse things. o ut the victims Their favorite torture was cutting tongues. All this seems incredible, yet it is a matter o f history, and very recent history at that. No wo n der that the South Americans feel that a watchful eye should be kept o n E cuador, whose greatest asset now is the Canal, and whose hopes o f civili z atio nalso seem t o lie in the fact that she is so near Panama. E cuador has a treasure in its c ac ao groves. If sh e possessed nothing else they would make her rich. The c ac ao trees grow wild in the forests, many o f them reaching forty feet in height. T he bean furnishes the delicious chocolate and coco a we drink, and its leaves furnish cocaine. Although we saw it later, we were disappointed not to get a View at this time o f wonderful and far-famed Chimborazo, the mountain o f snow. However, It is o ne we had many glorious views o f it later. o f the beauty peaks o f South America and rises twenty-one thousand four hundred feet. Fo r a long time this mountain held the honor of being called the highest mountain in this southern land, but the mighty Aconcagua in Chile, which Ha rvard University at Arequipa records as twenty four thousand and sixty feet in height, has finally been awarded the palm. M aj estic Chimb o razo is

28 Be g innin g th e Journe y 13 best seen from the sea, and from the harbor its magnificent proportion can be studied! 1 think the evening, with it s mellowing light, shows it t o finest advantage. Those few minutes before night e n velo p e s it show its snow-crowned top and thrill o ne with the awe that its great height is sure to inspire. Neither could we se e at this time Coto paxi, five times as high as Mount Vesuvius, and the loftiest o f active volcanoes. The mist and low-i lying clouds One f the mountains o prevented., Cayambe lies exactly the equator and f this o n o,, r reason is distinguished from any other snow apped peak the It is th highest moun c e in. world. tain o f the eastern Cordillera. Near Cotopaxi a beautiful truncated cone smokes continuously. About the snow-clad peak a gray and white cloud forms in the shape f an enormous branching tree o, and nea r the snow line f the volcano is a huge o mass f rock called Inca s It said be o is to Head. the original summit f the mountain torn ff and o o hurled below o n the day o f the execution o f the Inca, Atahualpa. Clear and beautiful was th e morning o n which we cast anchor a quarter of a mile o ut from the town. Here we found a strange form o f quaran tine existing. W e were not permitted to disembark if we desired to return to the ship. B ut we took both passengers and cargo aboard! It was here that we purchased the fin e woven Panama hats

29 14 Below th e E quator at just half the price at which they were first o ffered t o us, obtaining for twenty and twenty-five dollars hats which would sell in the States f o r sixt y and sixty-five. The finest Panama hats in the world are woven in southern E cuador. It is the greatest dist ribut ing center o f the Panama hat industry in the world. Here they do not call them Panama however,, but J i p i j a p a in honor f Jipij apa the village s o,, where they are woven. They are made o f the fiber o f a palm which grows in E cuador and Peru. The fiber must always be kept damp, and the best time to make them is in the cool o f the evening. This has given rise to the story that Panama hats are woven under water and in the moonlight. The weavers in E cuador are considered the most skilful in all the southern countries. Their deli cacy o f touch is equal to that o f the finest lace makers in the world. They told us here o f a hat once woven f o r the King o f E ngland, so exquisitely fine that it folded into a watchcase. All that we saw were soft and durable and rolled together without the slightest injury. It was here that we said good-bye to a charming o ld French priest, Pere L egris, who was o n his way to Q uito. He had some difficulty in landing. On account o f the trouble this country had with the Jesuits many years a g o, E cuador has since barred all foreign priests from entering her ports.

30 had been able to do so. Be g innin g t h e Journe y 1 5 However his letters him The Jesuits, g o t through. were powerful in early days f Spanish so the o America that they were regarded as having super na tural They were said have actual to wisdom. knowledge f events before the occurred at o y o, r least at the moment o f happening. As proof o f this a story is told to the effect that when the Peruvian government, fearing their influence and their power, decided in secret session in Lima to exile them fo r political reasons, the swiftest o f messengers was sent at once to Cuzco, four hun dred miles away, to apprise them o f the fact. When the messenger reac hed Cuzco he found all the priests ready with their baggage packed, ing before the gates o f their monasteries. stand Their marvelous system had not failed them. They had learned o f the decision o f the secret session in Lima as soon as it had been made. Their o wn system o f obtaining information had brought them the news before the fleete st o f known messengers Guayaquil was f o r Pere L egris the beginning o f a trip o f year a, s duration a journey o f recreation in th e hope o f regaining his failing health. He was going to Q uito. We were sorry to lose him. In his dignified way he possessed a keen sense o f humor and kept us much interested and amused by tales o f his experiences. One story he told was simply delicious. A y oung woman,

31 16 Below th e E quator observing that he traveled without a trunk, ca rry ing only a hand bag, approached him. She had ex cess baggage to the amount o f a thousand pounds. She pleaded with him t o relieve her of o ne trunk so that she might get through the cus toms house without having to pay. Pere L egris humorous d esc rl p t i o n o f his consternation at the thought o f claimin g as his o wn a trunk filled with a woman s dainty while fellow-priests lin g e rie looked and Waited f him during its o n o r ins p e c tion was certainly Needless t o sa he, y funny., gently firmly refused the request and the lady but was obliged to pay the awful excess exacted o n baggage to a South American port. T h e \ M e ric an consul, Dr. Godding, apersonal friend, delighted us with a visit here, bringing with him large baskets o f delicious and, to u s, strange fruit. Fo r two days we lay in port enj oying these delightful specimens and basking in the glow o f the southern sunshine. We no w realized fully that we were in South America. Gorgeous big macaws with brilliant yellow and blue plumage were b rought aboard. The colors o f the smaller screeching parrots were simply exquisite. Many vendors came also with tiger skins and small mar m o sets. We found no mosquitoes here and although we knew that the extreme slenderness and delicacy o f this deadly insect prevented its flying over three

32 Be g innin g t h e Journe y 1 7 hundred yards we still felt safer to sleep under netting th e two nights we were in port. The p ec u liarit y of this mosquito, the ste g o m y a, is that only the female bites and gives the yellow fever germ. The E cuadorians are immensely wealthy. Many o f them are charming p eople and well educated. B ut at present all hate Americans. Their potent reason for disliking us is the railroad built to Q uito. The Americans cheated the E cuadorians shamefully in the contract and feeling still runs high about it. The present consul, D r. Godding, with his charming Uruguayan wife, have lived in this unhealthy spot for many years. With all hygienic laws respected and the house screened they fea r nothing. They keep in their home a wonderful little bird called c aci g iia. It knows its pet name o f Chico-Chico. It flies about loose in the house and kills ever y fly and mosquito it sees.

33 CHAPTE R III THE GUANO I SLA NDS E HAD been warned that in going to South America we were taking o u r lives in our o wn hands. E veryone knows that in spite o f her wonderful attractions there is much t o be desired in her laws relating to hygiene. Man y o f the dis eases which we would encounter, such as yellow fever and bub onic plague, we should have to risk, as there is no k n own preventive. We should take all possible precautions toward evadm g m o s q u i toes and fleas, but there is no inoc ulation which could save u s from them. Smallpox and typhoi d could be prevented, o r at least the system may be rendered immune by inoculation t o all save a ver y light attack. Therefore, preparatory to this j oy o us expedition, we spent some time at home with a feeling o f decided malaise, due to three ino cu latio ns o f the typhoid serum, and I was certainl y laid lo w b y the smallpox inoculation, vaccination. Such an arm as I carried for six weeks a fter will soon be forgotten and the scar I shall no t, car ry t m Disagreeable as all thes o y e grave. precautions may be however they are absolutely,, 18


35 2 0 Below th e E qu ator was Waukesha, White Rock, o r Poland at a dolla r a quart. It is easy t o figure, therefore, how two thirst y people can c onsume this amount. Of course, those who feel that they cannot afford this much m o ne y f o r drinking water carr y a small alcohol stove and boil it. B ut this is a nuisance. It means a lot o f extra baggage and every ounce o f baggage counts. After we got - into the country, however, we found distilled water at a reasonable price in the large cities and there we drank to o ur hearts content. A fine and famous water throughout Peru is the J esu water from a spring o f that name near Are quipa. It is a delicious beverage, slightly charged with gas, and except for the awful price we had to pay f o r it we enjoyed it thoroughly. This wate r is a great favorite in Peru, but I must confess that the sight o f the name o n the first bottle we drank gave us both a distinct shock. Petty thieving is o n e o f the annoyances o n ship board along this southern coast. Personally we lost nothing, bu t several o f o ur neighbors c o m plained. A swe steamed o ut o f the Guayas R iver a man who had been in confinement fo r two days for stealing broke. his arrest and jumped over board. He had fully a mile t o swim to shore and the current was terribly swift. B ut the steamer could not waste time by stopping. So i f he ever reached shore I presume he considered

36 T h e Guano I sland s 2 1 himself immun e and started in o n his little game again. vessel is permitted pass No to o ut f this river o at night as the channel is B we ut, dangerous. sailed o ut early in the morning to find ourselves in the ocean again. From Guayaquil we moved toward Callao, spending the next eight days in making that port. These days were far from uninteresting. We passed many islands, o ne o f the most curious o f which is called Dead Man s Island, the shape o f which is that o f a man lying flat on his back, his face upturned to the heavens. Very distinct is the illusion. The features were plainly visible, colossal, and the sight most is un ca n ny. O ff the southern coast f o E cuador o n the island f o Santa Clara is L aa rtahad mo a, The E nshrouded Woman! it is said to be a marvel in its exact representation o f its name. Once seen, the c olossal figure o f the mysterious woman is never forgotten. The constant passing o f pretty islands, the load ing and unloading at the various ports, the strange cargoes, th e curious birds and fish was a truly pleasurable One can have no c o nc experience. e p tion f number and o the variet y o f South the American birds until he has seen them. In addi tion to the huge pelicans, millions o f guano birds inhabit the islands bearing their name, and blacken

37 2 2 Below th e E quator the skies when the y fly. The snow-white Guano Islands hold thousands o f these birds and often in the evening about dusk we would steam into a solid mass o f the feathered creatures resting o n the water. The boat would be obliged to plow its way right through them. Thus dist urbed they would rise quickly and, flapping their wings in the water as they rose, they made a sound like heav y rain. Fo r years the guano trade brought in millions o f dollars to the southern countries, f o r it is known to be the greatest fertilizer in the world. The South Americans sold it to the E uropean govern ments and it yielded them an immense income. This trade however has dropped ff considerably o,, as the guano almost exhausted from tre is the m end demands f o u s o r it. The Incas themselves were ignorant no t f the o value o f these Guano Islands. preserved and protected them. They carefully The quantities o f birds we saw were equaled i f no t surpassed by the number of fish dolphins, porpoises, sharks, W hales, sting rays, and shoals o f smaller ones. The o cean is alive with them. They sa y that every bird the oast eats about pounds f fish a o n c six o day. We could well believe it and still know that they never lack We frequently entered a fo r food. shoal f the smaller fish which would be miles in o The fish would lie thick that could so o n e length. n o t a knife between their bodies and the place,

38 T h e Guano I sl and s 2 3 captain told us no t infrequently they clogged the machinery until the boat was obliged to lay to until it could be And all th time th e e cleaned. delightful cold ai r f the Humboldt current o was with that we endorsed the Spanish exclama u s so, tion we were constantly hearing Q ue brisa tan,!. My husband and I both speak German and h erm o s o! What a refreshing breeze French but we figured really enj o t o, y South America we should know Spanish before leaving We looked about f the best way f o r o Chicago. getting a quick knowledge o f the lan g uage. F o r tunately we found o n e o f the Gordon Detwiler schools for languages in Chicago. We took the business man s course, o f Prof. Pedro Ce z o n and, th ough we had only time for the half, it was amazing what he taught Like my vaccination us., it k well and sinking deep was firmly to o im,,, bedded so that with the phrase books and grammar we made ourselves understood wherever Spanish was spoken.

39 CHAPTE R IV SO ME PECU L IAR CU STO MS H E trade along the western coast o f South America is enormous. Some o f the richest cargoes in the world are shipped here. It is along the coast o f Chile that the nitrate fields are most famous, although in Peru they have also th e s alitre, which is the Spanish name for it. Rice, corn, sugar, and, o f course, gold and copper a re taken o n many o f the boats, and the bananas alone would pay f o r the running o f the steamer. Often we carried ninety thousand bunches, and just here I beg t o interpolate a word in regard to the peons who transfer these cargoes. I can honestly testify that they are not afraid o f work, for I have seen them lie right down and go to sleep beside it. During all o u r stay in South Am erica I found the sie sta a most annoying thing. When o n e is rushed to catch a train or make connections with another steamer it is then that he realizes to the fullest extent that he is in the land o f mafi ana. The peons sleep o r idle as they feel inclined. A s far as their waiting tasks are concerned! any Old time will d o. In every countr y o f South America 2 4

40 Some Pec uliar Cu stoms 2 5 the siesta is taken daily. From eleven until three all work is stopped and the shops are closed. On account O f her moist climate E cuador grows some of the most magnificent trees in the world. There is a giant alled the a cotton tree o n e c c eiba,, and when it blooms all know that the wet season is nea r. The cotton produced from it is a great staple, beds, pillows, cushions, etc., being made from it. I cannot sa y much in favor o f the pillows, however. They are about the hardest specimens that I have ever felt beneath my head. Yet it was the only kind we encountered throughout South America until we reached the eastern coast. A n other tree here, known as the balsa, is very large and twenty times as light as cork. Rafts and boats are made o f it and o ne sees great numbers o f them everywhere. No matter how frail the little boat is, o ne feels safe in it. It cannot sin k even in the heaviest sea. Late in the afternoon, while looking at the beau tiful coast, the green suddenly disappeared as c o m p l etel y as if a se c tio n h ad been cut o ut with a knife. Vegetation and fertility were gone absolutely. From here o n down the Chilean coast all was ba r ren and sterile. The soil of Peru is really rich and beauti ful. It is only the absence Of rain which makes it sterile. Wherever there are streams and rivers the soil becomes green and fresh. B ut the rivers are f ar apart. On all this long strip of west

41 absolutely black, and the women were all en luto. ha g a! E s la c o stumbre d e mi p a is! Well, madam, 2 6 Below t h e E qu at o r ern coast there are but sixty-eight rivers fed by the Andes and emptying into the Pacific. It was here in Payta too that that glorious flower, the m ese m br y a nthe mum, grew in such pro fusion. We had seen it in its magnificent pink bloom in California, but we never failed to acclaim it wherever we saw it. Also at Payta I saw for the first time a man in deep mourning. E ven his hat, a straw o ne, was, Afterward it seemed to us that the whole Of South America was e n lut o. These southern people seem t o take their greatest j oy in mournin g. B abies from two to six wear it, and it was a depressing I met a charming Chilean couple Sefio r sight., and M Sefio ra ard and the former told me o n es, that f o r four years his wife had worn mourning f her For years she had never left o r two mother. the hou se except go mass not even to go to t o fo r, a She was a brilliant musician but would drive., touch her piano until the fou r years had ex n o t p i red. She was about to take up her music again and was spending a good deal o f time o n the boat reading it over and tapping her fingers o n a chair. B ut noth i ng would induce her to try the piano until the fourth anniversary was past. She was a refined and traveled woman, but when I expressed surprise she said,! B ie n, Seii o ra, q u e q uiere Vd. q u e y o


43 Photo Carter H. Harrison L A K E O F THE INCA S O n th e T ran san d e an R ailwa y Photo by Carter H. Harrison T H E A UTHOR ON THE T HRONE O F THE INCAS

44 So me Pec uliar Custom s 2 7 what shall I do! It is the ustom f my countr c o y Whereupon I remarked to myself that their ways a re certainly not our ways.!. As I have already said, we had scarcely left the Isthmus O f Panama when we be g a n to Observe the change in customs. The first breakfast at seven, consisting Of coffee and crackers, was the d e sa y u n o, a luncheon served in the forenoon was almuerz o. Here also we began t o observe the peculiarity o f the Christian name. B ible names were frequent and many o f the children bore the name Jesus. We would frequently hea r the name called o ut o n shipboard, and when we reached Lima, in many o f the narrow streets, signs bearing biblical names were numerous. One barbe r had outside his doo r the name! Jesus, the Naz arene. It seemed very blasphemous t o us but wasreally not so to them. The days o n the Pacific were perfectly wonder ful, but the nights Alas, many o f them were filled with the music o f the fog horn and the ever present thought that the impenetrable mist in, running nea r shore as we were the was as the se a, Many a night I lay awake watching dangerous., the captain through an Open window muffled the to, ears in his overcoat studying chart and all his, the time that awful Siren blowing at full blast. At last, however, we sighted Callao, in Peru, and just beyond it lay beautiful Lima city f churches, o, home of the great Santa Rosa!

45 2 8 Below the E quator T o a Catholic what thrills the thought o f visit ing Lima brings! I was all eagerness to leave the ship but once more alas! it was to be some days,, before I was to have this And they p leasure. were anxious days t f a terri fying experience o o o r,, seemed be hovering over After we sailed to us. fromguayaquil three suspects were discovered o n board and we were thought to be carrying both yellow fever and bubonic pla g ue. When that yel low flag went up over o u r Ship o u r consternation was Personally I had forty flea indescribable., bites that night! i the flea which carries the t is germ f the plague o! and consequently I was not easy in mind until the time fo r the developing o f the disease had expired. We waited for tli e doctors to make a test o f the suspects blood. We next learned that the re port O f the presence o n boa rd o f th e plague, although it h ad been carefull concealed from us, had been wirelessed in to Callao and th e authorities were so wrought up over it that they would not permit us to land. Our yellow flag waved p rettily over us. B ut it was a signal to all who saw it that we ha d the plague on board. A distinguished general in full uniform came o ut in a little yacht with some fellow-o fficers, took a look around the se a, and then went away. talked through a megaphone The fog settled down upon us, but at least we were in port and I hoped to

46 Some Pec uliar Custom s 2 9 sleep a little that night. Here again I was dis appointed, however. The Peruvian women are very pretty, but, like most o f the sex, they like to ' talk. T wo who were located near my cabin had high, shrill voices, and they proceeded to use them most o f the night. Also, the doctors ran back and forth talking continuously, and there seemed to be a lo t O f 'red tape, but the passengers learned o f no new developments. The next day the captain told us that the whole city was in a rms at the thought o f our getting on land. The town had already a good deal O f malaria and typhoid. E vidently they did not wish to add anything more. One could not blame them, but it did seem to us that nurses should be sent to attend the sick. An o ld Frenchman said to me in the morning :! The natives here live like animals. Life is held lightly. If a man is stricken with some dreadful disease he steals o ff in a corner, covers his head and waits for Nobody death. cares. They tested one boy s blood! they had already given him the bubonic serum! and we were here to await developments. It was very monotonous. We watched seals playing near us and studied the small boats which came out to bring us food. We were interested in families talking to their friends who could not come aboard, and watched them taking o ff numerous little kegs o f gold. We were supposed to be carrying eight hundred and fifty

47 3 0 Below th e E quator thousand dollars in gold, but the little kegs were so numerous that there seemed to be much more than that. They we r e unwilling to tell us how much there really was, and there was a good deal Of red tape about its delivery. The o fficers o n guard were well armed. The captain and his O fficers signed books and all bowed and scraped before separating. Another night settled down o n shipboard, but the sunset was magnificent. Clouds wrapped the mountains and lay over th e Island o f La z arus, where the detention hospital is, and they bec ame a mass o f color. They changed from crimson to gold and spearlike Sha fts o f pale yellow shot across the crimson. The mountain stood dark and sharp against the clea r sk y and the View was superb. The blue ocean beneath us lent beauty to the already lovely scene. It was glorious.! lo s re f le j o s e n el a g ua e ra admirable s! The reflections in the water were perfect!. On the third morning the doctor announced to us that the suspects did n o t that what he had taken fo r have yellow fever the black vomit was something else. We were told that we mi g ht leave the ship o n the completion o f the third day, which would be about five o clock that afternoon. In the meantime o n e o f the suspects! t h e plague patient! had been brought up the best position deck t o o n, said position being immediately between abin o u r c

48 Some Pec uliar Custom s 3 1 and the captain s quarters. The young man was in a screen cage, but his attendant went in and o ut frequently, and if there was danger o f contagio n surely we wh o sle p t only about six feet away ran that danger. B ut in spite o f o u r fears we found that we were quite human after all. We Often went and spoke to the boy! he was only twenty! and did what we could t o help him. He bega n to improve. We were permitted to leave the ship but were never afterward able to learn the fate o f the boy.

49 CHAPTE R V T H E STO R! O F PERU H E world s records contain few more fairy like narratives than the well-attested story o f the early civilization o f Peru. In many of its aspects this civilization was equal to any th at the world has ever The history f the Incas o known., those children f the migrated from the o sun who north to the interior islands and country and estab lished Cuzco as the center, the capital Of a great empire, is little Short o f marvelous. There had always been a' marked contrast between them and the surrounding tribes, more sound and humane. their civilization being Its keynote was int elli gent socialism. The c itizens supplied the needs of the aged and infirm. They cared for the widow and the orphan and the soldier in active service. In their enlightened society, poverty was unknown. They were splendid a g r ic ultu rlst s and shepherds. T h eir hi g h mountains were c ultivated to the snow line. They had aqueducts, bridges, and good roads connected with the sea. Irrigation o n thoroughly sound lines was practiced and they tamed the wild animals, such as the llamas, alpacas, etc., until the y 3 2 f


51 3 4 B elow th e E qu ator ever, sixty-seven o f these were. cavalrymen, and horses had never been seen in this country before. Therefore they struck terror to the stoutest hearts. B efore starting o n his expedition across the Andes, an almost impossible feat, he learned that Atahualpa had conquered his brother. At various points along their j ourney, as they climbed the twelve thousand feet o r more in th e rarefied air and the piercing cold, they were met by envoys from the successful prince bearing beauti ful gifts and royal messages of welcome. With bold faces the army o f two hundred entered th e city and the very next day Pizarro sent an invitation to Ata hualpa to dine with him. The Inca prince came unarmed and in royal state to the plaza. Instead O f meeting him in a friendly way, Pizarro de m and ed that he swea r allegiance t E mperor o Charles and become a Atahualpa Christian. indignantly rej ected this request whereupon, Piza rro incensed at refusal urned his cav his t,, upon the unarmed There fol alr y Indians. lowed a scene O f merciless slaughter. Atahualpa was seized and made prisoner. Fifteen million dollars in gold were demanded as his ransom and he was accused Of many crimes. The money was all ac tu y and cheerfully paid by the Incas for the t release f thei B Pizarro after taking o r ut prince., the gold refused release He asked t o, him. A tahualpa whether he would prefer to be burned

52 T h e Stor y of Peru 3 5 alive o r strangled. He chose strangulation. Thus was he put to death a fter the most shameless betrayal o f the obligations o f hospitality. The account o f this treachery is o n e o f the most brutal records in all history. It was thus that the con quest O f Peru was accomplished. Aft ' er the death of their prince the Indians made little resistance. Pizarro then went o n down the coast and on the banks o f the Rimac founded a city which h e called the City o f the Kings. This is Lima. This was the beginning o f a period Of dissen sions and murders which lasted for many years. Fo r nearly three centuries Spanish viceroys ruled the country and it was not until , at Ayacucho, on the highlands Of Peru, independence was fought. that the last b attle o f Then the whole of South America was liberated from the tyranny of Spain and the realms Of the Incas were free to develop a new civilization. Although in the history of Peru the figure of Pi z arro stands o ut more prominently than that o f any other man, his intimate friend, Almagro, must not be forgotten. He acted as a foil f o r the scheming Pizarro. Almagro kept all his pledges. Pizarro was notorious for breaking his. Pizarro grew to hate his former friend and when at last he captured him, he had him foully dealt with and killed. B ut the friends o f Almagro were many. They bided their time, and o n the twenty-sixth o f

53 3 6 B elow t h e E quator June, , when Pizarro was at the height of his fame, he met his doom. A desperate band Of c onspirators broke into h is palace and killed him just as he a rose from the dinner table. What was once said of Charles I may also be said of Pizarro, namely, that nothing in his life so h e came him as his manner O f leaving it. Receiving a deadly thrust in the throat, he put his finger in the blood, made the cross o n the floor, sank down upon it and expired. With all his faults and they were many Pi z arro was a great man. Yet, with hundreds of statues erected everywhere in Peru, there is not o n e to be found o f Pizarro. Hero worshipers, as the South Americans a re, they ignore him com p l et el y. Yet what would South America be save f o r this same Pizarro!

54 CHAPTE R VI T H E CIT! O F T H E K INGS IMA at last! And the very first day we were there we attended mass in the famous o ld cathedral. Here we were shown the skeleton o f Pi z arro, who must have been a giant from the size of his Bones. This wonderful cathedral not only equals but surpasses all descriptions ever given o f it superb in its paintings, carvings, and alta r of gold lea Lima f. has SO many churches, and one is almost bewildered by their beauty and Their carvings of cedar m ah o sumptuousness., g any and rosewood the rich silver and gold orna,, ments, altar and tables of solid silver, leave one almost breathless with amazement. It was in Lima that Santa Rosa, the only saint anoni ed in America was Her remains c z, born. repose in the church of San Domingo under the altar but sh is represented everywhere in almost, e every She is really the patron f the o church. whole of South America, the West Indies and the B esides being a great saint she was Philippines., a very beautiful woman and enthusiasm runs h igh about her even a fter all these years. Lima has a 3 7

55 3 8 Below th e E qu ator hundred and seventy-five thousand inhabitants. She calls it two hundred and fifty thousand, but this includes Callao and some neighboring towns. The high expectations we had been led to expect O f South American courtesy and h ospitality were realized in The American minister GO V Lima., B enton M and his highly educated e rno r cmillin, and beautiful wife were more than Their, cordial. courteous attention to all strangers was proverbial, but they c ertainly overwhelmed us with kindness. Through them we met some o f the most distin g u ished notables O f the Peruvian government and many representatives o f their highest society. As an illustration Of thei r warm welcome, that we were interested in their city, knowing Minister M c M illin Obtained for us a View o f the wonderful Prado Museum. ' Ser i o r Prado himself was ill, and his entire family absent from the city at their summer home. B ut he was graciousness itself. E verything in this beautiful museum! which was also his home! had been closed f the summer o r, but he sent up his servants and had the whole place dusted and sunned. A member o f his family, a brother, came up for the occasion o f o u r visit and we Spent a whole beautiful day there. They served us luncheon, with wine and champagne, so much trouble were they willing to take f o r strangers who were suflicientl y interested t o come and see thei r country. It was wonderful, we thought.




59 40 Below th e E qu ator o wn private home. This chapel, though small, is perfect in every detail, exquisite in its fine O ld embroidered altar cloths, handsome silver and gold ornaments, and beautiful fresh flowers. The museum surpasses anything o f its kind that I have ever seen. Sc fi o r Prado s wealth, which is seemingly inexhaustible, has enabled him to gather together these rare and wonderful specimens. It delighted me t o learn that this splendid collection has been catalo g ued and rendered so interesting by the indefatigable efforts Of a woman, Sefi o rita Prado, the accomplished sister o f the owner. She was possessed f a brilliant mind and through o, her mentality and zeal many things were disc o v instance Fo sh came across some curious r e ered., Chinese 1nsc r1 p t in her studies and none f 10 n s O, the Chinese experts could interpret them satisfac t o ril y. She started at onc e to study Chinese, and after many years spent in learning the language, gave an interpretation which has satisfied the Prado has every specimen f Sefio r o scientists. the Inca and indeed f the pre-inca work from o,,, the finest gold and silver ornaments to the oldest copper Their feather ornaments em pans., b roideries weavings thei r gorgeous frescoed,, bird and animal designs and several f those o, frightful red ed h ad which are hideous u c e s so, in their attraction, are included in this colle e t 1on.