1 July, America s Global Image Remains More Positive than China s But Many See China Becoming World s Leading Power Andrew Kohut, Founding Director, Pew Research Center Pew Global Attitudes Project: Richard Wike, Associate Director Katie Simmons, Research Associate Jacob Poushter, Research Associate Aaron Ponce, Research Associate Cathy Barker, Research Assistant Kat Devlin, Research Assistant For Media Inquiries Contact: Vidya Krishnamurthy.. Pew Research Center: Bruce Stokes, Director of Pew Global Economic Attitudes, Pew Research Center James Bell, Director of International Survey Research, Pew Research Center Elizabeth Mueller Gross, Vice President, Pew Research Center Juliana Menasce Horowitz, Senior Researcher, Pew Research Center for the People & the Press
2 July, TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Overview: America s Global Image Remains More Positive than China s Chapter : Attitudes toward the United States Chapter : Global Opinion of Barack Obama Chapter : Attitudes toward China Chapter : Global Balance of Power Chapter : Respect for Personal Freedoms Survey Methods Regional Categorization Survey Topline Copyright Pew Research Center
3 America s Global Image Remains More Positive than China s But Many See China Becoming World s Leading Power Publics around the world believe the global balance of power is shifting. China s economic power is on the rise, and many think it will eventually supplant the United States as the world s dominant superpower. However, China s increasing power has not led to more positive ratings for the People s Republic. Overall, the U.S. enjoys a stronger global image than China. Across the nations surveyed, a median of % express a favorable opinion of the U.S., compared with % for China. Globally, people are more likely to consider the U.S. a partner to their country than to see China in this way, although relatively few think of either nation as an enemy. America is also seen as somewhat more willing than China to consider other countries interests. Still, both of these world powers are widely viewed as acting unilaterally in international affairs. Higher Ratings for the U.S. than for China And the military power of both nations worries many. China s growing military strength is viewed with trepidation in neighboring Japan, South Korea, Australia and the Philippines. Meanwhile, the Obama administration s use of drone strikes faces broad opposition half or more in of countries disapprove of U.S. drone attacks against extremist groups. U.S. China Overall rating % % Favorable Unfavorable Don t know Is the U.S./China a Partner Enemy Neither Don t know Does the U.S./China consider your country s interests? Great deal/fair amount Not too much/not at all Don t know Does the U.S./China respect personal freedoms of its people? Yes No Don t know Median percentages based on countries. PEW RESEARCH CENTER Qa, Qc, Q, Q, Q-Q, Qb-c. Respecting individual liberty remains the strong suit of America s image. Even in many nations where opposition to American foreign policy is widespread and overall ratings for the U.S. are low, majorities or pluralities believe individual rights are respected in the U.S. Across the nations surveyed, a median of % say the American government respects the personal freedoms of its people. In contrast, a median of only % say this about China.
4 Of course, attitudes toward the U.S. and China vary considerably across regions and countries. In Europe, the U.S. gets mostly positive ratings. During the presidency of George W. Bush, anti-americanism was common throughout much of Europe, but President Barack Obama has been consistently popular among Europeans, and since he took office in, Obama s popularity has given America s image a significant boost in the region. Currently, more than six-in-ten in Italy, Poland, France and Spain have a favorable opinion of the U.S. European perceptions of China are much less positive among the eight European Union nations polled, Greece is the only one in which a majority expresses a favorable view of China. Moreover, ratings for China have declined significantly over the last two years in a number of EU countries, including Britain, France, Poland and Spain. As has been the case in recent years, America s image is the most negative in parts of the Muslim world, especially Pakistan (% favorable), Jordan (%), Egypt (%), and the Palestinian territories (%). Only % of Turks see the U.S. positively, although this is actually a slight improvement from last year s %. But the Muslim world is hardly monolithic, and America receives largely positive ratings in predominantly Muslim nations such as Senegal in West Africa and Indonesia and Malaysia in Southeast Asia. Elsewhere in the Asia/Pacific region, the U.S. receives particularly favorable reviews in the Philippines, South Korea and Japan, and a majority or plurality in all three countries say it U.S., China Favorability % Favorable U.S. China Diff % % U.S Canada + Italy + Germany + Poland + Czech Rep. + France + Spain + Britain + Russia - Greece - MEDIAN Israel + Turkey - Lebanon - Tunisia - Jordan - Egypt - Palest. ter. - MEDIAN Japan + Philippines + S. Korea + Australia + China Indonesia - Malaysia - Pakistan - MEDIAN El Salvador + Mexico + Brazil + Chile + Bolivia - Argentina - Venezuela - MEDIAN S. Africa + Ghana + Uganda + Senegal + Kenya + Nigeria - MEDIAN PEW RESEARCH CENTER Qa & Qc.
5 is more important to have strong ties with the U.S. than with China. By a wide margin, the Japanese give China its worst ratings only % express a positive view. Territorial disputes have increased tensions between these two historic rivals over the past few years, and % of Japanese describe these disputes as a big or very big problem. Territorial frictions with China are also considered major problems in South Korea and the Philippines, although unlike Japan, South Koreans and Filipinos are divided in their overall assessments of China. Even though roughly seven-in-ten Australians (%) are concerned about the growing strength of the People s Liberation Army, a majority (%) nonetheless has a favorable opinion of China, their country s largest trading partner. In three predominantly Muslim Asian nations surveyed Indonesia, Malaysia and Pakistan large majorities express a positive overall view of China. Additionally, many Pakistanis and Malaysians welcome China s growing military power. Chinese investment in Latin America and sub-saharan Africa has increased significantly over the past decade, and views toward China are largely positive in both regions. Attitudes toward the U.S. also tend to be favorable, and overall the U.S. receives slightly higher ratings than China in these two regions. Additionally, America enjoys a soft power advantage over American vs. Chinese Soft Power China among Latin Latin America Americans and Africans. Median % positive view of American scientific and technological achievements, ways of doing business and popular culture are embraced by many. The appeal of U.S. soft power is generally stronger today in Latin America and Africa PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q-Q, Q-Q. than it was during the final years of the Bush administration. Africa American Chinese American Chinese % % % % Scientific & tech. advances Music, movies and television Ways of doing business Ideas about democracy Ideas and customs spreading Latin American countries include: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico, Venezuela. African countries include: Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda.
6 These are among the major findings of a new survey by the Pew Research Center conducted in countries among, respondents from March to May,. The survey also finds rising tensions between the American and Chinese publics. Just % of Americans express a positive view of China, down from % two years ago. Similarly, ratings for the U.S. have plummeted in China in a poll conducted a few months after a visit to China by President Obama, % had a favorable impression of the U.S., compared with % today. Young people in both countries express more positive attitudes about the other, a finding that is part of a broader pattern in many countries, both the U.S. and China receive more favorable marks from people under age. Changing Perceptions of Power Since the financial crisis, perceptions about the economic balance of power in the world have been shifting. Looking at the nations surveyed in both and, the median percentage naming the U.S. as the world s leading economic power has declined from % to %, while the median percentage placing China in the top spot has risen from % to %. Who Is World s Leading Economic Power? U.S. China This trend has been especially apparent among some of America s closest allies in Western Europe. Today, for example, % in Britain say China is the leading economy; just % name the U.S. Roughly six-in-ten Germans (%) say China occupies the top position, while only % think the U.S. is the global economic leader (% say it is the EU). Median percentage naming the U.S. and China as world s leading economic power based on only the countries surveyed in both and. PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q. Many believe China s economic might is growing, but the U.S. is still generally seen as the world s leading economy in Latin America, Africa and in much of China s own backyard. More than six-in-ten in Japan (%), the Philippines (%), and South Korea (%) name the U.S. as the leading economic power. Results for India are not reported due to concerns about the survey s administration in the field.
7 However, even in many countries where America is still seen as the top economic power, most believe China will someday become the leading overall superpower. In of nations, majorities or pluralities say China either already has replaced or eventually will replace the U.S. as the top superpower. This view is more common now than it was in, when Pew Research first asked this question. Today, majorities or pluralities in only six countries believe China will never replace the U.S. Throughout much of Europe, the prevailing view is that China will ultimately eclipse the U.S. as the leading superpower. And this is the majority or plurality view in five of the seven Latin American nations polled. Two-thirds of the Chinese believe their country either already has or someday will supplant the U.S. Americans are divided: % say China has or will replace the U.S., and % say this will never happen. American opinion has shifted significantly since, when only % said China would become the top global power and % believed it would never replace the U.S. Mostly Positive Views of U.S., Obama In the current poll, half or more of those surveyed have a positive opinion of the U.S. in of nations. The percentage of people who give the U.S. a positive rating has increased significantly in of the countries polled both this year and in, when the Pew Research Center last conducted a global survey on this scale. Many Say China Is or Will Be World s Leading Superpower % China will eventually/has already replace(d) U.S. % % % % Canada U.S. Spain France Britain Germany Greece Poland Czech Rep Russia Italy Palest. ter. -- Jordan Tunisia Israel -- Lebanon Egypt -- Turkey Australia China S. Korea -- Pakistan Indonesia Malaysia Japan Philippines Venezuela Chile Argentina -- Mexico Bolivia Brazil El Salvador Kenya -- S. Africa Senegal Ghana Nigeria Uganda PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
8 America s improved image is coincident with Barack Obama assuming the presidency in. Obama has largely received more positive ratings than his predecessor, George W. Bush. Today, at least half of those polled in of nations say they have confidence in the American president to do the right thing in world affairs. Eight-in-ten or more hold this view in Germany (%), the Philippines (%), France (%), Canada (%) and Kenya (%). Even so, Obama s ratings are lower now than when he first took office. The decline has been especially steep in China, where confidence in the American president today (%) is half of what it was in (%). Similarly, support for Obama s policies has waned since the beginning of his presidency. For instance, even though he remains largely popular in Europe, approval of his international policies has declined by double digits since in Britain, Poland and France. Drone strikes, one of the key features of Obama s national security policy, are widely opposed across the globe. In of nations, at least half disapprove of U.S. drone attacks against extremists in countries such as Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia. In countries, eight-in-ten or more hold this view. The only countries in which a majority supports American drone strikes are Israel (%), Kenya (%), and the U.S. itself (%). Mostly Positive Ratings for Obama % Confidence in Obama to do right thing regarding world affairs % % % % % Canada U.S. Germany France Italy Czech Rep Britain Spain Poland Greece Russia Israel Lebanon Turkey Egypt Jordan Tunisia Palest. ter Philippines Australia S. Korea Japan Indonesia -- Malaysia China Pakistan Brazil -- Chile El Salvador Mexico Argentina Bolivia Venezuela Kenya -- Senegal S. Africa Uganda Ghana Nigeria PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
9 Few Think China Respects Individual Rights In of countries, at least half of those surveyed give China a favorable rating. In only countries do at least half consider China a partner. One of the major challenges for China s global image is that few believe the Chinese government respects the personal freedoms of its people. In only countries in the survey do at least half hold this view. In contrast, majorities or pluralities in of nations believe the American government respects the individual freedoms of its citizens. Another challenge for China s image is that around the world the prevailing view is that China acts unilaterally in world affairs, pursuing in its own interests and not taking into account the interests of other countries when making foreign policy decisions. In of nations, more than half say China considers their interests not too much or not at all. In this respect, China faces the same challenge the U.S. has faced for years, during the presidencies of both George W. Bush and Barack Obama. Over the past decade, and again in this year s poll, most of those surveyed say the U.S. ignores their interest when it is making foreign policy. Also of Note: Aspects of American and Chinese soft power are particularly appealing to young people in Latin America and Africa. U.S. economic aid is viewed favorably in the African nations surveyed. However, on balance, Egyptians and Pakistanis say it is having a negative impact in their countries. Lebanese attitudes toward the U.S. differ sharply among the country s religious communities, with Lebanese Sunni Muslims (% favorable) and Christians (%) expressing much more positive views than Shia Muslims (%). In Nigeria, the U.S. receives especially positive reviews from Christians (% favorable), although a majority of Muslims (%) also express a favorable opinion. A majority of Chinese (%) believe their country should be more respected around the world than it currently is.
10 . Attitudes toward the United States Overall, global attitudes toward America are positive. In of nations, half or more of those surveyed express a favorable opinion of the U.S. U.S. Gets Largely Favorable Reviews North America Canada Unfavorable Favorable Europeans generally give the U.S. high ratings, especially in Italy, where % now have a positive view of America, up from % last year and % in. Greece is the only European country polled where fewer than half offer a positive assessment of the U.S. Europe Italy Poland France Spain Britain Czech Rep. Germany Russia Greece In both France and Germany, ratings for the U.S. are much higher today than they were during President George W. Bush s tenure, but they have also declined somewhat since, the first year of Barack Obama s presidency. About eight-in-ten Israelis (%) have a favorable opinion of the U.S., although there are large differences between the country s Jewish (% favorable) and Arab (%) communities. Elsewhere in the Middle East, ratings are much more negative. Less than one-in-five Palestinians, Egyptians, and Jordanians offer a favorable opinion. Tunisians are somewhat more positive (%), as are Lebanese (%). In Lebanon, however, views differ considerably among Lebanese Sunni Muslims (% favorable), Christians (%), and Shia Muslims (%). The U.S. continues to receive largely negative ratings in Turkey, although the percentage of Turks with a positive view of the U.S. has risen six percentage points since last year. Middle East Israel Lebanon Tunisia Turkey Palest. ter. Egypt Jordan Asia/Pacific Philippines S. Korea Japan Australia Indonesia Malaysia China Pakistan Latin America El Salvador Brazil Chile Mexico Bolivia Venezuela Argentina Africa Ghana Senegal Kenya Uganda S. Africa Nigeria PEW RESEARCH CENTER Qa.
11 The U.S. receives largely positive ratings in most of the nations surveyed in the Asia/Pacific region. This is especially true in the Philippines, South Korea, Japan, and Australia, where about two-thirds or more hold this view. The U.S. also gets mostly favorable marks in the predominantly Muslim nations of Indonesia and Malaysia. In Malaysia, where positive views of the U.S. have more than doubled since the last time Pew Research polled there in, the minority Buddhist community (% favorable) expresses more positive attitudes than the country s Muslim population (%). There are, however, two exceptions in Asia: China and Pakistan. Chinese attitudes have changed significantly over the past three years in, % had a favorable opinion of the U.S., compared with % now. Meanwhile, anti-americanism has been widespread in Pakistan in recent years, and today just % have a favorable view. Ethnic and Religious Divisions on Views of U.S. Fav Unfav DK % % % Israel Jewish Arab Lebanon Christian Sunni Shia Malaysia Muslim Buddhist Nigeria Christian Muslim The U.S. receives mostly favorable ratings in Latin America, PEW RESEARCH CENTER Qa. particularly in El Salvador, Brazil, Chile and Mexico. Brazilians and Mexicans have become notably more positive toward the U.S. in just the past year. Even in Bolivia and Venezuela, two countries where national leaders have regularly engaged in anti-american rhetoric over the past few years, the U.S. on balance gets positive marks, although in both countries ratings are higher among people on the political right than among those on the left. The exception in Latin America is Argentina, where just % express a favorable view, although this is still much more positive than the % registered in. As has been the case in previous years, Africans overwhelmingly offer favorable assessments of the U.S. In all six sub-saharan African nations polled, roughly seven-in-ten or more see America in a positive light. This includes the four largely Christian nations of Uganda, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa, as well as predominantly Muslim Senegal. In Nigeria, where the population is almost evenly divided between Christians and Muslims, majorities of both groups have a favorable opinion of the U.S., although this view is more common among Christians (%) than Muslims (%).
12 U.S. Favorability / % % % % % % % % % % % % % Canada Britain France Germany Italy Spain Greece Poland Czech Rep Russia Turkey Egypt Jordan -- Lebanon Palest. ter Tunisia Israel Australia China Indonesia Japan Malaysia Pakistan -- Philippines S. Korea Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile El Salvador Mexico Venezuela Ghana Kenya Nigeria Senegal S. Africa Uganda / survey trends provided by the U.S. Department of State. PEW RESEARCH CENTER Qa.
13 Young People Give U.S. Higher Marks In many of the nations surveyed, people under age are especially likely to have a positive view of America. This is particularly true in Turkey, where % of - to -year-olds give the U.S. a favorable rating, compared with just % of Turks age and older. Double-Digit Age Gap on Views of U.S. in Many Countries Half of those under age in China have a favorable view, compared with just % among people and older. Similarly, in Malaysia there is a percentage point gap between - to -year-olds and those and older. Double-digit age gaps also appear in a variety of countries from Europe, the Middle East, Latin America and Africa. % Favorable Oldestyoungest gap % % % Turkey - China - Malaysia - Poland - Czech Rep. - Russia - Lebanon - Argentina - Bolivia - Venezuela - Italy - Brazil - Germany - In several nations, the college educated also express more positive attitudes toward the U.S. For example, % of Chinese with a college Senegal Britain Mexico degree give the U.S. a positive rating, PEW RESEARCH CENTER Qa. compared with just % of those with less education. In Russia, % of people with a college degree express a favorable opinion, while just % hold this view among those who have not graduated from college. There are also double-digit education gaps in Pakistan, Venezuela and Tunisia. Rating the American People Attitudes toward the American people are highly correlated with overall views of the U.S. In of countries, at least half of those surveyed express a favorable opinion of Americans. Three-in-four or more hold this view in a diverse set of nations: the Philippines, Ghana, South Korea, Israel, Senegal, Kenya and El Salvador. Ratings are lowest among the predominantly Muslim publics of Pakistan, Turkey, the Palestinian territories, Jordan and Egypt. However, it is worth noting that the American people receive significantly higher ratings than the U.S. in general among both Egyptians (Americans % favorable, U.S. %) and Jordanians (Americans %, U.S. %).
14 China is the only other country where more than half (%) express an unfavorable opinion of the American people. Many See U.S. as Partner When asked whether they think of the U.S. as a partner to their country, an enemy, or neither, clear majorities in nations say it is a partner. And the U.S. is seen as an enemy by clear majorities or pluralities in only four of the nations included in the survey. Seeing America as a partner is especially common in Africa, where majorities in all six nations surveyed hold this view. Majorities in five of the eight EU countries polled also describe the U.S. as a partner. However, only % of Greeks express this opinion, while roughly one-in-five (%) say the U.S. is an enemy. Russians are closely divided: % consider the U.S. a partner, but nearly as many (%) see it as an enemy, and % believe it is neither. Among Middle Eastern nations, only Israelis think of the U.S. as a partner (% hold this view). In contrast, % of Palestinians consider the U.S. an enemy, the highest percentage among the nations surveyed. Nearly half of Turks (%) see America as an enemy, as do % of Lebanese. But views in Lebanon vary considerably among the country s religious communities, with % of Shias, % of Christians, and % of Sunnis describing the U.S. as an enemy. Few Say U.S. Is an Enemy U.S. is more of a Partner Enemy Neither % % % Canada Germany France Italy Britain Czech Rep. Spain Poland Russia Greece Israel Lebanon Tunisia Egypt Jordan Turkey Palest. ter. Philippines Japan Australia S. Korea Malaysia Indonesia Pakistan El Salvador Brazil Chile Mexico Venezuela Argentina Bolivia Senegal Kenya Ghana Uganda Nigeria S. Africa PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
15 Majorities in five of seven Asia/Pacific nations think of the U.S. as a partner, and, with one major exception, very few say it is an enemy. The exception is Pakistan, where % describe America as an enemy. How Much Does the U.S. Consider Your Country s Interests? Not too much/ North America at all Canada Great deal/ fair amount In Latin America, most Salvadorans, Brazilians, Chileans and Mexicans consider the U.S. a partner. About a third express this view in Argentina and Bolivia, although in both nations, people are more likely to think of the U.S. as a partner than as an enemy. Venezuelans are divided, however, with roughly equal numbers saying partner and enemy. In China, where a different version of the question was asked, % describe the relationship between the U.S. and China as one of cooperation, down sharply from % in. Today, % say the relationship is one of hostility, up from % three years ago. About one-in-three (%) say it is neither cooperative nor hostile, and % have no opinion. Europe Spain Greece Czech Rep. Russia France Poland Britain Italy Germany Middle East Egypt Palest. ter. Jordan Turkey Lebanon Tunisia Israel Asia/Pacific Australia S. Korea Japan Pakistan Malaysia China Indonesia Philippines Does the U.S. Listen to Other Countries? Around the world, many believe the U.S. acts in its own self-interest in global affairs, ignoring other countries. Majorities throughout nearly all of the European and Middle Eastern nations polled say America does not consider the interests of countries like theirs when making foreign policy decisions. Latin America Argentina Chile Bolivia Mexico Venezuela Brazil El Salvador Africa Ghana Nigeria S. Africa Kenya Uganda Senegal Germany and Israel are the exceptions in these two regions. Germans are almost evenly PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
16 divided between those who think the U.S. considers other nations and those who do not believe this. Meanwhile, % of Israelis say the U.S. considers their interests. Opinions are divided in Asia. Filipinos overwhelming think the U.S. considers their interests, and on balance, Indonesians and Chinese tend to agree. Views are split in Malaysia, while the Japanese, South Koreans, Australians and Pakistanis believe the U.S. acts unilaterally. Throughout the African nations surveyed, most think the U.S. considers their interests, and at least half say the same in four of the seven Latin American countries polled. However, most Bolivians, Chileans and Argentines believe the U.S. does not consider their interests. For their part, Americans see this issue quite differently: % say their country does take into account the interests of other nations when it is making decisions about foreign policy. Drones Strikes Widely Unpopular In most of the nations polled, there continues to be extensive opposition to the American drone campaign against extremist leaders and organizations. In nations, at least half disapprove of the U.S. conducting drone missile strikes targeting extremists in places such as Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia. At least three-in-four hold this view in countries from all corners of the world, including nations from the Middle East, Europe, Latin America and Asia. Widespread Opposition to Drones Israel U.S. Kenya S. Africa Germany France Australia Philippines Nigeria Uganda Canada Britain Poland Senegal Czech Rep. S. Korea Ghana Mexico Lebanon Japan China Italy Spain Russia Brazil El Salvador Chile Malaysia Indonesia Turkey Tunisia Venezuela Argentina Greece Pakistan Bolivia Egypt Jordan Palest. ter. PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q. Disapprove Approve
17 The only three countries where majorities support the drone campaign are Israel (% approve), Kenya (%), and the U.S. itself (%). In the U.S., Republicans (% approve) are especially likely to endorse this policy, although most independents (%) and Democrats (%) also approve. Opinions on this issue are essentially divided in Australia, Canada and Germany. German support for U.S. drone attacks has actually risen slightly since last year today, % approve, compared with % in. Although most in France still oppose the drone strikes, support has also increased there, rising from % last year to % now. In France, Germany and Spain, there are sharp ideological divisions on this issue, with those on the political right far more supportive of U.S. drone strikes than those on the left side of the political spectrum. Views about drones also differ sharply along gender lines in many countries. For instance, in Japan, % of men approve of the drone attacks, compared with just % of women. Double digit gender gaps are also found in six of the eight EU nations polled, as well as Australia, Canada, the U.S., South Korea and Uganda. Less Support for Drones on Left % Approve of U.S. drone strikes Rightleft Left Center Right gap % % % France + Spain + Germany + Britain + Greece + Italy + Poland - PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q. Wide Gender Divide on Drone Strikes % Approve of U.S. drone strikes Male Female Gap % % Japan - Czech Rep. - Canada - Australia - Germany - Spain - Britain - Poland - U.S. - France - S. Korea - Uganda - PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
18 American Culture and Ideas Across the African nations surveyed, publics embrace key elements of American soft power. And throughout much of Latin America, people tend to agree, although U.S. soft power has somewhat less appeal in Argentina, Bolivia and Venezuela. America s achievements in science and technology are a particularly strong aspect of its international image. Solid majorities in all seven Latin American countries and all six African nations polled admire the U.S. for its scientific and technological advances. American Soft Power U.S. science and tech. advances U.S. music, movies, TV % Positive U.S. ways of doing business U.S. ideas about democracy U.S. ideas and customs spreading % % % % % Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile El Salvador Mexico Venezuela MEDIAN Ghana Kenya Nigeria Senegal S. Africa Uganda MEDIAN PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q-Q. American music, movies and television are also widely popular. The only nation surveyed in which less than half say they like American pop culture is Uganda, where just under half (%) hold this view. In Africa, U.S. ways of doing business are very popular, but reviews are more mixed in Latin America. At least half of Salvadorans, Brazilians, Chileans and Mexicans like American-style business, but only % of Bolivians, % of Venezuelans, and % of Argentines do.
19 Similarly, American ideas about democracy are popular in Africa but have less appeal in Latin America. El Salvador and Brazil are the only countries in the region where majorities say they like U.S. ideas about democracy. But American-style democracy is more popular today in the three Latin American countries where trends are available from. The appeal of these ideas is also stronger today in Uganda and Kenya. Even in countries where many aspects of America s image are popular, there are concerns about the reach of U.S. influence. Just % of Ugandans and % of Ghanaians think it is a good thing that U.S. ideas and customs are spreading to their country. Only about a third of Argentines, Bolivians, Chileans and Venezuelans hold this opinion. Still, most in Senegal, Kenya, South Africa and Nigeria welcome the spread of American culture, as do most in El Salvador and Brazil. American Ideas about Democracy % Like U.S. ideas about democracy Change % % Argentina + Mexico + Chile + El Salvador Brazil Venezuela Bolivia Uganda + Kenya + Ghana Senegal Nigeria S. Africa PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q. Across all of these questions about American culture and ideas, young people regularly express more positive attitudes. This is especially true regarding impressions of U.S. pop culture. For instance, % of - to -year-old Bolivians like American music, movies and television, compared with % of - to -year-olds and % of people and older. There is a similar age gap in Senegal, where % of those under age like U.S. pop culture, while % of - to -year-olds and % of those and older agree. U.S. Economic Aid Viewed Positively in Africa U.S. Economic Aid Throughout the sub-saharan African countries surveyed, the U.S. receives positive marks for the economic assistance it provides. At least half in all six countries say American economic aid is having a mostly positive impact on their countries, and more than six-in-ten hold this view in Kenya, Ghana and Uganda. Impact of U.S. economic aid Mostly positive Mostly negative No impact DK % % % % Kenya Ghana Uganda S. Africa Nigeria Senegal Egypt Pakistan PEW RESEARCH CENTER Qa & Q.
20 However, in Egypt and Pakistan, two nations that are major recipients of U.S. assistance, evaluations are very different. A % majority of Egyptians say American economic aid is having a mostly negative effect on their country. In Pakistan, % think the impact is mostly negative, while just % say it is positive.
21 . Global Opinion of Barack Obama President Barack Obama is popular with many people around the world, especially in Europe, Africa and parts of the Asia/Pacific region. Nonetheless, positive views of Obama s presidency have slipped somewhat since, with confidence in the American president and approval of his foreign policies dropping in most countries surveyed over the past four years, in some cases significantly. Confidence in Obama Many publics around the world have confidence in President Obama to do the right thing in world affairs. At least half in of the countries surveyed give the American leader high marks, though there is large regional variation. Majorities throughout much of Europe as well as in the U.S. and Canada express confidence in Obama s handling of global issues. This includes at least eightin-ten in Germany (%), France (%) and Canada Confidence in Obama High but Declining % Confidence to do the right thing in world affairs Change - % % % % % U.S. - Canada Britain - France - Germany - Italy Spain - Greece Poland - Czech Rep Russia - Turkey - Egypt - Jordan - Lebanon - Palest. ter Tunisia Israel Australia China - Indonesia -- - Japan - Malaysia Pakistan - Philippines S. Korea Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile El Salvador Mexico - Venezuela Ghana Kenya -- - Nigeria Senegal S. Africa Uganda PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
22 (%). Poles, Russians and Greeks, meanwhile, are much less likely to say they trust Obama to do the right thing. Publics in Africa and the Asia/Pacific region also give Obama high marks. In Africa, clear majorities in nearly every country surveyed say they have confidence in the U.S. president, including % in Kenya, the land of his father s birth. In the Asia/Pacific region, at least half in most countries trust Obama to do the right thing in world affairs. The Chinese (%) and Pakistanis (%) are much less likely to agree. Opinion is more divided in Latin America. While roughly half or more express confidence in Obama in Brazil, Chile, El Salvador and Mexico, many fewer say the same in the other countries surveyed. Venezuelans are particularly unlikely to give the U.S. leader good marks. Among the regions surveyed, people in the Middle East express the lowest levels of confidence in President Obama. About three-in-ten or fewer in most countries say they trust Obama to do the right thing in global affairs. The one exception is Israel, where % have confidence in the American leader. Despite high marks from most publics, confidence in the U.S. president has decreased over Obama s first term in office. There have been double-digit declines since in of the countries surveyed in both years. The drop in trust has been particularly large in China, where % of the public expressed confidence in Obama in, but just % do so today. Nonetheless, Obama is still rated more highly than President George W. Bush was in most countries surveyed in and. The gap in confidence in the two American leaders is especially large in Europe. But even in the Middle East, where both presidents received low ratings, the Turks, Egyptians and Jordanians are much more likely to have confidence in Obama than they did in Bush. More Confidence in Obama than Bush Confidence No confidence Bush: Obama: Medians based on the countries surveyed in both and. PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
23 Approval of Obama s Policies Many around the world approve of Obama s international policies, though in most countries his foreign policy agenda is less popular now than in. Today, broad majorities in Canada and much of Europe endorse Obama s international policies, and % in the U.S. agree. Greeks and Russians offer much less positive evaluations of Obama s performance. In many Asian and African countries, majorities support Obama s international policies. However, compared with general confidence in the U.S. leader, approval of Obama s policies tends to be lower in these two regions. For example, while % of Malaysians trust Obama to do the right thing in world affairs, just % endorse his foreign policies. Similarly, % in Uganda say they have confidence in Obama, but only % offer a positive evaluation of his policies. In Latin America, Brazil and El Salvador are the only countries surveyed where majorities approve of Obama s international policies. Venezuelans are the least likely to express support. Publics in the Middle East give Obama s foreign policy agenda very low marks. In most of the countries surveyed, roughly two-in-ten or fewer support his international policies. Israelis again stand out % endorse Obama s policies. Nonetheless, the honeymoon with Obama may Obama s International Policies % Approve Change - % % % % U.S. - Canada Russia - Britain - Poland - France - Spain - Germany - Czech Rep Italy Greece Palest. ter Egypt - Turkey - Jordan - Lebanon - Israel Tunisia China - Indonesia -- - Japan - Pakistan - S. Korea -- + Philippines Australia Malaysia Argentina -- - Mexico - Brazil El Salvador Chile Bolivia Venezuela Kenya -- - Senegal S. Africa Uganda Ghana Nigeria PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
24 be over for many publics. Among the countries surveyed in and, approval of Obama s international policies has dropped by roughly percentage points or more over the past four years in China (-), Indonesia (-), Argentina (-), the Palestinian territories (-), Egypt (-) and Kenya (-). In most of the other countries surveyed in both years, approval has declined by at least ten percentage points. Obama s Re-Election and Views of the U.S. Despite a decline in positive evaluations of Obama, many around the world say that his reelection led them to have a more favorable opinion of the U.S. In of countries across North America, Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia, pluralities or majorities say the election improved their image of America. In many of the remaining countries surveyed, the consensus is that Obama s re-election did not change people s opinions of the U.S. For example, % in Russia, % in Greece, % in Argentina, % in Lebanon and % in Jordan volunteer that the election made no difference in how they feel about the U.S. Egypt is the only country surveyed where a plurality of people say they now have a more negative image of the U.S. because of Obama s re-election. Nevertheless, U.S. favorability has remained stable in Egypt over the past few years: between % and % each year since say they have a positive opinion of the U.S. Obama s Re-Election Viewed Favorably Did the re-election of President Obama lead you to have a more favorable or less favorable opinion of the U.S.? More favorable Less favorable (Vol) No change DK % % % % Canada France Germany Italy Spain Czech Rep. Britain Poland Greece Russia Israel Lebanon Turkey Jordan Tunisia Egypt Palest. ter. Philippines S. Korea Australia Japan Indonesia Malaysia China Pakistan El Salvador Brazil Chile Mexico Argentina Venezuela Bolivia Kenya Senegal S. Africa Uganda Ghana Nigeria Statistically significant pluralities and majorities are in bold. PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
25 As with confidence in the U.S. president, reactions to Obama s re-election are very different than reactions to Bush s re-election. In most countries surveyed in both and, people were much more likely to say that Bush s re-election led them to have a less favorable opinion of the U.S. than to say the same about Obama s re-election. Obama and Bush s Re-elections Did the re-election of President [Bush/Obama] lead you to have a more favorable or less favorable opinion of the U.S.? France Germany Canada Spain Britain More favorable For example, at least half of Indonesia the publics in Germany, Poland Canada, France, Britain, Turkey, Spain, Lebanon and Lebanon Indonesia said Bush s reelection tarnished their Turkey image of the U.S. By Jordan comparison, roughly a third or fewer in each country say Russia the same about Obama s reelection. Russians and Pakistan Pakistanis were also significantly more likely to PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q. say their opinion of the U.S. soured after Bush s re-election than to say the same about Obama. Less favorable (Vol) No change DK % % % % Statistically significant pluralities and majorities are in bold.
26 . Attitudes toward China China is viewed favorably in just half ( of ) of the nations surveyed excluding China itself. Beijing s strongest supporters are in Asia in Malaysia (%) and Pakistan (%) and in the African nations of Kenya (%), Senegal (%) and Nigeria (%). There is also a high positive opinion of China in Latin American nations that have become large commodity exporters to Beijing, such as Venezuela (%), Brazil (%) and Chile (%). This favorable opinion toward the People s Republic is not shared everywhere, however. Only % of Germans and Italians and % of Americans hold a favorable view of China. But it is in Japan where, more than anywhere else, antipathy toward China is striking. Just % of Japanese have a favorable opinion of China. There has not been much change in views of China in most nations for which comparable survey data exist. The greatest improvements in China s China Favorability Largely Unchanged from % % % % % % % Change U.S. Canada Spain + Poland + Russia + Italy + Britain Czech Rep. France Germany Greece Lebanon + Turkey + Palest. ter. + Jordan Israel Egypt Tunisia Indonesia + Pakistan + Malaysia S. Korea Japan Australia Philippines Argentina + Mexico + Chile Venezuela Brazil Bolivia El Salvador Uganda + Kenya Ghana Senegal Nigeria S. Africa PEW RESEARCH CENTER Qc.
27 image have been in Argentina, up percentage points, and Uganda, up points. The most significant deterioration in attitudes toward China has occurred in Japan, down points, and Egypt, down points over the past six years. But in much of Europe and the United States, as well as parts of the Middle East, this six-year trend line masks a significant reversal of opinion since the peak of pro-china sentiment in those countries in. In just the past two years, favorability toward China has fallen percentage points in the United States, points in Britain and points in France. This is likely the result of unease about China as a commercial competitor, European frustration with Chinese unilateralism in foreign affairs, and American concern about the U.S. trade deficit with China and Beijing s holding of American debt. Over that same period, favorability of China is down points in the Palestinian territories, points in Egypt and points in Israel, where frustration with Chinese unilateralism in international affairs may have a particularly corrosive effect. Nevertheless, outright anti-china sentiment is limited. In, in just of the nations surveyed is China actually viewed unfavorably by at least half of those surveyed. The strongest anti-china sentiment is in Japan, where % see the People s Republic in a negative light, including % of Japanese who have a very unfavorable view of China. There are also large majorities in Germany (%), Italy (%) and Israel (%) who hold negative views of China. The rise in anti-china sentiment in Germany is particularly striking. In, only % of Germans had an unfavorable view of China. Since then, negative sentiments have risen percentage points. And such unfavorable views exist despite Germany s success exporting to China. China Best Liked in Africa Attitudes toward China also vary markedly by region of the world. A median of less than half of those surveyed in North America, Europe and the Middle East has a positive view of China. At the same time, a median of % in Africa and % in Asia and Latin America look favorably on China. Favorable Unfavorable % % Canada U.S. Africa Latin America Asia Middle East Europe Regional medians. PEW RESEARCH CENTER Qc.
28 A Partner to Some, an Enemy to Few Half or more of those surveyed in of nations see China as more of a partner for their country than as an enemy. This is particularly the case in Pakistan (where % view China as a partner). Islamabad has been the recipient of a great deal of Chinese financial assistance over the years. In addition, Malaysians (%) view China as a partner. Publics in a number of African nations including Senegal (%), Kenya (%), Nigeria (%) and Ghana (%) are strongly of the view that China is a national partner. China is the second leading trading partner with Ghana and Kenya, the fourth leading trade partner with Nigeria and the fifth with Senegal. A similar sense of partnership exists in Venezuela (%), which sells a great deal of oil to China, and Chile (%), which sells Beijing copper. A majority or plurality in nations including a majority in the United States (%) see China as neither a partner nor an enemy. And only in four nations Japan (%), the Philippines (%), Italy (%) and Turkey (%) does a significant minority view China as an enemy of their country. China Seen as Partner, Not Enemy China is more of a Partner Enemy Neither % % % Canada U.S. Russia Greece Czech Rep. Germany Spain Poland France Britain Italy Tunisia Jordan Lebanon Egypt Palest. ter. Turkey Israel Pakistan Malaysia Indonesia Australia S. Korea Philippines Japan Venezuela Chile El Salvador Argentina Brazil Bolivia Mexico Senegal Kenya Nigeria Ghana Uganda S. Africa PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
29 China s Soft Power: Limited There is evidence that China s global influence, at least as measured by some aspects of Chinese soft power, is respected, especially in Africa and among the young. In some cases, though, significant portions of those people surveyed voiced no opinion. Chinese Soft Power in Africa and Latin America: Science, Not Music Median % positive view of China s Scientific and technological advances Latin America Africa Chinese scientific and technological advances are the most widely appreciated aspect of China s influence in both Africa (a median of % like such aspects of China) and Latin America (%). On all other measures, Africans tend to have a more positive view toward Chinese soft power than Latin Americans. Africans (a median of %) are particularly appreciative of Chinese ways of doing business. Way of doing business Ideas and customs spreading Music, movies and television PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q Q. But the spread of Chinese ideas and customs and Chinese cultural products such as music, movies and television lack majority appeal in both Africa and Latin America. Science and technology are China s most popular soft power. Majorities in all African and Latin American countries surveyed have a positive view of these attributes of Chinese influence. Fully % of Nigerians and % of Salvadorans and Venezuelans admire China s technological and scientific advances, as do % of Senegalese, and % of Ghanaians, Kenyans and Chileans. There are several reasons why publics may admire Chinese scientific and technological success. It may be an appreciation of the great strides Chinese companies have made in branding products such as Lenovo with computers and Huawei with mobile phones or an understanding that many parts in laptops or tablets come from China or it may simply pick up a China s Science and Technology Widely Admired China s technological and scientific advances Do not Admire admire DK % % % El Salvador Venezuela Chile Argentina Bolivia Brazil Mexico Nigeria Senegal Ghana Kenya Uganda S. Africa PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
30 respect for more mundane made-in-china consumer products such as refrigerators and microwave ovens. Perhaps in admiration of China s record of strong economic growth, perhaps because China has become a major trade and investment partner, or perhaps for other reasons, the Chinese way of doing business is particularly attractive to people in Africa. More than half of those surveyed in five of six countries admire China s business acumen. This includes % of Nigerians, % of Kenyans and % of Senegalese. Only South Africans are divided on Chinese business practices, with % liking them and % disliking them. Perceptions are different in Latin America, however, where in a number of countries a high proportion of people voice no opinion about China s way of doing business. Only in Venezuela (%) does more than half the population admire Chinese business practices. This may be because China is Venezuela s second-largest export market, exceeded only by the United States. And by two-to-one, Chileans (% to %) like Chinese business operations, possibly reflecting the fact that China is now Chile s main trading partner, buying nearly a Chinese music, movies and quarter of Chile s exports. television But such close business ties can cut both ways. China is Brazil s largest trading partner. Nevertheless, roughly half of Brazilians (%) dislike China s way of doing business. Chinese pop culture is not well liked in much of either Africa or Latin America, in part because significant portions in seven of the nations surveyed have no Chinese Business Practices Liked in Much of Africa Chinese ways of doing business Like Dislike DK % % % Venezuela Chile El Salvador Brazil Bolivia Mexico Argentina Nigeria Kenya Senegal Uganda Ghana S. Africa PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q. Spread of Chinese Ideas and Customs Mostly Disliked Chinese ideas and customs are spreading here Like Dislike DK Good Bad DK % % % % % % Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile El Salvador Mexico Venezuela Ghana Kenya Nigeria Senegal S. Africa Uganda PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q & Q.
31 opinion. Of those who have a view, Chinese music, movies and television is disliked by majorities in six countries, including in Brazil (%), Argentina (%), El Salvador (%) and South Africa (%). Only in Nigeria (%) do most people have an affinity for such Chinese exports. In only three of the countries surveyed in Africa and Latin America in Senegal (%), Nigeria (%) and Kenya (%) do more than half think it is good that Chinese ideas and customs are spreading in their country. Half or more of those surveyed in eight nations all countries surveyed in Latin America and one African country think such Chinese influence is a bad thing, including in Ghana (%), Brazil (%) and Chile (%). China s Appeal to Young Adults China s greatest global asset in the future may be its appeal among young adults around the world. In of the nations surveyed, younger people are significantly more likely than older people to look favorably on China. This is true in North America, in six of the nine nations surveyed in Europe and five of the seven countries in Latin America. Many Young People More Favorable toward China % Favorable of China Youngest + oldest gap % % % Turkey + U.S. + Poland + Argentina + France + Britain + Philippines + Canada + More than three times as many young Turks as older Turks look favorably on China as do Brazil + El Salvador + more than twice as many young Americans as older Americans. Fully % of those aged to in the United States have a positive opinion Italy Bolivia Tunisia of China, compared with just % who hold Czech Rep. + Venezuela + such views among people aged and older. In Russia + Poland the generational split is % to %, in PEW RESEARCH CENTER Qc. Argentina % to %, in France % to %, and in Britain % to %. The pattern is reversed only in South Korea, where % of those aged to hold an unfavorable view of their neighbor, while % of people years of age and older see China unfavorably.
32 Certain aspects of Chinese soft power seem to be particularly appealing to the young. In many African and Latin American nations, it is those aged to who most admire China s scientific and technological prowess. Eight-inten or more young adults in Nigeria, El Salvador, Venezuela, Senegal and Argentina see such advances as a positive attribute of Chinese soft power. The generation gap is particularly large in Bolivia ( percentage points), but also in Argentina ( points) and Brazil ( points). Chinese pop culture fares better with the younger generation, as well. They are much more likely than older people, at least in some nations, to appreciate such Chinese soft power. About half or more of those aged to in Nigeria (%) and Ghana (%) like Chinese music, movies and TV, as do large minorities of the young in Bolivia (%) and Senegal (%). In addition, the spread of Chinese ideas and customs has majority strong only among the young in Senegal (%), Kenya (%) and Nigeria (%). Young Admire China s Scientific and Technological Advances % Admire China for its science and technological advances Youngest + oldest gap % % % Bolivia + Argentina + Brazil + Senegal + S. Africa + El Salvador + Nigeria + Venezuela + PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q. Chinese Pop Culture More Appealing to Young % Like Chinese music, movies and TV Youngest + oldest gap % % % Senegal + Uganda + Bolivia + Nigeria + Ghana + El Salvador + PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
33 Sources of Criticism Despite China s general favorability around the world and its appeal to the young, half or more of those surveyed in of nations think that China acts unilaterally in international affairs. This concern about Beijing s failure to consider other countries interests when making foreign policy decisions is particularly strong in the Asia-Pacific in Japan (%), South Korea (%) and Australia (%) and in Europe in Spain (%), Italy (%), France (%) and Britain (%). About half or more of those in the seven Middle Eastern nations surveyed also think China acts unilaterally. This includes % of Israelis, % of Jordanians and % of Turks. There is relatively less concern about this issue in the U.S. (%). African nations in particular strong majorities in Kenya (%), Nigeria (%), South Africa (%) and Senegal (%) believe Beijing does consider their interests when making foreign policy decisions. How Much Does China Consider Your Country s Interests? North America Canada U.S. Europe Spain Italy France Britain Czech Rep. Greece Germany Poland Russia Middle East Israel Jordan Turkey Palest. ter. Egypt Tunisia Lebanon Asia/Pacific Japan S. Korea Australia Philippines Indonesia Malaysia Pakistan Not too much/ at all Great deal/fair amount Latin America Argentina Chile Bolivia Brazil Mexico El Salvador Venezuela Africa Ghana Uganda S. Africa Kenya Senegal Nigeria PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q.
34 Another source of recent tension in relations between China and its immediate neighbors has been a series of territorial disputes in the Asia/Pacific region. The most prominent of these is between Japan and China, which are engaged in a confrontation over what Tokyo calls the Senkaku Islands and Beijing terms the Diaoyu Islands, small uninhabited rocks in the East China Sea. In addition, the Philippines and China are embroiled in a standoff over the Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea. Strong majorities in the Philippines (%), Japan (%), South Korea (%) and Indonesia (%) think that such territorial disputes with China are a big problem for their country. This is particularly the case in the Philippines, where % of Filipinos say such friction with China is a very big problem.
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