THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING"

Transcription

1 THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING THE TEACHER EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGY- 2007/08 TO 2010/11 Dar es Salaam September

2 1.0 BACKGROUND, TERMS OF REFERENCE, AND KEY RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction and Background Justification for TDMS The Concept of a Strategy Terms of Reference (ToRs) Methodology in the Inquiry Analysis, Conclusions, and Recommendations Desirable Reforms of Existing Institutional Frameworks Linkages by Types, Levels, and Among Institutions and the Ministries Sustainability of Continued In-Service Programmes Strengthening the Monitoring and Support Systems for Pre-service and In-service Training Appropriate Modalities for Accreditation, Quality Assurance and Control Coherent Programmes for Training and Developing Faculty, Teachers and College Tutors Training and Developing Educational Managers and Administrators Mechanism for Obtaining Data for Effective Planning in Teacher Education Improving the Relevance and Effectiveness of Pre-Service Curriculum Coordination in Developing Teacher Training Materials Infrastructures and Services in Teacher Training Colleges Cross-Cutting Issues in Teacher Education THE TEACHER EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGY (TDMS) Action Plan for Attracting, Obtaining and Retaining Adequate and High Quality Teachers Strategic Objective: Improve and enhance collaboration between education ministries (MoEVT, PROLAG and MHEST) on all matters related to teacher training, development and management Strategic Objective: Enhance teacher professionalism among teacher educators Strategic objective: Improve reform processes and linkages between Teacher Education Programmes Strategic Objective: Ensure sustainability and continued in-service teacher training Strategic Objective: To improve the quality of performance and differentiation of abilities in teacher education Strategic Objective: Strengthen the monitoring and support systems for Effective teacher education

3 2.8 Strategic Objective: Train effective teacher educators and faculty members Strategic Objective: Develop teacher education in a planned and efficient manner Strategic objective: Enhance the quality of teacher training curriculum and its relevance Strategic Objective: College Infrastructure and Facilities made more conducive for learning, teaching and working Strategic Objective: Make Teacher Education Curriculum more holistic by the inclusion of Cross-Cutting Issues PROGRAM COMPONENTS, ACTION PLAN AND BUDGET ESTIMATES IN [TAS. MILLIONS] 36 3

4 List of Figures Figure 1: The Linkages between Teacher Education Levels and Types 19 Figure 2: Information and Data Required for the Teacher Education Data Base 25 4

5 List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Pre-Primary Education Projected Teachers Requirement ( ). 7 Primary Education Teachers Requirements: Teacher Situation in Government and Private Secondary Schools (2006). 9 Secondary School Enrolment and Teachers Projections ( )..10 Projected Teacher Demand Subject-wise (Diploma and Degree) SCENARIO A, B & C...11 Government Vocational Teacher Training Enrolment..14 Staffing Levels in Faculties and Colleges of Education February

6 1.0 BACKGROUND, TERMS OF REFERENCE, AND KEY RECOMMENDATIONS 1.1 Introduction and Background The Teacher Education Development and Management Strategy (TDMS) is a response to the recommendations of The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) Joint Annual Review (JAR) of In that review, one of the major recommendations was for the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) to put in place a teacher development and management strategy as a mechanism for managing the teaching force. The Strategy is divided in two sections. Section one contains an analysis of the situation and recommendations that form the basis of the strategy. The strategic objectives, strategies and targets, including the implementation plan, time frame and budget are presented in section two. 1.2 Justification for TDMS Tanzania is currently operating two development programmes in the education sector Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP ) and Secondary Education Development Programme (SEDP). PEDP started in 2001 and now it is in Phase II, and aims at the Universalization of primary education. SEDP calls for absorption of at least 50% of primary school leavers to O-Level and 50% of O-Level to A- Level between 2004 and The pressures for expansion have made it necessary for MoEVT to re-examine its strategies for the preparation of teachers and managers of its education system so that the quantitative expansion should not inadvertently affect the quality of education. Specifically, it should not affect the competency, motivations, and commitment of the teachers and faculty. In most developing countries, Tanzania included, education means teachers, as they end up being the key source of knowledge, skills, wisdom, appropriate orientations, inspiration and models for the students. Very often, there are no teachers guides and enough textbooks, and concomitant inputs; hence, it is the teachers who really make a difference. As opposed to developed countries where out-of-school influences are good predictors of pupils learning outcomes, in developing countries, it is the intra-school variables that matter most, and here the teacher is central in facilitating the processes that lead to meaningful education. In the light of all these, any consideration to raise the quality of teaching and learning needs to begin with the teacher. Teacher education therefore is the cornerstone of any success in any education innovation in the world, and at any level of the education enterprise; and this TDMS is based on this reality. 1.3 The Concept of a Strategy The term strategy has its strongest roots in the military. You do not go to war without a strategy or tactics for winning the war. The term has gathered even greater momentum in the business world. A company cannot sustainably succeed without a strategy. TDMS therefore is meant to provide a comprehensive, holistic, and an all encompassing programme for 6

7 attracting, obtaining, training, developing, and retaining adequate and high quality teachers and managers for all levels and aspects of the education system. Tanzania has experienced several and serious strains, if not crises, in the development of education, basically because there has never been a public, transparent, and broadly accepted strategy for the development and management of the teaching force. Even today, the whispers have it that the country is still suffering from that mistake. For instance: (a) In 1978 the first UPE drive was initiated. As schools overflowed with enrolment, there was a great shortage of primary school teachers, and it took considerably long to get them trained and placed in schools. The government had to literally call on all schooled persons to come to its rescue and get short training and teach and run the primary schools. The NER which had been less than 50% reached 90% in the 1990s. (b) By 2001, the NER plummeted to about 57%, hence the government embarked on the second UPE drive to reverse the trend of the NER via PEDP. As children flooded schools for free primary education, the nation experienced another acute shortage of teachers. Again, a call was made upon many secondary school leavers, with minimum passes, to come and get one year training and join the teaching force, instead of the proper route of two years training. (c) In 2004, as the number of primary school leavers increased, the country realized that it had to dramatically expand secondary school enrolment, and hence SEDP. It was again realized teachers were not enough, hence all kinds of stop gap measures were attempted, often against established norms, including the use of untrained teachers; and those who got four-week induction courses later, were all licensed to teach. (d) In 2006 social and economic demands for higher education increased greatly, so more higher education opportunities were created, including the opening of new public and private universities and university colleges. Now the nation is realizing that it does not have adequate lecturers to teach in the new universities as well as replace an aging faculty. It is now self-evident that the supply of teachers at all levels is not only placing serious constraints on the expansion of numbers, but more seriously, on quality assurance, quality control, and quality improvement. This can only be handled by a firm strategy that will allow the training of teachers to precede quantitative expansion in education, as high quality education is the ultimate good system. But more importantly, the country needs a more coordinated and holistic education development strategy that covers all levels and types of education, instead of the current tier by tier approach which more than often leaves out the teachers What does a strategy do? It is of no good having a teacher development and management strategy if there is no basic discipline to live with it, and work with it. Therefore, the very first task of the strategy is to instil discipline among all stakeholders. This will ensure smooth operation of an education system, as things become predictable and clear to everyone. This is a basic essential for a strategy to work, and that is predictability and a longer gestation time between policy pronouncement and the start of its implementation. 7

8 An effective Development and Management Strategy anticipates educational development events, and predicts future features of the education system. For instance, it takes a minimum of four years to: 1. Identify and recruit teacher trainees (one year), 2. Train them for a minimum of two years, 3. Examine and post them to schools (another year), and 4. Monitor their performance, especially during induction and confirmation. Thus, one needs to start training teachers some three to four years before one embarks on any major educational reforms, especially when expansion is contemplated. The same is also true in curriculum development. It takes about four years to design, try out, and implement a new curriculum on full scale. There is always a need for flexibility in any strategy so as to accommodate what might have not been anticipated. However, this flexibility should not involve ad hoc actions. It is anticipated that there will be annual meetings and formal reviews of the strategy at the end of each two years, and a major review after every five years so that adjustments could be made accordingly. Yet, having a strategy without accepting the rules of the game is a futile exercise. Education development cannot be done well through political declarations and dictates. Tanzania education has suffered a lot from that route of declarations. It needs time for reflection on objectives and planning for strategies for achieving them. Thus, all parties have to cooperate if the strategy is going to become a management tool for the education enterprise. 1.4 Terms of Reference (ToRs) The strategy was developed after carrying out thorough analysis of challenges facing teacher education development and management in Tanzania, and this is contained in the TDMS Report. The ToRs for the consultancy team were to: Come up with an efficient and effective action plan for: (a) (b) Obtaining adequate and high quality teachers and tutors to meet current and projected demands of pre-primary, primary, secondary, teacher education, vocational training, as well as tertiary and higher education. Attracting and retaining high quality teachers and candidates in the teaching profession. Propose desirable reforms of existing institutional frameworks, including amalgamation, to improve efficiency and effectiveness. Recommend appropriate strategies for linking: (a) pre-service and in-service training; (b) certificate, diploma and undergraduate programmes; and (c) residential and open learning programmes. Recommend appropriate actions for ensuring sustainable and continued in-service programmes. 8

9 Recommend measures to strengthen the monitoring of support systems and structures for pre-service and in-service teachers. Recommend appropriate modalities for accreditation of the teaching profession within the framework of the Education and Training Policy (ETP). Recommend a coherent programme for training and developing faculty and tutors for pre-primary, primary, secondary, teacher training and vocational training institutions. This will include preparation of lecturers and professors for FoED, DUCE, MUCE, OUT, SUZA and, where appropriate, envisaged faculties of education in emerging institutions. Recommend a coherent programme for training and developing educational managers and administrators as well as other experts for the efficient and effective implementation of PEDP, SEDP, TDMS, and HEDP in a decentralized education system. Suggest an efficient mechanism for obtaining data and information of effective planning. Recommend curriculum and duration of current pre-service training programmes and suggest areas of improvement to enhance relevance, functionality, balance, efficiency and effectiveness. Propose mechanisms for coordinating the development of teacher training materials to avoid duplication. Produce a Teacher Development and Management Strategy (TDMS) draft document including cost implementations. Establish the financial gap in TDMS between the government budget and proposed strategies for increased budget allocation. This was in recognition of the fact that well-managed quality teachers are the key agents for realizing high quality education in any country. 1.5 Methodology in the Inquiry Two methodologies of the inquiry used included extensive reviews of both grey literature and established works and extensive consultations and discussions with informed stakeholders. The team held a stakeholders workshop. It also embraced visits to 24 primary schools, 16 secondary schools, two university faculties of education, and 23 teacher training colleges. Similarly, seven instruments, ranging from institutional profile data, interview schedules, questionnaires for tutors and teacher trainees, check list and observation schedules were administered. Examination records were also reviewed. 1.6 Analysis, Conclusions, and Recommendations The following sections contain a summary of the analyses, conclusions and recommendations that formed the basis for the strategy. These are presented for each Term of Reference. 9

10 1.6.1 Efficient and Effective Action Plans for Obtaining, Attracting, and Retaining Adequate and High Quality Teachers There is noticeable absence of a well-articulated philosophy and a vision to guide education sector policy formulation and planning in Tanzania. There is need to clearly articulate the philosophy, along the lines of education for self-reliance, and vision of education that would determine the kind of capabilities learners would develop through their education career. One also needs to have a clear vision of the ideal teacher, who masters and demonstrates ideal teaching behaviours and skills that will facilitate high quality education. It is conceivable that one can master and regurgitate what a model teacher needs to have but fail to demonstrate those behaviours in the classroom. Thus, one ends up preaching: Act as I tell you but not do what I do. Is this what we want to create here? A quality curriculum that is in line with the country s philosophy and vision (once articulated) is equally vital. A teacher who is perfect in the theory of teaching but poor in teaching! That is why Practical Teaching is also always a central and mandatory component of teacher preparation. In some countries, like Japan, this is always followed up by induction, regular school-based mentoring, peer coaching, supervision by external inspectors, and classroom inspection by the head of the school or subject head, and master teachers demonstration lessons. This is to make sure that the ideal teaching behaviours are alive and have the possibility of manifesting live in the classroom. There is no doubt today that adequate numbers of high quality teachers are central to the functioning of any education system. Adequacy is normally addressed in terms of teacherpupil ratio and distribution spatially, and in terms of teaching load. The issue of quality is more nebulous and complex. However, it is firmly established today that quality starts with great mastery of subject matter. This is the necessary though not sufficient condition for good teaching; most good teachers also need to master and exhibit the ideal teaching behaviours listed below. a. Reflection: Reflection on what to teach, when, why, how to teach it, how one taught it, and how one would teach it again in the future. b. Patience: Showing patience for diverse abilities and speed of learners. c. Fairness: Demonstration of fairness to all students and honesty in delivery. d. Attentiveness: Clear focus of attention on the individual curiosities in the class and the total class. e. Language: Use of clear and simple language to be understood by all. f. Empathy: Showing empathy love, care and willingness to help learners trying to be in their own shoes. g. Tolerance: Demonstration of tolerance to the diverse views and mannerisms. h. Ambience: Creating good ambience in all learning situations. i. Emphasis: Stressing important points in learning. j. Variety: Demonstration of mastery of different teaching skills since students themselves differ greatly in interest and ability. k. Relevance: Remaining focused on the goals of the lesson. l. Clarity: Giving unambiguous messages on what matters and why. m. Problem solver: Demonstration of ability for problem solving behaviours such as investigating, probing, sequencing, and understanding. n. Mastery: Showing evidence of great mastery and internalization of the subject matter. 10

11 o. Humility: Doing things in a sober way, with little pride and modesty, without exaggerations and self-elevation. p. Interaction: Keeping constantly in touch with students, peers, the community and promoting a positive image of teachers and schooling as a profession and an institution. q. Use of Time: Efficient and effective use of classroom time on task for effective learning. r. Good role model: Demonstrating good behaviours that can be emulated by students. s. Adaptability Ability to adapt teaching to new situations and needs, including improvisation. In some lessons, some or most of these behaviours ought to be exhibited. This is the spirit of the proposed strategy. However, a good teacher should also subscribe to possible outcomes of good teaching, as in Box 1. Box 1: Desired Outcomes of Good Teaching (i) Successful learners in life, and not just passing examinations (ii) Successful teachers in life, not, just teaching but happy people (iii) Dependable individuals in classrooms and in the community (iv) Academic achievement in several and diverse subjects (v) Good social skills for intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships (vi) Economic success for teachers and pupils in their lives (vii) Employability of graduates in appropriate tacks (viii) Good image of the school and its products. Quality teaching therefore, embraces effective blending of mastery of subject matter with proper mix of various professional skills to enhance learning and performance by the child. The best strategy, of course, is to start at the top, such as in the production of tutors and lecturers. In this way, good teaching behaviour can trickle down. If there are bad teaching behaviours up there, say at university level, one would get poor products which will trickle downwards, introducing compromises of efficiency and effectiveness at lower levels such as repetition and remediation which affect performance of the entire system. Therefore we should start right and rightly at the top. Through reviews, add the following motivational components as necessary conditions for attracting, retaining and enhancing good quality teaching: (a) There must be a better salary (compared to other occupations), housing and attractive teaching and learning environment. This will guarantee that good candidates get attracted and remain in teaching. Often, teachers work in very difficult environments and circumstances. (b) Use of merit pay and merit advancement. This will keep good teachers in the profession as it pays to work harder than the next person. (c) Pay a higher premium for mathematics, science, and language teachers; it is here where there is the greatest scarcity all over the world. It is also difficult to attract and retain them in this area, given the stiff competition for such candidates. (d) Pay location premium for teachers working in remote rural areas and rotate them on regular basis. 11

12 (e) Exempt fees for all teacher education programmes, especially during this period of acute shortage. (f) Ensure teachers and pupils have access to clean and safe water and sanitation at all schools. (g) Ensure access to subsidized health services for teachers and immediate members of their families. (h) In recognition of the uniqueness of the teaching profession as the foundation to all other sectors there should be a separate and better incentive package for teachers. (i) A firm policy statement on the uniqueness of the teaching profession and thus justifying special packages for teachers would go a long way solving the problem Obtaining Adequate and High Quality Pre-Primary School Teachers The pre-primary circle in Tanzania is of two years, that is 5 and 6, as primary education starts at age 7. So far, it is neither free nor compulsory, but encouraged by ETP. Each primary school thus is supposed to have two pre-school streams, but so far, not all have one, hence the small enrolment volumes. The growth has been slow, moving from a total of 554,835 in 2004 to 638,591 in 2005, and 669,137 in 2006 (BEST, 2006) It is not likely that the rate will change dramatically, given that the education at that level is neither free nor compulsory, except in urban areas where parents can pay and watch their children being attended to while working. According to PEDP II the following are optimistic projections for teacher requirements for pre-primary education (Table 1). Table 1: Pre-Primary Education Projected Teachers Requirement ( ) Item 2006/ / / / /11 Enrolment 791,560 1,033,376 1,399,096 1,894,337 2,043,984 Net Enrolment ratio Pupil/Teacher Ratio Requirements 17,208 22,964 32,537 45,103 51,100 Existing Teachers 14,591 14,153 22,964 32,537 45,103 Additional Requirements 2,617 8,811 9,573 12,566 5,996 Attrition 3% ,353 Annual Recruitment - 9,235 10,262 13,542 7,349 The following actions are hereby recommended: (a) Make pre-primary education a compulsory component of the teacher education system in Tanzania. (b) (c) Encourage, regularize, harmonize, and recognize the products of private initiatives such as those of Montessori and the Korogwe Early Childhood Centre. There is strong interest but dialogue with the government seems stalled. De-link pre-primary and early childhood teacher training in government colleges from Grade A preparation, and create three or four pre-primary colleges among the current ones. This is to appreciate the fact that pre-primary teaching and care is a highly specialized and demanding work that cannot just be entrusted to all Grade A Teachers Colleges. Poor pre-primary background will lead to 12

13 establishing a poor foundation of students at primary school level. There should also be some screening of the kids at that level so that disabilities can be detected early. (d) (e) Establish a department of Early Childhood Education and Care in MoEVT to coordinate pre-primary education in order to accord it its rightful weight. De-link the study of the alphabet and numbers from pre-primary curriculum, especially during the first year, as children at that age may not be ready for those skills, and obviously the period is not sufficiently opportune. That should be left to primary education level and then concentrate on play activities, creative arts, physical fitness, and social skills of working together at pre-school level. Instead of concentrating on play, creative, creative activities, physical fitness, and social skills. An appropriate, carefully designed, holistic pre-school curriculum that takes into account research findings and lessons learnt locally and in other African Countries, is needed Obtaining Adequate and High Quality Primary School Teachers The current enrolments are as follows: 7,959,884 in government primary schools with 148,607 teachers and with a TPR of 1:54. The private sector enrols 80,196 with 3,275 teachers, and a TPR of 1:25. The impact of the new UPE on enrolment has been remarkable as it has climbed from 4.4 million to about 8 million pupils in five years. The implications of this growth could not naturally be matched with teacher outputs, so this has put great strains in the current teaching force, and the government did a commendable job to improvise under quite difficult circumstances. We should now move from crisis management to a more normal and stable teacher training and development patterns. These successes not withstanding, high TPR has negative impact on performance as all learners may not have opportunity to pose questions on unclear topics. The TPR in government schools for example remains at 1:54 as opposed to the prescribed norm of 1:40 in government schools. It is now estimated that the requirements for new grade A teachers will be as follows: 2007 (7,335), 2008 (14,250), 2009 (6,703), 2010 (9,580) and 2011 (14,220) (PEDP II) (Table 2). Table 2: Primary Education Teachers Requirements: Item 2006/ / / / /11 Enrolments 8,217,328 8,213,523 7,970,167 7,849,615 8,088,516 Teacher /Pupil Ratio Requirements 158, , , , ,745 Existing Teachers 151, , , , ,644 Additional Requirements 6,144 9,610 1,775 4,599 9,101 Attrition 3% 4,556 4,640 4,928 4,981 5,119 Annual Requirement 7,335 14,250 6,703 9,580 14,220 Source: PEDP II (March 2007) 13

14 Assuming the current 19 Grade A Teachers Colleges retain the same levels of enrolment, one can comfortably state that the current installed capacity in Grade A TCs is sufficient for producing the 14,660 teachers needed to meet the demand in The physical facilities, materials and equipment, however, need to be enhanced and consolidated. In addition, Grade C/B who fails to upgrade academically should be phased out Obtaining Adequate and High Quality Secondary School Teachers Data on current staffing situation including shortages. This is summarized in Table 3 as obtained from the Secondary Education Department of MoEVT. Table 3: Teacher Situation in Government and Private Secondary Schools (2006) Graduates Diploma Licensed Others Government Private Schools Total Source: BEST (2006) (i) Secondary education teacher demand. Under SEDP, using a PTR of 1:40 for O-Level and 1:30 for A-Level with a 25:75 split for graduate and diploma the projections are as in Table 4. It has often been anticipated that the ratio between diploma and graduates would decrease. However, to-date it is at about 87:13. This needs to be reversed, which means more graduate teachers being produced than diplomats per year as under SEDP II; the recasted requirements and targets are: 11,642 more graduate teachers produced by 2009, and 38,442 more diploma teachers produced by Yet a more realistic estimation of additional teachers needed for the implementation of SEDP can be realized by taking into consideration the factors explained in the subsequent sections. (ii) Stable secondary education enrolment projections. It should be noted that making projections of teacher demand at the secondary education level is obviously more complex. First, the current drive to enrol all those who pass their PSLE is resulting in erratic enrolment patterns because not all communities will meet the targets. Secondly, the pass levels vary from year to year, which makes systemic projections of enrolment less predictable. (iii) Staff- students ratio. However, using staff student ratio of 1:40 gives one the following picture in scenario A (Table 4). Scenario A provides the projection of teacher demand at the ratio of 75:25 diplomas to degrees, a mix far below the minimum teacher mix recommended ratio in ETP so as to realize high quality secondary education according to the Education and Training Policy (URT, 1995: 41) The minimum qualification for a secondary school teacher in both government and non-government schools shall be possession of a valid diploma in education obtained from a recognized institution Diploma teachers are expected to teach in Forms 1 2, while graduate teachers normally teach in Forms 3 6. Desirable Ratio of diploma to degree holders. Scenario B calls for a reduction of the proportion of diploma teachers in secondary school teaching force to 50:50, while Scenario C involves full compliance with ETP. 14

15 As the country reduces the proportion of teachers in the secondary school teaching force to 75:25 (degree to diploma), the oversupply of diploma teachers can get absorbed at primary and ward education levels, as is the case world over where there is an intention to improve quality at foundation levels. Proportion of time allocated for teaching the different subjects as an added factor to determine teacher mix and demands subject wise. When this factor is introduced, new pictures will emerge (Table 5 Scenario A-C). Immediate actions are needed in the areas of: (a) establishing the actual capacity to train science, mathematics and language teachers; (b) revisiting the issue of the pool of students for science and mathematics via solid study and pointed recommendations. (c) taking measures to deal with college specializations in teacher training; (d) ensuring spatial distribution of teachers; and (e) ascertaining political will to allow sufficient investment to solve the teacher education problem. Table 4: Secondary School Enrolment and Teachers Projections ( ) Year STD VII 697, ,117 1,104,352 1,230,648 1,142,912 Abscondmment rate at VII 3.4% 3.4% 3.4% 3.4% 3.4% Pass rate 70.4% 80.0% 80.0% 80.0% 80.0% Transition Rate (Std VII-Form I) for 75.0% 75.0% 75.0% 75.0% 75.0% Government Enrolment Transition Rate (Std VII-Form I) for Nongovernment Enrolment Transition Rate (Form IV-Form V) Government and Non-government 10.1% 7.9% 6.2% 5.8% 4.8% 43.4% 42.2% 40.9% 39.7% 38.5% School enrolment Form 1 243, , , , ,444 Form 5 27,780 31,413 47,335 71,984 86,802 Class size O-level A-level Projected number of teachers (Scenario A) 25:75 Diploma : Degree Degree 1,288 3,024 3,480 5,680 6,152 Diploma 2,870 7,435 8,438 12,645 13,169 Total 4,158 10,459 11,918 18,335 19,321 Projected number of teachers (Scenario B) 50:50 Diploma : Degree Degree 1,288 3,024 5,959 9,167 9,660 Diploma 2, ,959 9,167 9,660 Total 4,158 10,459 11,918 18,335 19,321 Projected number of teachers (Scenario C) 75:25 Diploma : Degree Degree 1,288 3,024 8,938 13,751 14,490 Diploma 2,870 7,435 2,980 4,584 4,831 Total 4,158 10,459 11,918 18,335 19,321 N.B. Data for scenario A are adopted from PEDP II (March 2007). They also formed the basis for computing Scenarios B and C. 15

16 Table 5: Projected Teacher Demand Subject-wise (Diploma and Degree) SCENARIO A = 75:25 Diploma Graduate Ratio FORMS I TO IV S/no SUBJECT NO. OF PERIODS DIP DEG TOTAL DIP DEG TOTAL DIP DEG TOTAL DIP DEG TOTAL DIP DEG TOTAL 1. MATHEMATICS , ,531 1, ,744 1, ,681 1, , ENGLISH , ,785 1, ,035 2, ,129 2,248 1, KISWAHILI , , BIOLOGY , ,163 1, ,788 1, , CIVICS , , PHYSICS ,276 1, ,454 1, ,235 1, , CHEMISTRY , ,163 1, ,788 1, , GEOGRAPHY , ,163 1, ,788 1, , HISTORY , , OPTIONS , TOTAL 41 2,870 1,288 4,158 7,435 3,020 10,459 8,438 3,480 11,918 12,645 5,680 18,335 13,169 6,152 19,321 S/no SUBJECT NO. OF PERIOD S SCENARIO B = 50:50 Diploma Graduate Ratio FORMS I TO IV DIP DEG TOTAL DIP DEG TOTAL DIP DEG TOTAL DIP DEG TOTAL DIP DEG TOTAL MATHEMATICS , , ,744 1,342 1,342 2,684 1,414 1,414 2, ENGLISH , ,785 1,017 1,017 2,034 1,563 1,563 3,130 1,649 1,649 3, KISWAHILI , , BIOLOGY , , , , CIVICS , , PHYSICS , ,454 1,118 1,118 2,236 1,178 1,178 2, CHEMISTRY , , , , GEOGRAPHY , , , , HISTORY , , OPTIONS TOTAL 41 2,870 1,288 4,158 7,435 3,020 10,459 5,959 5,959 11,918 9,167 9,167 18,335 9,660 9,660 19,321 16

17 SCENARIO C = 25:75 Diploma Graduate Ratio in Compliance with ETP FORMS I TO IV S/ SUBJECT NO. OF n o PERIOD S DIP DEG TOTA L DIP DEG TOTA L DIP DEG TOTA L DIP DEG TOTA L DIP DEG TOTA L 1. MATHEMATICS , , ,308 1, ,929 4, ,120 2, ENGLISH , , ,526 2, ,584 5, ,474 3, KISWAHILI ,964 2, ,060 1, BIOLOGY , , ,619 3, ,414 1, CIVICS ,964 2, ,060 1, PHYSICS , ,090 1, ,274 3, ,767 2, CHEMISTRY , , ,619 3, ,414 1, GEOGRAPHY , , ,619 3, ,414 1, HISTORY ,964 2, ,060 1,413 1 OPTIONS ,310 1, TOTAL 41 2,870 1,288 4,158 7,435 3,020 10,459 2,980 8,938 11,918 4,584 13,751 18,335 4,831 14,490 19,321 17

18 Obtaining Adequate and High Quality Teacher Education Tutors Currently, there are 32 state teacher training colleges, 15 of which offer diploma programmes only, and 17 offers Grade A qualification. In terms of tutors, the lines of demarcation regarding qualifications for the different levels are currently blurred. The Education and Training Policy (URT 1995) clearly stipulates that the Minimum qualification for tutors at certificate and diploma level teacher s courses shall be the possession of a valid university degree, with the necessary relevant professional qualification specialization. The total number of tutors on post is about 987, with an enrolment of 15,159, giving a TSR of 1:16, which is low by the general standard of 1:30. It is reported that the greatest shortage is for degree holders who constitute only 35% of the total. Subject-wise, the total shortage however, is 269, distributed as follows: Development Studies (20), Civics (20), History (19), Measurement and Evaluation (18), Psychology (12), English (16), Education Foundations (14) and Pre-primary (12) topping the list of shortages. New subjects such as French, Technology, and Physical Education are particularly hit by both shortages and lack of a coherent programme for the preparation of such teachers to meet the growing needs. In order to enhance the efficiency in use of tutors, and fully exploit the economies of scale, there is need to expand enrolment in small colleges to not less than the policy of having 500 teacher trainees. The University of Dar es Salaam has a whole stream for BED (Teacher Education), which produces over 100 graduates each year, and Morogoro Teachers College is supposed to offer six months induction courses for new tutors, but this is not regular. The University of Dar es Salaam produces on average 50 psychology graduate teachers at undergraduate level as well as ten of masters level could be placed in Teachers Colleges. Apart from Patandi Teachers College, we did not see any concerted efforts to produce qualified teachers on children with special needs, to include those with physical, mental, emotional and sensory problems. Similarly, the University of Dar es Salaam produces on average 20 specialists in educational management at undergraduate level many of whom should be placed in Teachers Colleges to train teachers and middle level administrators for various levels in our education system. It does not seem that there is need for projections for the supply and demand here. Rather, and this was confirmed in the field, there is need for a more active and prudent recruitment of appropriate tutors, and more importantly, making teacher training jobs more attractive to graduates. However, there is need for competency and qualifications audit in all teacher training institutions so that only quality tutors remain on post Obtaining Adequate High Quality Vocational Training Tutors The Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania is characterized by the following subsystems: Government VET institutions comprising of VETA centres (21), FDCs (58), Post- Primary Technical Training Centres (139) and Non-Governmental VET institutions comprising of mission trade schools (220), Private and NGOs (360). The annual enrolment capacity in 2006 in these institutions, in both short and long courses, was 110,000 made up as follows: Government Institutions (VETA centres, FDCs, PPTCs line Ministries etc.) 46,000, Non-Governmental Institutions (NGOs and Private), 64,

19 Given the international teacher/trainee ratio of 1:16, the number of vocational teachers to be employed in the whole system at present is estimated at 6,800. Currently, about 30% of these have not received pedagogical training. Due to the on going expansion and modernization programme of VET facilities, it is estimated that additional 736 new vocational teachers will be needed between 2007/8 and 2011/12. The total number to be trained through long and short pedagogical courses is therefore about 2,475. The Morogoro Vocational Teacher Training College (MVTTC) is the only national college for training vocational teachers. Projections for enrolment (2007/8 2011/12) and requirements for training the trainers (Tutors) are summarized in Table 6. Table 6: Government Vocational Teacher Training Enrolment Year Long Courses Short pedagogical course Total 2007/ / / / / TOTAL Source: BEST, A more accurate projection of teacher demand should also include those who assume technical and management positions at the headquarters, decentralized levels in schools, colleges and other educational agencies such as TIE, NECTA, ADEM, IAE, REOs, DEOs, Zonal School Inspectors and District Education Inspectors who are not engaged in day to day classroom teaching Tertiary and Higher Education The story is different here. First, universities have autonomy in the recruitment and remuneration of their staff that include both academic subject specialists and professional educationists. They have their own staff development plans and fall under the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. It does not seem that there can be a strategy for this line of activity, but we should make one appeal since the production of teachers fall under two Ministries (MHEST and MoEVT) but much of the consumption takes place in one Ministry (MoEVT), there should be an advisory body which harmonizes and synchronizes the supply and demand of teachers and tutors. In addition, there should be set up a set of basic requirements in terms of qualifications and qualities of faculty teachers and tutors who train for MoEVT consumption. MoEVT should also take active interest influencing the preparation of any higher education plans in order to ensure the issue of producing high quality teachers and experts is adequately covered. It used to be mandatory for example, that one should have a PhD to teach in Universities. It has to be recognized that higher education institutions have their own mechanisms for on-the-job training. In fact, some have whole units on the improvement of University Teaching and Learning. However, of late there has been great scarcity for scholarships, hence the importance of having a dedicated fund for staff development for the whole sub-sector. Table 7 shows that over 50% are not qualified. Sometimes ago, it was mandatory that if one teaches history methods in the form of orientation courses, one should have taught it in schools first, but today trainers of tutors and teachers may lack experience in teaching in teacher training colleges, secondary schools, and others. We need some proxies of these kinds of experiences. 19

20 Table 7: Staffing Levels in Faculties and Colleges of Education February 2007 INSTITUTIONS QUALIFICATIONS PHD MASTERS BACHELORS TOTAL M F T % M F T % M F T % M F T DUCE (1.9) (37.5) (60.6) MUCE (2.3) (56.8) (40.9) SUZA (10.3) (38.2) (51.5) OUT (36.1) (53.7) (10.2) UDSM (45.2) (20) (33.9) DODOMA Key: M = Male F = Female T = Total Attracting and Retaining High Quality Candidates and Teachers in the Teaching Profession The Education and Training Policy (1995) specified that the minimum admission requirements for the teacher education certificate course shall be Division III of the Ordinary Certificate of Secondary Education Examination, while for the diploma course minimum entry qualification shall be two principals in the Advanced Certificate of Secondary Education Examination. At University level, however, the cut off points for education programmes have remained pretty low, especially in the sciences, going as low as 4 points out of a maximum of 15 points. Thus teaching is attracting the poor performers academically, and even these hardly remain in the teaching profession as they exit on the first opportunity to do so. Many candidates, it seems, regard teaching to be one of the most taxing jobs, which is also the least paying. Salaries and benefits are poor and often paid late. Working conditions, especially in rural areas, are poor. There are also limited non-material benefits such as housing, recognition, support and approval by significant others. Furthermore, there is lack of basic inputs to support effective teaching and learning, especially of science subjects. Thus, there is need for conducting a comprehensive study, involving several stakeholders students, parents, employers and informed community members in order to establish the causes of poor attitudes and consequential performance in mathematics and sciences, leading to shortage of quality candidates to join the teaching profession, and thus suggest effective strategies for arresting the situation. Furthermore, there is need for a deliberate move to increase the number of students doing mathematics and sciences, and ensure that they perform well, in order to expand the pool of high quality candidates to be admitted into teacher education programmes. This should involve establishing well-resourced secondary schools strong in O-Level maths and science subjects, and A-Level secondary schools in each region to produce sufficient students that will contribute to breaking the vicious circle. Similarly, universities may need to consider allowing 20

By Prof. Peter Msolla Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology

By Prof. Peter Msolla Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology ISSUES OF HIGHER EDUCAITON IN TANZANIA By Prof. Peter Msolla Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology 1. INTRODUCTION: Having realised that human capital, more so one which is educated and

More information

TEACHERS SERVICE COMMISSION

TEACHERS SERVICE COMMISSION TEACHERS SERVICE COMMISSION REVISED SCHEME OF SERVICE FOR NON-GRADUATE TEACHERS 1 ST JULY 2007 REVISED SCHEME OF SERVICE FOR NON-GRADUATE TEACHERS 1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To provide for a clearly defined

More information

SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): EDUCATION 1

SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): EDUCATION 1 Country Partnership Strategy: Bangladesh, 2011 2015 SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): EDUCATION 1 Sector Road Map 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities 1. Bangladesh has made considerable progress

More information

Education Administrator, Director and Principal Careers, Jobs, and Employment Information

Education Administrator, Director and Principal Careers, Jobs, and Employment Information Education Administrator, Director and Principal Careers, Jobs, and Employment Information Career and Job Highlights for Education Administrators Qualifications such a master s or doctoral degree and experience

More information

NAEYC SUMMARY OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATOR/PROGRAM PROVISIONS IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY ACT OF 2008 PUBLIC LAW 110-315

NAEYC SUMMARY OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATOR/PROGRAM PROVISIONS IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY ACT OF 2008 PUBLIC LAW 110-315 NAEYC SUMMARY OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATOR/PROGRAM PROVISIONS IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY ACT OF 2008 PUBLIC LAW 110-315 The Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA) had not been reauthorized for many

More information

FACT SHEET. White Paper on Teacher Education The teacher the role and the education (Report to the Storting No. 11 (2008-2009)) Principal elements

FACT SHEET. White Paper on Teacher Education The teacher the role and the education (Report to the Storting No. 11 (2008-2009)) Principal elements FACT SHEET White Paper on Teacher Education The teacher the role and the education (Report to the Storting No. 11 (2008-2009)) Principal elements The Government is proposing a new teacher education programme

More information

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING TANZANIA INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION CURRICULUM FOR DIPLOMA IN TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN TANZANIA

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING TANZANIA INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION CURRICULUM FOR DIPLOMA IN TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN TANZANIA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING TANZANIA INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION CURRICULUM FOR DIPLOMA IN TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN TANZANIA 2007 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING TANZANIA

More information

ANNEX E. Czech Republic

ANNEX E. Czech Republic Czech Republic Population: 10.24 m. Fertility rate: 1.18. GDP per capita: USD 15 100. Children under 6years: 540 000. Female labour force participation: Female labour force participation rate for women

More information

Appendix 5 Outcome 5: A skilled and capable workforce to support an inclusive growth path

Appendix 5 Outcome 5: A skilled and capable workforce to support an inclusive growth path Appendix 5 Outcome 5: A skilled and capable workforce to support an inclusive growth path 1. National Development Plan (NDP) 2030 Vision and Trajectory As committed by government in the National Development

More information

A Perspective of the Challenges Facing (Basic School) Teacher Training, Recruitment and Quality in Zambia

A Perspective of the Challenges Facing (Basic School) Teacher Training, Recruitment and Quality in Zambia A Perspective of the Challenges Facing (Basic School) Teacher Training, Recruitment and Quality in Zambia J. T. Phiri (The Universityof Zambia, Zambia) 1. Introduction Bishop (1985) cited Fafunwa as having

More information

GEORGIA STANDARDS FOR THE APPROVAL OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION UNITS AND EDUCATOR PREPARATION PROGRAMS

GEORGIA STANDARDS FOR THE APPROVAL OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION UNITS AND EDUCATOR PREPARATION PROGRAMS GEORGIA STANDARDS FOR THE APPROVAL OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION UNITS AND EDUCATOR PREPARATION PROGRAMS (Effective 9/01/08) Kelly Henson Executive Secretary Table of Contents Standard 1: Candidate Knowledge,

More information

REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION (MEd)

REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION (MEd) 215 REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION (MEd) (See also General Regulations) Any publication based on work approved for a higher degree should contain a reference to the effect that the work

More information

HRM. Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A Guide for Strengthening HRM Systems. for Health Organizations. 3rd edition

HRM. Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A Guide for Strengthening HRM Systems. for Health Organizations. 3rd edition HRM Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool for Health Organizations A Guide for Strengthening HRM Systems 3rd edition . Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool Copyright 2005, renewed

More information

Ch. 354 PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS 22 CHAPTER 354. PREPARATION OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS GENERAL PROVISIONS GENERAL CATEGORY PROGRAM DESIGN

Ch. 354 PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS 22 CHAPTER 354. PREPARATION OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS GENERAL PROVISIONS GENERAL CATEGORY PROGRAM DESIGN Ch. 354 PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS 22 CHAPTER 354. PREPARATION OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS Sec. 354.1. Definitions. 354.2. Purpose. GENERAL PROVISIONS GENERAL 354.11. Minimum requirements for approval. 354.12.

More information

Evaluation of degree programs. Self-Evaluation Framework

Evaluation of degree programs. Self-Evaluation Framework Evaluation of degree programs Self-Evaluation Framework COVER, December 2009 FOREWORD UNIL's approach to quality emphasizes procedures based on reflection that encourage the faculties and units concerned

More information

Evaluation of three vocational degree programmes in Norway. Summary

Evaluation of three vocational degree programmes in Norway. Summary Evaluation of three vocational degree programmes in Norway. Summary Astrid Børsheim, 2011 Programme evaluation background and processes In the years 2004 2010, NOKUT, the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance

More information

Government response to the review of teacher education and school induction

Government response to the review of teacher education and school induction Government response to the review of teacher education and school induction Government response to the review of teacher education and school induction In February 2010, the Queensland Government released

More information

Chapter 2 BROAD SECTOR POLICIES

Chapter 2 BROAD SECTOR POLICIES 2.1 National Education Policy: BROAD SECTOR POLICIES The Current National Education Policy (1998-2010) was framed in the perspective of historical developments, modern trends in education, and emerging

More information

SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): EDUCATION. 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities

SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): EDUCATION. 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities Higher Education Reform Project (RRP PRC 43007) SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): EDUCATION Sector Road Map 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities a. Vision and Strategy 1. The Government of Mongolia

More information

SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS SECONDARY EDUCATION IN ETHIOPIA

SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS SECONDARY EDUCATION IN ETHIOPIA SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS SECONDARY EDUCATION IN ETHIOPIA An Option paper presented at the Technical Workshop on Science and Mathematics Secondary Education in Africa (SEIA) Follow-up Program. Eshetu Asfaw

More information

Regional Expert Meeting for the Follow up of CONFINTEA VI in Africa: Tanzania Open and Distance Learning for out-of-school Youth

Regional Expert Meeting for the Follow up of CONFINTEA VI in Africa: Tanzania Open and Distance Learning for out-of-school Youth Regional Expert Meeting for the Follow up of CONFINTEA VI in Africa: 5-8 November 2012, Praia Cape Verde Tanzania Open and Distance Learning for out-of-school Youth Salum R. Mnjagila, Ministry of Education

More information

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND CULTURE

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND CULTURE THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND CULTURE EDUCATION SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP) 2004 2009 FINAL DOCUMENT Dar es Salaam Tanzania April,

More information

505-3-.05 GEORGIA TEACHER ACADEMY FOR PREPARATION AND PEDAGOGY (GaTAPP)

505-3-.05 GEORGIA TEACHER ACADEMY FOR PREPARATION AND PEDAGOGY (GaTAPP) Effective July 3, 2014 505-3-.05 GEORGIA TEACHER ACADEMY FOR PREPARATION AND PEDAGOGY (GaTAPP) (1) PURPOSE. This rule states specific content standards and requirements for approving nontraditional preparation

More information

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING TANZANIA INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION CURRICULUM FOR CERTIFICATE IN TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN TANZANIA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING TANZANIA

More information

1. Introduction. 2. National Guidelines

1. Introduction. 2. National Guidelines Australian Education Union Submission to the Parliament of Victoria s Education and Training Committee Inquiry into Pre-Service Teacher Education May 2004 1. Introduction The AEU welcomes the opportunity

More information

Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education. by CRS Vietnam

Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education. by CRS Vietnam Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education by CRS Vietnam How-to Guide Series Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education by CRS Vietnam Written by Dinh Thi Nguyet and Le Thu Ha 2 Preparing Teachers for

More information

General Guidelines of Grade 1-9 Curriculum of Elementary and Junior High School Education.

General Guidelines of Grade 1-9 Curriculum of Elementary and Junior High School Education. General Guidelines of Grade 1-9 Curriculum of Elementary and Junior High School. 1 Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines 1 Preface In keeping with the 21st century and the global trends of educational reform,

More information

Growing Tomorrow s Leaders Today Preparing Effective School Leaders in New York State

Growing Tomorrow s Leaders Today Preparing Effective School Leaders in New York State The New York State Board of Regents and The New York State Education Department Growing Tomorrow s Leaders Today Preparing Effective School Leaders in New York State "The factor that empowers the people

More information

National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment. Handbook for Quality Assurance and Accreditation in Saudi Arabia PART 1

National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment. Handbook for Quality Assurance and Accreditation in Saudi Arabia PART 1 National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment Handbook for Quality Assurance and Accreditation in Saudi Arabia PART 1 THE SYSTEM FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE AND ACCREDITATION Ver. 2.0 THE SYSTEM

More information

DoQuP project. WP.1 - Definition and implementation of an on-line documentation system for quality assurance of study programmes in partner countries

DoQuP project. WP.1 - Definition and implementation of an on-line documentation system for quality assurance of study programmes in partner countries DoQuP project WP.1 - Definition and implementation of an on-line documentation system for quality assurance of study programmes in partner countries Deliverable 1.3 - Methodologies and procedures of definition,

More information

Trinity Christian College Palos Heights, Illinois

Trinity Christian College Palos Heights, Illinois Palos Heights, Illinois 2010 UNDERGRADUATE ELEMENTARY Teacher Preparation Program Design D+ While its overall design has numerous weaknesses, including the fact that the institution does not play the pivotal

More information

FORMULATING HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT POLICY FOR THE PUBLIC SERVICE (KENYAN CASE)

FORMULATING HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT POLICY FOR THE PUBLIC SERVICE (KENYAN CASE) CAPACITY BUILDING FOR HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND STRATEGY IN PUBLIC SERVICE IN AFRICA WORKSHOP FORMULATING HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT POLICY FOR THE PUBLIC SERVICE (KENYAN CASE) PRESENTED BY:

More information

Department of Public Administration (MPA)

Department of Public Administration (MPA) Department of Public Administration (MPA) Criterion 1: Program Mission, Objectives and Outcomes VISION, MISSION, OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES VISSION Professional degrees need to be market oriented meaning

More information

Teacher Education in China : Current Situation & Related Issues

Teacher Education in China : Current Situation & Related Issues 2013-04-26 Teacher Education in China : Current Situation & Related Issues Dr. Tingjie YU Zhejiang Normal University 2 Institute of Educational Science (IES) of Zhejiang Normal University IES, established

More information

QUALITY ASSURANCE POLICY

QUALITY ASSURANCE POLICY QUALITY ASSURANCE POLICY ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT & QUALITY ASSURANCE OFFICE ALPHA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 1. BACKGROUND The Strategic Plan of 2003-2005 E.C of Alpha University s defines the direction Alpha University

More information

Appendix A Components for the Review of Institutions of Higher Education

Appendix A Components for the Review of Institutions of Higher Education Appendix A Components for the Review of Institutions of Higher Education Appendix A: Components for the Review of Institutions of Higher Education The PI 34 requirements for program approval are organized

More information

Integrated Dual Degree Programme

Integrated Dual Degree Programme Curriculum Model Integrated Dual Degree Programme (B.Tech + MBA) K L UNIVERSITY Green Fields, Vaddeswaram 522 502, Guntur District, A.P., INDIA. Ph: 08645 246948, Fax: 08645 247249 CONTENTS S. No Page

More information

MC-TEACHEC Master of Teaching (Early Childhood)

MC-TEACHEC Master of Teaching (Early Childhood) MC-TEACHEC Master of Teaching (Early Childhood) Year and Campus: 2016 - Parkville CRICOS Code: Fees Information: Level: Duration & Credit Coordinator: 061226K Subject EFTSL, Level, Discipline & Census

More information

JAPAN CONTENTS Background Information on the National Curriculum Standards in Japan

JAPAN CONTENTS Background Information on the National Curriculum Standards in Japan JAPAN Total area: 377 801 sq km Population: 125 351 000 Illiterate population aged 15 years and over:... percentage of illiterates:... Public current expenditure on education as percentage of GNP:... Public

More information

Using modern information technology during preservice teacher education practicum period to make training possible in authentic environment

Using modern information technology during preservice teacher education practicum period to make training possible in authentic environment Using modern information technology during preservice teacher education practicum period to make training possible in authentic environment Merja Meriläinen Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius Peter

More information

Pittsburgh Public Schools. We Dream Big. We Work Hard. We Promise. Promise-Readiness Corps

Pittsburgh Public Schools. We Dream Big. We Work Hard. We Promise. Promise-Readiness Corps Pittsburgh Public Schools We Dream Big. We Work Hard. We Promise. Promise-Readiness Corps 1 Promise-Readiness Corps (PRC) Salary Plan: Additional Compensation: Residency: FLSA Status: Work Day: Work Year:

More information

REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION (MEd)

REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION (MEd) 247 REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION (MEd) (See also General Regulations) Any publication based on work approved for a higher degree should contain a reference to the effect that the work

More information

Creative Scotland, Youth Music Initiative. Case Study Young Music Makers in Edinburgh. Helping young people believe in themselves.

Creative Scotland, Youth Music Initiative. Case Study Young Music Makers in Edinburgh. Helping young people believe in themselves. Creative Scotland, Youth Music Initiative Case Study Young Music Makers in Edinburgh Helping young people believe in themselves. About this case study This case study was developed as part of Creative

More information

ACTUAL PROBLEMS AND GOOD PRACTICES IN ACCOUNTANCY TEACHING TO STUDENTS IN ALBANIA

ACTUAL PROBLEMS AND GOOD PRACTICES IN ACCOUNTANCY TEACHING TO STUDENTS IN ALBANIA ACTUAL PROBLEMS AND GOOD PRACTICES IN ACCOUNTANCY TEACHING TO STUDENTS IN ALBANIA Alketa Pasholli (Zheku), PhD Head of Finance and Accounting - Department Faculty of Economy Fan S. Noli University,Korce,

More information

Analysis of Internal Efficiency in the Utilization of Human Resources in Selected Secondary Schools of Oyo State, Nigeria

Analysis of Internal Efficiency in the Utilization of Human Resources in Selected Secondary Schools of Oyo State, Nigeria Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) 3(5): 748-752 Journal Scholarlink of Emerging Research Trends Institute in Educational Journals, 2012 Research (ISSN: and

More information

Nepal Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) programmes

Nepal Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) programmes IBE/2006/EFA/GMR/CP/59 Country profile prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2007 Strong Foundations: Early Childhood Care and Education Nepal Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)

More information

Educational Practices REFERENCE GUIDE. Aligned to the AdvancED Standards for Quality Schools

Educational Practices REFERENCE GUIDE. Aligned to the AdvancED Standards for Quality Schools Educational Practices REFERENCE GUIDE Aligned to the AdvancED Standards for Quality Schools Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Purpose and Direction... 4 Governance and Leadership... 5 Duties of the Governing

More information

Learning & Development Strategic Plan

Learning & Development Strategic Plan Learning & Development Strategic Plan 2006 Preamble The Business Model Review of the Department of Corrective Services in 2004 identified that: Continuous workforce improvement through structured initial

More information

Inter university use of tutored online courses: an alternative to MOOCs

Inter university use of tutored online courses: an alternative to MOOCs 14 Inter university use of tutored online courses: an alternative to MOOCs Paul Rühl* 1 *Bavarian Virtual University, Bamberg, Germany Introduction There is a variety of definitions of what MOOCs (massive

More information

Self-Reflection Teaching. Susan M. Blunck, Ph.D. Assistant Clinical Professor Department of Education UMBC

Self-Reflection Teaching. Susan M. Blunck, Ph.D. Assistant Clinical Professor Department of Education UMBC Self-Reflection Teaching Susan M. Blunck, Ph.D. Assistant Clinical Professor Department of Education UMBC 2 Self Reflection Teaching Effective teaching is not about what we give or do to our students.

More information

REGULATIONS GOVERNING ONE YEAR BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.ED.) DEGREE PROGRAMME

REGULATIONS GOVERNING ONE YEAR BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.ED.) DEGREE PROGRAMME REGULATIONS GOVERNING ONE YEAR BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.ED.) DEGREE PROGRAMME Preamble: (Framed under Section 44 (1) (c) of the KSU Act 2000) The Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree programme offered

More information

RWANDA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (MINDEC) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT POLICY

RWANDA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (MINDEC) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT POLICY RWANDA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT POLICY Preamble MINEDUC believes that the curriculum is the heart of any educational system and that

More information

A Guide to Curriculum Development: Purposes, Practices, Procedures

A Guide to Curriculum Development: Purposes, Practices, Procedures A Guide to Curriculum Development: Purposes, Practices, Procedures The purpose of this guide is to provide some general instructions to school districts as staff begin to develop or revise their curriculum

More information

National summary sheets on education system in Europe and ongoing reforms. 2009 Edition

National summary sheets on education system in Europe and ongoing reforms. 2009 Edition National summary sheets on education system in Europe and ongoing reforms 2009 Edition National summary sheets on education systems in Europe and ongoing reforms FINLAND AUGUST 2009 1. Education population

More information

REPUBLIC OF RWANDA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION P.O BOX 622 KIGALI 2013 EDUCATION STATISTICAL YEARBOOK

REPUBLIC OF RWANDA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION P.O BOX 622 KIGALI 2013 EDUCATION STATISTICAL YEARBOOK REPUBLIC OF RWANDA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION P.O BOX 622 KIGALI 2013 EDUCATION STATISTICAL YEARBOOK September 2014 FOREWORD The mission of the Ministry of Education is to transform the Rwandan citizens into

More information

The Use of Computers in Public and Private Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Digital Divide

The Use of Computers in Public and Private Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Digital Divide The Use of Computers in Public and Private Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Digital Divide Nestory Maro School of Informatics The University of Dodoma ABSTRACT The existing scarcity of resources and challenges

More information

Elmhurst College Elmhurst, Illinois

Elmhurst College Elmhurst, Illinois Elmhurst, Illinois 2010 UNDERGRADUATE SPECIAL EDUCATION Teacher Preparation Program Design C+ While its university's selectivity in admissions and fairly strong reading preparation enhance the design of

More information

EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICY

EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICY E.E.P-86 FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC GOVERNMENT OF ETHIOPIA EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICY Addis Ababa April, 1994 First Edition 1994 ST. GEORGE PRINTING PRESS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2.

More information

Northeastern Illinois University Chicago, Illinois

Northeastern Illinois University Chicago, Illinois Chicago, Illinois 2010 UNDERGRADUATE SPECIAL EDUCATION Teacher Preparation Program Design D While general professional coursework enhances the design of this program, there are other critical elements

More information

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD) ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD) ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT The Health and Family Planning Manager s Toolkit HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD) ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT FOR NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS) AND PUBLIC SECTOR HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS Developed by Family

More information

Department of Elementary & Early Childhood Education SYLLABUS ECEL 5240 Leadership & Analysis of Teaching Children Fall 2009

Department of Elementary & Early Childhood Education SYLLABUS ECEL 5240 Leadership & Analysis of Teaching Children Fall 2009 Department of Elementary & Early Childhood Education SYLLABUS ECEL 5240 Leadership & Analysis of Teaching Children Fall 2009 Delivery On site/on line/ hybrid Required Materials Texts: Steffy, B. E., Wolfe,

More information

Nursing. Nunavut. Recruitment and Retention Strategy 2007 2012 NUNAVUT NURSES BE THE DIFFERENCE

Nursing. Nunavut. Recruitment and Retention Strategy 2007 2012 NUNAVUT NURSES BE THE DIFFERENCE Government of Nunavut Department of Health and Social Services Nunavut Nursing Recruitment and Retention Strategy 2007 2012 NUNAVUT NURSES BE THE DIFFERENCE Nunavut Nursing Recruitment and Retention Strategy

More information

School of Accounting Florida International University Strategic Plan 2012-2017

School of Accounting Florida International University Strategic Plan 2012-2017 School of Accounting Florida International University Strategic Plan 2012-2017 As Florida International University implements its Worlds Ahead strategic plan, the School of Accounting (SOA) will pursue

More information

Education 2030: Towards inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning for all. ED/WEF2015/MD/3 Original: English

Education 2030: Towards inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning for all. ED/WEF2015/MD/3 Original: English Education 2030: Towards inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning for all ED/WEF2015/MD/3 Original: English 1. We, Ministers, heads and members of delegations, heads of agencies and

More information

National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment. National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment. National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia May, 2009 National Qualifications Framework for Higher

More information

TEACHING OF STATISTICS IN KENYA. John W. Odhiambo University of Nairobi Nairobi

TEACHING OF STATISTICS IN KENYA. John W. Odhiambo University of Nairobi Nairobi TEACHING OF STATISTICS IN KENYA John W. Odhiambo University of Nairobi Nairobi In Kenya today statistics is taught at various levels in the education system to various degrees of coverage and sophistication.

More information

Educational Practices Reference Guide. Aligned to the Advance ED Standards for Quality Schools

Educational Practices Reference Guide. Aligned to the Advance ED Standards for Quality Schools Aligned to the Advance ED Standards for Quality Schools February 2010 Table of Contents Page Number Introduction 3 Vision and Purpose 4 Governance and Leadership Duties of the Governing Authority 4 Role

More information

WELCOME AND TAKING CHARGE

WELCOME AND TAKING CHARGE WELCOME AND TAKING CHARGE In this preliminary phase, you will be fully informed by the information point that will be indicated to you by your Region the contents and services provided by the Programme

More information

Blackburn College Teaching, Learning and Assessment Strategy. 25 August 2015

Blackburn College Teaching, Learning and Assessment Strategy. 25 August 2015 Blackburn College Teaching, Learning and Assessment Strategy 25 August 2015 1 Introduction This document provides a Teaching, Learning and Assessment Strategy covering all of the College s Further Education

More information

PAPER 1 THE SCHOOL COUNSELLING WORKFORCE IN NSW GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS

PAPER 1 THE SCHOOL COUNSELLING WORKFORCE IN NSW GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS PAPER 1 THE SCHOOL COUNSELLING WORKFORCE IN NSW GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS Introduction This paper describes the current school counselling service within the Department of Education and Communities (the Department)

More information

Need for Specialist Teachers in Early Childhood Education (ECE) Delivery for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Need for Specialist Teachers in Early Childhood Education (ECE) Delivery for Sustainable Development in Nigeria An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia Vol. 8 (2), Serial No. 33, April, 2014:294-304 ISSN 1994-9057 (Print) ISSN 2070--0083 (Online) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v8i2.17 Need for

More information

ASSOCIATION OF AFRICAN BUSINESS SCHOOLS. BUSINESS SCHOOL QUALITY REVIEW Draft dated 10 November 2010

ASSOCIATION OF AFRICAN BUSINESS SCHOOLS. BUSINESS SCHOOL QUALITY REVIEW Draft dated 10 November 2010 ASSOCIATION OF AFRICAN BUSINESS SCHOOLS BUSINESS SCHOOL QUALITY REVIEW Draft dated 10 November 2010 The AABS quality review entails a group of peers visiting a member or prospective member school to discuss

More information

THE FRAMEWORK FOR INSTRUCTIONAL COACH ENDORSEMENT GUIDELINES PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

THE FRAMEWORK FOR INSTRUCTIONAL COACH ENDORSEMENT GUIDELINES PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE FRAMEWORK FOR INSTRUCTIONAL COACH ENDORSEMENT GUIDELINES PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TABLE OF CONTENTS Definition of an Endorsement Certificate... 3 Introduction to Instructional Coach Endorsement

More information

Leadership Training to Retain USA Swimming Officials (Leadership Clinic Material)

Leadership Training to Retain USA Swimming Officials (Leadership Clinic Material) Leadership Training to Retain USA Swimming Officials (Leadership Clinic Material) There are some leadership principles that apply to all leadership positions, and they can be manipulated to specific roles

More information

Response to QCEC Discussion Paper Pre service Teacher Education Entry Requirements December 2012

Response to QCEC Discussion Paper Pre service Teacher Education Entry Requirements December 2012 Response to QCEC Discussion Paper Pre service Teacher Education Entry Requirements December 2012 Australian Catholic University (ACU) welcomes this opportunity to inform discussion on entry levels into

More information

PROTOCOL ON EDUCATION AND TRAINING (SADC) 1

PROTOCOL ON EDUCATION AND TRAINING (SADC) 1 PROTOCOL ON EDUCATION AND TRAINING (SADC) 1 BLANTYRE, 8 SEPTEMBER 1997 PREAMBLE WE, the Heads of State or Government of The Republic of Angola The Republic of Botswana The Kingdom of Lesotho The Republic

More information

Policy Implications of School Management and Practices

Policy Implications of School Management and Practices Policy Implications of School Management and Practices In the wake of the recent global economic crisis, countries need to structure and manage school systems efficiently to maximise limited resources.

More information

Undergraduate education part of the development plan of KTH CSC June 2008

Undergraduate education part of the development plan of KTH CSC June 2008 Undergraduate education part of the development plan of KTH CSC June 2008 Programmes The aim of the Master of Science in Engineering program in Computer Science and Engineering is to give graduate engineers

More information

Adapting Our Schools to the Needs of All Students

Adapting Our Schools to the Needs of All Students A NEW DIRECTION FOR SUCCESS Adapting Our Schools to the Needs of All Students PLAN OF ACTION FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION Québec Ministère de l'éducation Adapting Our Schools to the Needs of All Students A NEW

More information

Section Three: Ohio Standards for Principals

Section Three: Ohio Standards for Principals Section Three: Ohio Standards for Principals 1 Principals help create a shared vision and clear goals for their schools and ensure continuous progress toward achieving the goals. Principals lead the process

More information

International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011 - Draft

International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011 - Draft International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011 - Draft For Global Consultation June October 2010 Draft ISCED 2011 for global consultation Page 1 0. TABLE OF CONTENTS 0. TABLE OF CONTENTS...1

More information

Jamaica: Recent Initiatives in Early Childhood Policy

Jamaica: Recent Initiatives in Early Childhood Policy Jamaica: Recent Initiatives in Early Childhood Policy Omar Davies and Rose Davies * Over the past decade, interest in early childhood education and development has increased in Jamaica. This increased

More information

Bachelor of Bachelor of Education (Honours)

Bachelor of Bachelor of Education (Honours) Bachelor of Bachelor of Education (Honours) Detailed Course Requirements The 2016 Monash University Handbook will be available from October 2015. This document contains interim 2016 course requirements

More information

DEPARTMENT OF MARKETING COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION POLICY ON REAPPOINTMENT, TENURE, AND PROMOTION (RTP)

DEPARTMENT OF MARKETING COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION POLICY ON REAPPOINTMENT, TENURE, AND PROMOTION (RTP) Approved by Academic Affairs May 2010 DEPARTMENT OF MARKETING COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION POLICY ON REAPPOINTMENT, TENURE, AND PROMOTION (RTP) I. DEPARTMENT OF MARKETING RTP POLICY A. Preamble B.

More information

Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC)

Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) STRATEGIES TO TACKLE CHALLENGES IN IMPROVING WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT AND WORKING CONDITIONS Challenge 1: Improving staff qualifications Qualifications

More information

Professional Standards for Teachers

Professional Standards for Teachers Professional Standards for Teachers Guidelines for Professional Practice July 2005 Queensland the Smart State The State of Queensland (Department of Education) 2005 Copyright protects this publication.

More information

School-Based Teacher Educators Take On New Roles In Professional Development Schools. Richard E. Ishler University of South Carolina

School-Based Teacher Educators Take On New Roles In Professional Development Schools. Richard E. Ishler University of South Carolina School-Based Teacher Educators Take On New Roles In Professional Development Schools Richard E. Ishler University of South Carolina Ann L. Ishler Columbia College We are grateful for the loyal support

More information

Knowsley Community College

Knowsley Community College Knowsley Community College Inspection report Provider reference 130486 Published date April 2008 Audience Post-sixteen Published date April 2008 Provider reference 130486 Inspection report: Knowsley Community

More information

Quality Assurance Initiatives in Literacy and Essential Skills: A Pan-Canadian Perspective

Quality Assurance Initiatives in Literacy and Essential Skills: A Pan-Canadian Perspective Quality Assurance Initiatives in Literacy and Essential Skills: A Pan-Canadian Perspective Summary of Key Informant Interviews Final Report November 2014 Acknowledgments Thank you to the following organizations

More information

HRM. Human Resource. Health Organizations. A Guide for Strengthening HRM Systems. Management Rapid Assessment Tool for

HRM. Human Resource. Health Organizations. A Guide for Strengthening HRM Systems. Management Rapid Assessment Tool for HRM Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool for Public- and Private-Sector Health Organizations A Guide for Strengthening HRM Systems All rights reserved. Management Sciences for Health Telephone:

More information

(AGENDA -OVERVIEW OF THE DAY) 1. COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF POLICIES 2. COMMUNITY PROGRAMMES 3. OTHER COMMUNITY INSTRUMENTS

(AGENDA -OVERVIEW OF THE DAY) 1. COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF POLICIES 2. COMMUNITY PROGRAMMES 3. OTHER COMMUNITY INSTRUMENTS (AGENDA -OVERVIEW OF THE DAY) 1. COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF POLICIES 2. COMMUNITY PROGRAMMES 3. OTHER COMMUNITY INSTRUMENTS 4. OTHER OBLIGATIONS RELATED TO THE ACQUIS 1 COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF POLICIES

More information

Scheme of Service for Medical Social Workers

Scheme of Service for Medical Social Workers REPUBLIC OF KENYA Scheme of Service for Medical Social Workers 0 April, 2009 Issued by the Permanent Secretary Ministry of State for Public Service Office of the Prime Minister Nairobi 1 SCHEME OF SERVICE

More information

National-Louis University Wheeling, Illinois

National-Louis University Wheeling, Illinois Wheeling, Illinois 2010 GRADUATE SPECIAL EDUCATION Teacher Preparation Program Design C- The design of this program is enhanced by its selectivity, but there are critical elements in need of improvement.

More information

POLICY ISSUES IN BRIEF

POLICY ISSUES IN BRIEF ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS for Career and Technical Education in Virginia 2015 Educators and business representatives from across Virginia, along with 10 organizations representing Career and Technical Education

More information

Organization and Bylaws College of Education and Human Development

Organization and Bylaws College of Education and Human Development Organization and Bylaws College of Education and Human Development I. Mission The College of Education and Human Development (EHD) has a special mission within the University of fostering healthy human

More information

Developing and Delivering Online Math and Science Teacher Education Programs With Ten African Countries

Developing and Delivering Online Math and Science Teacher Education Programs With Ten African Countries Developing and Delivering Online Math and Science Teacher Education Programs With Ten African Countries Dr. Bakary Diallo, Rector African Virtual University Good morning. I am very happy to be here. Thank

More information

Supreme Education Council Higher Education Institute. Licensing and Accreditation Standards for Higher Education Institutions in Qatar

Supreme Education Council Higher Education Institute. Licensing and Accreditation Standards for Higher Education Institutions in Qatar Supreme Education Council Higher Education Institute Licensing and Accreditation Standards for Higher Education Institutions in Qatar Doha April 2011 0 Standards for Licensing and Accreditation of Higher

More information

Legislative Council Secretariat FACT SHEET. Education system in Finland

Legislative Council Secretariat FACT SHEET. Education system in Finland FACT SHEET Education system in Finland 1. Introduction 1.1 The education system in Finland is often cited as a successful model as the Finnish students are among the top performers in the international

More information

Elementary MEd I. The Relationship of the Program with the Unit s Conceptual Framework

Elementary MEd I. The Relationship of the Program with the Unit s Conceptual Framework Elementary MEd I. The Relationship of the Program with the Unit s Conceptual Framework Shaping Tomorrow: Ideas to Action The Early Elementary Education program for prospective elementary education candidates

More information

ERITREA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

ERITREA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ERITREA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Quality and relevance of teaching-learning and research 1. INTRODUCTION The government of Eritrea has embarked on major reforms on the educational system The reforms are

More information