Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Environment

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1 Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Environment Assessment of Kizimbani Agriculture Training Institute: Training Costs and Sustainability A report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Environment The study was sponsored by Agriculture Sector Support Programme and Agricultural Sector Development Programme Livestock - Zanzibar March 2010

2 Assessment team This report present the results of the assessment study which was carried out by an assessment team composed of three consultants: 1) Mr. Mohamed K. Rashid (Team leader) 2) Mr. Vuai K. Juma 3) Mr. Khatib M. Khatib 2

3 Acknowledgements The consultants would like to express their in depth appreciation to all institutions and individuals whose contribution is highly desirable, but regrettably hard to accomplish. Special appreciation is due to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Environment particularly the Commission for Agricultural Research and Extension for their initial idea of the study, guidance and support. Many thanks should go to the government officials (Zanzibar and Mainland) and ex- KATI students for providing to us important information on their roles and responsibilities. Without their contributions this work could be incomplete. Thanks also should go to the Kizimbani tutors for their valuable information and comments during the study. Finally, consultants express their special gratitude to the ASSP and ASDP-L programmes for financing this assessment. 3

4 List of abbreviations ASDP-L Agriculture Sector Development Programme - Livestock ASSP GDP HIV/AIDS KATI KOICA MACEMP MALE MANREC MATI MKUZA MOFEA NACTE OCGS PADEP SWOT ZGS ZSGRP Agriculture Sector Support Programme Gross Domestic Product Human Imuno-deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Kizimbani Agricultural Training Institute Korea International Development Agency Marine and Coastal Environment Management Project Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Environment Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources Environment and Cooperative Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute Mkakati wa Kukuza Uchumi na Kupunguza Umasikini Zanzibar Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs National Council for Technical Education Office of Chief Government Statistician Participatory Agriculture Development Project Strength Weakness Opportunity and Threat Zanzibar Growth Strategy Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty 4

5 Executive summary This report is about the assessment of the present KATI resources (human and physical) the gaps and achievements and possibility of establishing and sustaining diploma course. The assessors reviewed various documents including policies, interviewed KATI staff and students and made observations at the site. The assessors visited two mainland agricultural training institutions which offer both certificate and diploma courses and at the Ministry of Agriculture. The idea of the visits was to get the clear requirements for improving the existing situation and establishing diploma course at KATI. Based on the analysis, there are several achievements that have been noticed, where a total number of 197 certificate holders trained. Among them, they have pursued further studies at diploma and degree level. On the other hand, the Institute is offering consultancy services to the community and small organizations engaged on horticulture, raising small stock and agribusiness development. KATI has also been involved in the development of the vocational training curriculum in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training. Although KATI has made progress at this stage, the study has found that there is shortage of resources which undermine the capability of KATI to offer effective and efficient training not only at certificate level but also the establishment of diploma. The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar is dedicated to support the institution by enacting KATI Act No. 5 of 2007 that made the institution to be a semi-autonomous. The Government committed to finance the institution so that it can sustain agricultural development through training and research. The trend of the last four years shows that both budget allocation and the actual disbursement is lower compared to the need. Only selected operational costs are covered. 5

6 This assessment provides background information that could help the institution to accomplish their stated objective more effectively. However, more analysis is needed in establishing more realistic cost that will show minimum support to enable KATI to offer diploma as well as to ensure recognition by the NACTE. Despite the challenges identified, the establishment of diploma course is fundamental in increasing the number of agricultural technicians, upgrading those who have already in the field. The diploma graduates will also in future feed tertiary learning institutions. 6

7 Table of Content Acknowledgements... 3 List of abbreviations... 4 Executive summary... 5 Table of Content... 7 Figure Introduction The Zanzibar Setting and the Role of Agriculture in its Economy Setting, History and Administration Contribution of Agriculture to Zanzibar Economy Policy issues Government interventions PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Overall aim Specific objectives Basic study questions APPROACHES AND METHODOLOGIES Introduction Planning for the assignment Selection of study area/sample Selection of the sample Selecting data collection techniques Documentary review Observation Interviews Focused Group Discussions Limitations Organization of the Study ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS Current status of Kizimbani Agricultural Training Institute KATI history The organizational structure of KATI KATI target group, curriculum and progressive route KATI Staffing KATI training activities and available facilities Type of Courses offered Curriculum Physical resources (Teaching materials per department) Achievements Cost Implication for establishing diploma course at KATI Responses from KATI tutors Responses from ex-kati graduates Mainland experience

8 5.0 SWOT ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING AND ESTABLISHING DIPLOMA COURSE AT KATI CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS Appendices Appendix A List of documents consulted Appendix B Terms of Reference for Analysis of Kizimbani Agricultural Training Institute: Cost of diploma training and sustainability Appendix C List of People Consulted/Interviewed Appendix D Interviews and Focus Group discussion guide questions Appendix E KATI requirements... Error! Bookmark not defined. List of staff needed (academic and supporting)... Error! Bookmark not defined. Type of building and equipments/training materials required by KATI... Error! Bookmark not defined. Tables Table no. 1: No of extension staff in districts and their qualifications.. 10 Table no: 2: Category of sample 13 Table no. 3: Full time academic staff Table no. 4: Supporting staff.. 19 Table no. 5: Student enrolment from 1998 to 2008 in KATI Table no. 6: Approved versus actual budget received by KATI from 2004/05 to 2008/ Figure Figure 1: KATI organizational structure

9 1.0 Introduction 1.1 The Zanzibar Setting and the Role of Agriculture in its Economy Setting, History and Administration Zanzibar consists of two major islands, namely Unguja and Pemba. Unguja Island lies 40 km and Pemba lies 60 km off the eastern coast of Tanzania mainland. Unguja island has a total area of 1,658 sq.km. and Pemba has an area of 984 sq.km., making a total area of 2,642 sq. km. The total arable land is about 131,570 hectares. The population of Zanzibar in the 2002 census was about 984,625 inhabitants. The annual population growth is estimated at 3.1%. In 1964 the popular revolution took place that gave way to the new government. In the same year Zanzibar merged with Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanzania. Under the set up of union, Zanzibar maintain its autonomy in various issues including agriculture and local governance. The Zanzibar government had established a ministry responsible for agricultural development. The ministry has got various departments including those dealing with training and extension activities Contribution of Agriculture to Zanzibar Economy In Zanzibar, subsistence agriculture has been and still is the most important sector of the economy. Apart from its contribution of about 30.8% of the GDP (OCGS 2008), it also provides employment to 70% (42% directly) of the population found in rural areas (ZGS, 2007). The average rate of growth of the GDP for agricultural sector is smaller (2.4%) compared to the population growth rate of (3.1%). Agriculture Sector stands second in terms of its contribution to Zanzibar GDP (MOFEA Growth Strategy Report (2006). Based on MOFEA (2006), any serious strategy for reduction of rural poverty and improvement of food security requires considerable improvement on the income of smallholder producers in agriculture related activities and thus must promote improvements in their production activities. Due to this 9

10 importance, the sector has been ranked as third priority sector next to Tourism and Trade Sectors in MKUZA. Despite the potential of agricultural sectors in reduction of rural poverty being widely recognized and documented, the challenge however lies on how to support specific changes that will lead to a greater role of the sectors in the reduction of poverty. The most critical one is on how to transform smallholder subsistence agriculture into viable commercial entities. This will not only increase the contribution of the Agricultural Sector to GDP but also (and more importantly) it will increase its contribution in reduction of rural poverty Policy issues In the Vision 2020, the creation of a robust and competitive economy through mobilization and utilization of domestic resources that is, natural, human and capital, and promotion of participation of indigenous Zanzibaris in the process of economic reform and private enterprises was emphasized (MOEFA, 2002). The vision further emphasized the need for modernizing agriculture and enhancing community participation, access to productive resources, marketing and agro-processing promotion, improvement of communication, energy supply, banking and non-banking credit system. In the Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (ZSGRP,2007), it has been stated that the objective or contribution of agricultural sector in the ZSGRP should be to increase production of cash crops, food, livestock, fisheries, and forestry products Government interventions In general the development of agricultural sector could be achieved through improvement of research, supply of inputs and extension services, promotion of local and external markets and providing enabling environment for agricultural investment to take place. Apart from having clear directions from the above policies and programmes, there has been little achievement in increasing production and productivity. One of the major factors is the limited availability of support services including extension. In particular there are weak linkages of producers, research institutions and providers of 10

11 extension services because most of the extension agents have very low education (MANREC, 2002). The table below indicates the number and capacity of extension staff per district Table no. 1: No of block extension staff in different districts and their qualifications No. District No of Shehia No. of extension staff certificate untrained diploma Total 1 Kaskazini 'A' Kaskazini 'B' Kati Kusini Magharibi Mkoani Chake Chake Wete Micheweni Total Percentage 22% 78% Source: Commission of Agriculture Research and Extension per. Comm.. Chief Extensionist (May 2009) Within this context, the government has put emphasis on training of extension staff by establishing Kizimbani Agricultural Training Institution to complement to the development of agricultural sector. However, since KATI established, no study has been undertaken to analyse the effectiveness of the certificate course curriculum. Considering now the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Environment of Zanzibar proposing KATI to offer diploma courses, the existing learning situation (curriculum, course outline, infrastructure, staff and teaching materials) and the cost implication for sending students to the mainland need to be analyzed. 11

12 It is therefore from this background that the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Environment, Zanzibar through ASSP/ASDP-L programmes supported the idea of undertaking the analysis that can help to develop effective and efficient KATI training program. Table no. : Number of subject matter specialist in different districts and their qualifications No. District Number of subject matter specialist certificate diploma Total 1 Kaskazini 'A' Kaskazini 'B' Kati Kusini Magharibi Mkoani Chake Chake Wete Micheweni Total Percentage 40% 60% Source: Commission of Agriculture Research and Extension per. Comm.. Chief Extensionist (May 2009) 2.0 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 2.1 Overall aim The analysis of KATI training activities for agriculture technicians had one major aim: to provide basic information of the existing situation and to assess the possibility of training technician at diploma level. 2.2 Specific objectives Within the context of the overall aim, this study intended to achieve the following specific objectives: To asses the existing general certificate curriculum. 12

13 To identify strengths and weaknesses of the existing training facilities and services at KATI including manpower, classroom, library services, laboratory facilities and fields To provide recommendations that can enable the institution to offer diploma course. To asses training costs and how they are shared. 2.3 Basic study questions On the basis of the above objectives the following study questions were devised and these guided to the analytical process. 1. What is the existing KATI curriculum? How was the existing curriculum developed? How does the existing curriculum cater for the need of Zanzibar agriculture development? 2. What are the available training facilities that can support diploma course at KATI? 3. What are the stakeholders of KATI? What are their obligations? 4. What is the demand for agriculture technician (certificate and diploma) training? 5. What are the training costs? 3.0 APPROACHES AND METHODOLOGIES 3.1 Introduction According to the term of reference (see appendix D), the Consultants carried out the assignment under close supervision and collaboration with the Commission of Agricultural Research and Extension. The study involved reviewing official documentary materials and research reports in addition to carrying out observations, interviews and focused group discussion with students. Overall, the process entailed the following aspects. 13

14 3.2 Planning for the assignment Separate meetings were organized with the Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner for Agricultural Research and Extension and the Management of ASSP/ASDP-L before field work to discuss and reach consensus on areas of assessment. The objective of the meetings includes: To brainstorm on variables that needed to be investigated To discuss and agree on the area of study, sample and research process; and To discuss and refine the research instruments. 3.3 Selection of study area/sample In order to obtain first hand data, which is rich and adequate, two agriculture training institutions were visited in the mainland. Intensive study was done at KATI where analysis of agricultural technician training was made to get clear understanding of existing curricula, observe training materials. The analysis also covers the areas where tutors might need further professional development to enable to teach diploma courses. 3.4 Selection of the sample In order to obtain a holistic picture of KATI, information was sought from a selected number of all stakeholders involved in the functioning of KATI. These include students, tutors, coordinators, parents and government officials. Table no: 2: Category of sample Category Female Male Total Directors/assistant MATI tutors Ex-KATI students KATI tutors and heads Others (extension staff)

15 Total Selecting data collection techniques In this assignment, a combination of methods was used to gather both primary and secondary data. This included: Documentary review/desk study Observations Focused group discussion with students Interview with Ministry of officials tutors and students Documentary review Several documents including policy documents such as vision 2020, ZPRSP (2007), Agriculture Policy (2002), General Agriculture Certificate course syllabuses, Agricultural Strategic Plan and other technical reports were reviewed to generate information that led into analyzing the KATI training program. This review also generated information and lessons on agriculture technician training as practiced elsewhere but more specifically in the mainland Observation Observation at KATI campus was made to examine the course curricula and learning environment, size of farms and suitability to the target group. Apart from this observation was also used to gather information related to the activities that students perform as part of the skills development. Again observation method was also employed at MATI Igurusi and MATI Uyole agricultural training institutes Interviews Interviews were also conducted with Principal Secretary, Commissioner for agricultural research and extension, Director of the Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute- 15

16 mainland, agriculture training institute tutors and extension officers MALE. Guided questions were developed and used to get the needed information Focused Group Discussions These were conducted with KATI tutors and graduates to get their views on how they asses the Institution on its capability to establish the Diploma Course Limitations On respondent: The respondents were not easily available as they have many commitments. On time: The study took long time to accomplish as one of the researcher undergone eye operation after being referred to mainland On secondary data: It was difficult to extract data from the source as we notice poor record keeping. On cost analysis for diploma course: KATI has not yet started to offer diploma course, it is not appropriate to carry out in depth analysis on the cost implication in particular and make comparison with mainland. Therefore, the study focused on the whole general assessment of KATI whether diploma could be established Organization of the Study. The report is divided into six chapters. Chapter One: This is the introduction, which comprises of the, Zanzibar setting and its role to its economy, contribution of agriculture to the Zanzibar economy, policy issues and government interventions. Chapter Two: This entails the purpose of the study where overall aim and specific objectives have been outlined together with the basic study questions. Chapter Three: This chapter provides the approaches and methodologies employed in the assessment KATI. Chapter Four: This presents the analysis and discussion of findings. 16

17 Chapter Five: This chapter reveals the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threat of KATI which gives the way forward. Chapter Six: This is the final part, which includes the conclusion and recommendations. 4.0 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 4.1 Current status of Kizimbani Agricultural Training Institute KATI history Kizimbani Agricultural Training Institute (KATI) was established in July The initial idea of the institute was meant as a training centre for farmers. The demand for agricultural technicians leads to be converted into training institute for extension agents. The purpose of this institution is to build the capacity of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Environment and its institution in offering technical advice to the farming community in the rural areas. KATI act as a centre for offering various consultancy services related to agriculture development activities. The institution also provides inservice training to the agricultural extension staff and farmers. The institution was established to enable to produce enough extension staff to work with farmers in rural areas. The extension staffs are expected to advise and provide skills to the farmers and assist the community in developing agriculture development plans according to the situation. KATI vision is to have an institute that is sustainable and capable of offering up to date demand driven training on crop, livestock and natural resource management. Since established KATI objectives have been: To train men and women for the purpose of fulfilling manpower requirements in the agricultural sector (block extension officers) To prepare young men and women for self-employment To offer technical advisory services to farmers in the field through village outreach programmes. 17

18 In October 2007 the government had announced the commencement of KATI Act No. 5 that is, apart from training gave more functions such as conducting research, and commercial activities for the purpose of generating income for the Institute sustainability and creation such reserve funds to meet future contingent liabilities The organizational structure of KATI According to KATI Act No. 5 of 2007, it narrate that, the institution organization should be illustrated as follows: Institute Council NPC Director NPC Academic officer Chief Administrative Officer FL 2 Registrar Head of departments PTG 1 Accountant & non-academic staff Figure 1: KATI organizational structure With this illustration, only Chairperson and a director have been appointed. Examination has shown that, the delay in appointment of two members of institute council by the Minister have rendered the council unfuctional. Even the three key staff who was supposed to be approved by the council has not effected. Thus have slow down the development of new work plans, implementation and performance of monitoring. The tasks of the Institute Council, Director, Academic Officer, Chief Administrative Officer and Registrar can be referred to the KATI Act No. 5 0f

19 4.1.3 KATI target group, curriculum and progressive route The target group for KATI certificate training varies in terms of reasons being resident in rural areas. Essentially the student has to finish ordinary level education and passed science subjects including mathematics. Initially KATI curriculum involved a three years course of study, but since 2005 the number of years has been reduced to two years of study (the same as in the mainland). Students completed their certificate and advanced level secondary education have to go to the mainland to pursue diploma courses in various specializations such as crop production, horticulture, human nutrition and animal production. The training programs also cater for in-service student who need to upgrade their skills and knowledge. Before the establishment of KATI, students intending to study certificate courses have also to go to the mainland KATI Staffing At present, the academic staff is composed by both permanent, part time tutors and supporting staff. All are employees of the Ministry of Agriculture. Twenty one (21) tutors are full time (their qualifications are shown in the table no 3) and 37 supporting staff with their position shown in table no. 4. Table no. 3: Full time academic staff Qualification Number Remarks M Sc. 3 Present B Sc. 4 1 went for MSc. Studies in China Diploma 14 5 went for BSc. Studies Total 21 1 went leave without pay 19

20 Table no.4: Supporting staff Position Number Remarks Bursar 0 Cashier 1 Storekeeper 1 Office Secretary 5 3 went for studies local Matron 2 Correspondence (Clerk) 1 Office attendant 2 Office maintenance 0 Guards 10 Drivers 2 Cooks 6 Other 7 Total KATI training activities and available facilities Type of Courses offered The institution offered general agriculture certificate course focused on principles of crop production and animal husbandry and how to provide support to farmer. Previously the course duration was for three years but it was later reviewed to two years. The change of course duration was mainly attributed by two main factors: i) running cost was very high and ii) changes of curriculum. The decision to which type of diploma course to start has not yet determined Curriculum Course duration 20

21 The three years curriculum was adapted from Tanzania mainland agricultural institutes where livestock and crops subjects were combined together during the delivery. During the review of the curriculum it was found out that some subjects and topics were irrelevant to the Zanzibar context, therefore they were deleted. The certificate course has been specifically designed for O level students with principle pass in science, mathematics and English language. Priority is given to applicants residing in rural areas. In-service students from various institutions are also enrolled for the course. Content and delivery Meanwhile, KATI does not have general agriculture certificate course curriculum. The institute has adapted the syllabus from mainland where similar course are offered by the Ministry of Agriculture Training Institutes. Two observations are made; i) the adapted syllabus is still above the level ii) it does not meet the need of Zanzibar farmers. Zanzibar has pronounced agro-ecological zones, such as the coral rag, the plantations and valleys, as well as diverse social and economic conditions. For example, spice farming, utilization of underground water for irrigation and drip water irrigation techniques have not been fully covered. Course evaluation This is based on continuous assessment and examination in each term. The practical assessment carries much weight in both continuous and examinations. Pass mark is judged both by theoretical part which carry 40% while practical activities carry 60%. There is also final examination which include both practical and theory sessions. 4.3 Training facilities available at KATI The study reveals that KATI has limited training facilities. The detailed list of training facilities available and those required are found in appendix E. Among those facilities there are buildings which need to be renovated to reach required standard. Other facilities need to be procured include audio visuals materials, machineries and equipment. 21

22 4.4 Physical resources (Teaching materials per department) The institute has an estimated area of 100 hectares land which is enough for practical and demonstration activities as well as for crop and livestock production purpose and for the extension of institute buildings. There are 22 cattle; among them seventeen 17 are dairy cattle and 250 poultry (layers). There are 0.5 hectares for spice production, 1.5 hectares for vegetables and about 5 hectares for root crops. 4.5 Achievements KATI was established in 1998 and managed to enroll 342 agricultural technicians at certificate level whereby 167 were male and 175 were female (see table no 5). Table no. 5: Student enrolment from 1998 to 2008 in KATI Year Male Female Total TOTAL Source: Kizimbani Agricultural Training Institute (2009) The total number of agricultural technicians trained at certificate level in KATI is 197 whereby 119 were male and 78 were female. More than 90% of course graduates are employed by MALE. Some of these graduates have advanced to diploma and degree courses in different specialization in Mainland Tanzania. The KATI graduates together with the A level students form a pool of potential diploma students. 4.6 Cost Implication for establishing diploma course at KATI Kati Running Costs Currently, KATI is providing certificate course whereby a big part of the cost for running the program are directly covered by the Government of Zanzibar. The current 22

23 expenditure and budget from the Government for running certificate course during 2004/ /09 are shown in the table no. 6. Table no. 6: Approved versus actual budget received by KATI from 2004/05 to 2008/09 Year Budget Actual %age 2004/05 50,505,000 32,066, % 2005/06 50,505,000 37,097, % 2006/07 51,113,000 32,320, % 2007/08 52,921,000 40,393, % 2008/09* 45,000,000 22,097, % Source: Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Environment (May, 2009) *Up to April 2009 However, investment costs are largely implemented through development projects. For example, from 2000 to 2003 the NAEP II project that was funded by the loan from the World Bank provided a massive support to KATI. The support covered student welfare, supply of equipments such as computers, photocopier, deep freezers and furniture. The support also covered training of tutors and civil works that included construction of dormitory with a capacity of accommodating 50 students. The support was also extended to construction of two staff houses, dairy cow shed, poultry unit and fencing. The Government financing plan is to increase budget allocation in the agricultural sector for the investment and improved agricultural yields. Therefore, it is expected that KATI will benefit from the Government financing plan, hence budget allocation for KATI increases. The Government has established special fund, the skill development levy to assist Zanzibari youths to acquire different skills through educational institutions established in the country. KATI is eligible for the fund as it trains youths who are expected to reduce imbalance between the number of farmers and the farm officers. Cost Sharing 23

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