# Identity Based Encryption. Terence Spies VP Engineering

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1 Identity Based Encryption Terence Spies VP Engineering

2 Voltage Security Overview Breakthrough technology for encryption and access control Based on work of Dr. Boneh at Stanford and Matt Franklin at UC Davis Unsolved mathematical problem posed by Adi Shamir in 1984 Company founded in October 2002 Solving large unmet market demand & opportunity Platform play for secure multi-channel communication Voltage Secur , SecureFile, SecureIM today Toolkit (with source) this spring 2

3 Voltage Security Delivers a Unique Solution Anytime and anywhere encryption No need to expose directories No private key roaming problems Online and offline usage On-demand security Secure ad hoc communications Easy to use Transparent to end users Easy to implement Centralized administration Dynamic group management and access control No rip & replace Strong ROI, low TCO Ease of deployment, management 3

4 What is IBE? Next generation public key algorithm Encryption Various novel authentication technologies Breaks through barriers associated with prior approaches Very few organizations have widely deployed solutions due to concerns over cost, convenience, interoperability, and manageability. - Ray Wagner, Gartner 4

5 How IBE Works From This Breakthrough How Identity Based Encryption Works The mathematical construct that makes IBE work is a special type of function that is called a Bilinear Map. A Bilinear Map is a pairing that has the special property: Pair( a X, b Y ) = Pair( b X, a Y ) For IBE the operator is multiplication of integers with points on elliptic curves. While multiplication (e.g. calculating a X) is easy, the inverse operation (finding a from X and a X) is practically impossible. The Bilinear Map that is used is a Weil Pairing or Tate Pairing. To set up the system we pick a secret s and a parameter P. Next P and s P (the product of s and P) are distributed to all users. Next we issue to each user their private key. It is the product of their Identity and the secret s. For Bob this is s ID Bob. Sender (Alice) To encrypt a message to Bob, Alice picks random r and calculates a key k: Receiver (Bob) After receiving the message, Bob can reconstruct the key k by calculating: k = Pair( r ID Bob, s P ) E k [Message] r P k = Pair( s ID Bob, r P ) We now send to Bob E k [Message], the message encrypted with k. We also send him the product r P. and decrypt the message with it. As Bob is the only person who knows his private key s ID Bob, no one else can calculate k. 5

6 How IBE Works Comes this Elegance IBE Public Key: RSA Public Key: Public exponent=0x10001 Modulus=

7 BF-IBE 1984: IBE suggested by Shamir. No satisfactory solution. RSA: cannot map name to pub key = (N,e). ElGamal: pub-key = g x (mod p). PKG cannot get x. 2001: Boneh-Franklin (Crypto 01) Practical IBE cryptosystem. Based on bilinear maps from algebraic geometry. Performance (1024-bit security, 1GhZ P3): Keygen time: 3 ms. CT-size: 160bits+ msg. Enc/dec time: < 40 ms. 7

8 How IBE Works Power of the system is in its simplicity Bank.com SecurePolicy Server Auth Server 3 Private Key for 1 2 Encrypted 8

9 How IBE Works Power of the system is in its simplicity Bank.com SecurePolicy 3 Server Alice encrypts with public key: User Authentication Private Key for Alice Encrypted Bob 1 2 9

10 How IBE Works Mapping Identity to Key Server Hub and Spoke key server is local Partner to Partner SSL to auth params Will evolve DNS cert for params Administrative Access Customers using gateway for Archive Virus / Spam Scan Mix of gateway and desktop encryption users 10

11 Why are Customers Interested? Secure ad-hoc communication for the extended enterprise has become mission critical Multiple channels of communication including messaging, web services People to people, app to people, and app to app Government compliance required GLBA, HIPAA FDA 21 CFR Part 11 (Electronic Records and Signatures) Directive 95/46/EC (EU) Sarbanes-Oxley Previous products ineffective and expensive to integrate and deploy 11

12 Voltage Supports Both Hierarchical and Federated Trust Models Voltage Policy Server chains to traditional PKI and supports PKI for signature Hub & spoke deployment allows for robust know-yourcustomer policies & central authentication Federated deployment allows for trusted peer organizations to perform authentication of local district users 12

13 Voltage Integrates with an Existing PKI IBE + PKI Benefits Payback on PKI investment while gaining easier to use and deploy system Communication between trusted domains Lower cost rollout of secure system across enterprise 13

14 Voltage Security Platform Fits Into Your Current Architecture Integrates to your current Application(s) Messaging, IM, Documents, VoIP Enterprise Messaging Enterprise LDAP Directory Voltage Secur Voltage SecureFile Voltage SecureIM Voltage SecureVoice Voltage SecureDoc Data at Rest Tap Into Current Identity Structure Secure business critical data accessed via portals or applications 14

15 The Voltage Security Platform Voltage Secur Voltage SecureDoc Voltage SecureVoice Voltage SecureIM Voltage SecureFile Voltage IBE Developer ToolKit Voltage SecureContent Server Partner enabled Applications Voltage SecurePolicy Suite Key Server Enrollment Server Voltage SecurePolicy Service Key Service Enrollment Service Voltage IdentityManagement Adapter 15

16 Importance of Gartner estimates that 75% of the total knowledge exchange occurring via contains proprietary intellectual property and must be protected as a valuable corporate asset. 3 out of 4 s should be protected as valuable corporate assets Source: 16

17 The Voltage Secur Solution Outlook Voltage Secur Voltage SecureFile Voltage SecureIM Voltage SecurePolicy Suite Key Server Enrollment Server Voltage SecureVoice Voltage SecureDoc Voltage SecureContent Server Voltage IBE Developer ToolKit Voltage SecurePolicy Service Key Service Enrollment Service Voltage IdentityManagement Adaptor Outlook Web Access Outlook Express Hotmail Yahoo! Mail Lotus Notes Voltage SecureReader Eudora BlackBerry Voltage Secur 17

18 Zero Footprint Support Achieving 100% client support with no downloads! Set of configurations for ensuring comprehensive coverage of end-user environments For Consumer oriented Applications Zero Footprint Reader browser based For Enterprise applications Voltage SecureGateway 18

19 Plugin compared to Browser access Voltage supports both models Desktop plug-ins Pros: Native user agent Transparent to end user Cons: One-time software download Ongoing maint. & help desk Browser access Pros: 100% coverage Cons: Browser user agent Means changing end user behavior Voltage Security architecture Tight Integration With Desktop Zero Footprint On Desktop 19

20 Summary Breakthrough technology for secure anytime, anywhere communications Based on work of Dr. Boneh at Stanford and Matt Franklin at UC Davis Unsolved mathematical problem posed by Adi Shamir in 1984 Solving large unmet market demand opportunity Platform play Voltage Secur , SecureFile, SecureIM today SecureDoc, SecureVPN all forthcoming 20

21 A Selection of Papers on IBE Identifier Based PKC - Potential Applications I. Levy. Invited talk at the 1st Annual PKI Research Workshop 2002, Two Remarks on Public Key Cryptology R. Anderson. Invited talk at the ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security, ACM-CCS 1997, Towards an Identity Based PKI D. Boneh. Invited talk at the 1st Annual PKI Research Workshop 2002, An Identity-Based Key-Exchange Protocol C. G. Gunther. In Proceedings of Eurocrypt 1989, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, pp 29-37, Identity-Based Encryption: a Survey M. Gagne. RSA Laboratories Cryptobytes, Vol 6, No 1, pp 10-19, Simple Identity-based Encryption with Mediated RSA X. Ding and G. Tsudik. To appear in Proceedings of RSA Conference 2003, Cryptographer's Track, CT-RSA '03, Non-interactive Public-key Cryptosystem U. Maurer and Y. Yacobi. In Proceedings of Eurocrypt 1991, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 547, Springer-Verlag, pp , Identity-Based Encryption from the Weil Pairing D. Boneh and M. Franklin. In Proceedings of Crypto 2001, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 2139, Springer- Verlag, pp , An ID-based Cryptosystem based on the Discrete Logarithm Problem S. Tsuji and T. Itoh. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, Vol 7, No 4, pp , Cryptosystems Based on Pairings R. Sakai, K. Ohgishi and M. Kasahara. In Proceedings of Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, SCIS 2001, Identity Based Encryption from the Tate Pairing to Secure Communications M. Baldwin. Master of Engineering Thesis, University of Bristol, Towards Practical Non-interactive Public Key Cryptosystems using Non-maximal Imaginary Quadratic Orders D. Huhnlein, M. Jacobson and D. Weber. In Proceedings of 7th Workshop on Selected Areas in Cryptography, SAC 2000, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 2021, Springer-Verlag, pp , A Realization Scheme for the Identity-based Cryptosystem H. Tanaka. In Proceedings of Crypto 1987, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 293, Springer-Verlag, pp , Towards Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption J. Horwitz and B. Lynn. In Proceedings of Eurocrypt 2002, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 2332, Springer- Verlag, pp , The Weil and Tate Pairings as Building Blocks for Public Key Cryptosystems A. Joux. In Proceedings of ANTS, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 2369, Springer-Verlag, pp 20-32,

22 22

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