1 Change Management & Negotiation Wesley Henderson, Ryan Chilton, Mike Badmington, Justin Ellement, Jennifer Patterson
2 Change Is Unavoidable Can't We Just Leave Things The Way They Are? There are many reasons to embrace change in the workplace.
3 Overview Change Management in Software Engineering Change Management in Organizations
4 Change Management in Software Engineering
5 Change Is Unavoidable 1. New Methodologies New methods for team meetings, project management, and decision making are devised every year. Embracing some proven methods could improve efficiency, communication, or employee satisfaction.
6 Change Is Unavoidable 2. New Employees The average number of jobs a Canadian will have other their lifetime is the highest it has ever been. New employees bring new perspectives, fresh ideas, and change the dynamic of teams. Workplaces and coworkers must reevaluate the needs to their employees regularly to keep up with employee turnover.
7 3. New Skills Change Is Unavoidable As employees learn new skills and become more competent, changes need to be made in order to make the most of these new skills. Conversely, changes introduce new challenges which allow employees to learn new skills. For example, having a database professional work with the networking team can allow sharing of skills both ways.
8 Change Is Unavoidable 4. New Technology Technology presents opportunities for businesses to change the way they operate internally, or how they communicate to their customers. When used correctly, technology can vastly improve efficiency and customer satisfaction. Some examples..
9 Change Is Unavoidable 4. New Technology Digital databases make it easy for business to find information quickly. Companies have been embracing Facebook as a way of communicating to their customers. Remote access allows employees to work from home during inclement weather or family emergencies.
10 Change Is Unavoidable 5. New Challenges Companies evolve in their goals and products. For example, Fekete and Associates previously worked solely in consulting. Over the last 15 years, their focus shifted almost entirely to the production of well testing and simulation software. They had to change their planning methods, educate their management and owners, and hire software professionals.
11 Change Is Unavoidable 5. New Challenges Any time a company changes its goals, customer demographic, or product, it should reevaluate its needs as well. Hiring specialists, changing employee hierarchy, or education of existing employees may be necessary.
12 Change Is Unavoidable 6. The Old Method Didn't Work This is an obvious reason, and yet it is important. Many companies and employees fail to recognise ineffective ways of doing things. For example, if meetings are consistently running overtime, a meeting agenda process may need to be adopted, or nonessential participants could be excluded.
13 Change Is Unavoidable 7. To Keep Things Fresh Employees often get burnt out of doing the same thing day after day. Allowing employees to change their work environment, tasks, and methods helps to reduce employee turnover. Companies should make it easy for employees to express interest in changing duties, and employees should take advantage of these when needed.
14 Challenges Associated With Change Many people are resistant to change, often because they do not want to venture out of their comfort zones. If the affected persons are not told why the change is taking place, and how they will benefit from it, their resistance will only be greater.
15 Challenges Associated With Change Change can cost time and money. An exploratory evaluation may be necessary to decide whether benefits outweigh the costs. Consider long-term benefits, as well as implicit effects of the change, which can not be quantified in terms of money or time. Some examples include employee satisfaction, improved documentation, and skills development.
16 Dealing with Change "In cases where a formal contract exists between the client and the contractor, an equally formal procedure of dealing with changes... is essential." - Albert Lester
17 Dealing with Change 1. No unnecessary changes are introduced 2. Changes are made by an authorized person 3. Change originator is made aware of the implications of the change 4. Contractor is compensated for the extra cost and time needed to implement the change
18 No Unnecessary Changes Complexity of the initial problem can grow exponentially The more changes, the higher the chance that other parts of the project will be adversely affected More change means more time and money spent on the project Sidetracking - straying from the task at hand
19 Authorized Personnel If everyone is making changes, project will lack cohesion Maintains order within the team Eliminates power struggle within teams
20 Originator is Aware of Implications The person who originated the change (originator) is made aware of the implications of the change Must gather all the information of what kind of effects the change will have on the project Better understanding of the change that needs to be made will result in better implementation of the change
21 Contractor Reimbursement Takes extra time and effort to implement changes Extra time and money should be allocated to the project to account for: deadline issues added cost of extra resources
22 Change Management in Organizations
23 Proposing Change Management with Superiors Don't hold back, speak up if you feel it is needed. Recognize when there is a problem, and react promptly. If change is not introduced swiftly, big setbacks can occur eg. Argos, the catalog retailer 
24 Proposing Change Management with Superiors cont. Believe in whatever type of change you are promoting Lack of faith in a project can quickly run it into the ground eg. Shelley Lazarus & IBM  Present the change in question clearly and confidently.
25 Proposing Change Management with Superiors cont. The difference between management and leadership Consistency vs. Innovation The importance of the distinction Assists in recognizing when an organization is encouraging change, or hindering it
26 Proposing Change Management with Colleagues & Subordinates Presenting change in a new light Change is good David Brandon Change is an opportunity to make important accomplishments, and bring in creativity
27 Proposing Change Management with Colleagues & Subordinates cont. Micromanagement Large and numerous changes are difficult to handle with micromanagement Change must be managed at all levels
28 Real Life Examples Today the majority of change management strategies fail in organizations. Approximately 70% of change management's initiatives fail! Change management is a complex and sensitive issue, therefore it is very susceptible to failure.
29 Real Life Examples Lumber Liquidators The organization wanted to implement new resource planning software into their organization. The software in question is SAP ERP. The implementation of the new software proved to be difficult. Employees lacked acceptance for the new software. Organization leadership was not proactive in the transition. Money was wasted instead of saving from efficiency. No issues with the actual software. Change management was the issue.
30 Real Life Examples British Airways A new CEO was assigned in the 2000 for the company The CEO's observations after a year stated that the company was wasteful and inefficient Industry decline due to: Political conflict between states Sensitive nature of air travel security Rising fuel costs British Airways planned to lay off approximately 13,000 workers within three years In addition they planned to manage a respectable fleet size
31 Real Life Examples British Airways A change methodology management plan was developed Realized resistance comes with change Leadership roles in the organization were prepared restructuring and dealing with resistance All levels of authority in the organization were involved with change The outcome of the methodology proved to be successful
32 Real Life Examples Factors The previous examples showed success and failed There are many factors that can determine the outcome of change management The main issue of these examples was the leadership role in the change management The involvement of leaders in change management will eventually cascade down and affect the involvement of subordinates
33 Real Life Examples Factors Leadership plays a crucial role in change management. Employees may be affected by the personality traits of the leaders Change is easier to manage if the leaders adapt to the change. Employees may be more adaptable to change if: They feel comfortable with the change The change is documented and presented accurately and in advance Organizational leaders listen to feedback and adapt
34 References 1. Lester, A. (2006). Project management, planning and control. (p. 84). Butterworth- Heinemann. 2. Xiongwei, S. (2009). Why do change management strategies fail?. Journal of Cambridge Studies, Retrieved from 3. Kimberling, E. (2010, November 7). What Was the Cause of the SAP Failure at Lumber Liquidators? Retrieved from 4. SAP AG (2012). SAP ERP Features and Functions. Retrieved from com/solutions/business-suite/erp/featuresfunctions/index.epx 5. Faucheux, M. (2009, November 5). Examples of Change Management Plans That Worked. Retrieved from 6. Cisco Systems, Inc. (2012). Overview of the Cisco PACE Components. Retrieved from
35 References 7. Roles in change management. (n.d.). Retrieved from 8. Birch, P. (2007). Don't delay change. In Managing Change(pp. 1-6). Boston: Harvard Business Press. 9. Brandon, D. (2007). Change is good. In Managing Change(pp ). Boston: Harvard Business Press. 10. Kotter, J. (1996). Leading change. (pp ). Boston: Harvard Business Press. 11. Kotter, J. (1996). Leading change. (pp ). Boston: Harvard Business Press. 12. Branham, L. (2005). Seven Hidden Reasons Employees Leave (pp ). United States: Amacom. 13. Morissette and Rosa. (2003). Innovative work practices and labour turnover in Canada. Statistics Canada.
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