Making a Difference in the Lives of Infants and Toddlers and Their Families: The Impacts of Early Head Start

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1 HEAD EARLY E START R E S E A R C H Making a Difference in the Lives of Infants and Toddlers and Their Families: The Impacts of Early Head Start Volume I: Final Technical Report U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation Child Outcomes Research and Evaluation Administration on Children, Youth and Families Head Start Bureau

2 Making a Difference in the Lives of Infants and Toddlers and Their Families: The Impacts of Early Head Start Volume I: Final Technical Report June 2002 (Revisions made in January 2004) Child Outcomes Research and Evaluation Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation Administration for Children and Families And the Head Start Bureau Administration on Children, Youth and Families Department of Health and Human Services

3 Early Head Start Evaluation Reports Leading the Way: Describes the characteristics and implementation levels of 17 Early Head Start programs in fall 1997, soon after they began serving families. Executive Summary (December 2000): Summarizes Volumes I, II, and III. Volume I (December 1999): Cross-Site Perspectives Describes the characteristics of Early Head Start research programs in fall 1997, across 17 sites. Volume II (December 1999): Program Profiles Presents the stories of each of the Early Head Start research programs. Volume III (December 2000): Program Implementation Describes and analyzes the extent to which the programs fully implemented, as specified in the Revised Head Start Program Performance Standards, as of fall Pathways to Quality and Full Implementation (spring 2002): Describes and analyzes the characteristics, levels of implementation, and levels of quality of the 17 Early Head Start programs in fall 1999, three years into serving families. Presents an analysis of the pathways programs followed to achieve full implementation and high quality. Building Their Futures: How Early Head Start Programs Are Enhancing the Lives of Infants and Toddlers in Low- Income Families: Presents analysis of the impacts that the research programs have had on children s development, parenting, and family development through 2 years of age. Summary Report (January 2001): Synopsis of the major findings. Technical Report (June 2001): Detailed findings and report on methodology and analytic approaches. Special Policy Report on Child Care in Early Head Start (summer 2002): Describes the nature, types, and quality of child care arrangements in which Early Head Start and control group children enrolled, and presents implications for public policy. Special Policy Report on Children s Health in Early Head Start (summer 2002): Describes health services received by Early Head Start and control group families. Making a Difference in the Lives of Infants and Toddlers and Their Families: The Impacts of Early Head Start (June 2002): Presents analysis of the impacts that the research programs have had on children s development, parenting, and family development through the children s third birthday (including two to three years of program participation). Reports Are Available at: ii

4 Prepared for: Rachel Chazan Cohen, Helen Raikes, Louisa Banks Tarullo, And Esther Kresh Child Outcomes Research and Evaluation Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation Administration for Children and Families U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Washington, DC Prepared by: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Princeton, NJ Under Contract DHHS Authors: John M. Love Ellen Eliason Kisker Christine M. Ross Peter Z. Schochet Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Jeanne Brooks-Gunn Columbia University Center for Children and Families Diane Paulsell Kimberly Boller Jill Constantine Cheri Vogel Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Allison Sidle Fuligni Christy Brady-Smith Columbia University Center for Children and Families iii

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6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report comes at the conclusion of almost seven years of work, which had its roots even earlier in the vision of the Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers. During this time, some 3,000 Early Head Start and control group families put up with our phone calls, visits in their homes, lengthy interviews, video cameras, and child assessment materials. Moreover, this research would not have been possible without the dedication, cooperation, patience and even enthusiasm of 17 Early Head Start program directors and their staffs who participated in this research in many ways. The local and national research teams are most grateful to the Early Head Start programs for their role in making the study possible. The tangible incentives we were able to offer were small, but we hope both the programs and the families felt like important contributors to the growing knowledge base of Early Head Start research. Of particular importance to everyone who stands to benefit from the information presented here are the sponsoring agencies the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), the Child Outcomes Research and Evaluation team (CORE) within ACF s Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE), and the Head Start Bureau in the Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF). As Assistant Secretary for Children and Families, Wade F. Horn provided guidance soon after assuming his position. The CORE staff members, particularly Helen Raikes, Rachel Chazan Cohen, Louisa Banks Tarullo and Michael Lopez, have shown unusual devotion to the study. Howard Rolston and Naomi Goldstein of OPRE have been particularly devoted to ensuring the success of this research. Within the Head Start Bureau, Esther Kresh served as project officer for all 15 local research grants and contributed her advice and counsel to the national evaluation as well. Many dedicated staff of ACYF and the Head Start Bureau contributed through the years; we especially thank National Early Head Start Coordinator Judith Jerald and her colleagues Frank Fuentes, Frankie Gibson, Jim Harrell, Windy Hill, Mimi Kanda, Doug Klafehn, Ann Linehan, Joan Ohl, Edgard Perez, Tom Schultz, Mary Shiffer, Willa Siegel, Craig Turner, Carol Whitten, and Sarah Younglove, as well as ACYF fellows, Gina Barclay-McLaughlin, Senobia Crawford, Brenda Jones Harden, and Carole Kuhns. In earlier years, Olivia Golden, Joan Lombardi, and the late Helen Taylor provided inspiration for both the Early Head Start programs and research. In the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), Linda Mellgren and Martha Moorehouse contributed in important ways, as did Natasha Cabrera and Jeffrey Evans at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). We are also grateful to Christopher Gersten of ACF, Reid Lyon and Melissa Welch-Ross of NICHD, and Denise Bradley and Martha Moorehouse of ASPE for comments on an earlier draft of this report. As leaders of the National Resource Center and providers of technical assistance to all Early Head Start programs, Linda Eggbeer, Helen Keith, Tammy Mann, Adrienne Sparger, and Lillian Sugarman frequently helped us understand program operations. We also gratefully acknowledge the central role of the 15 local research teams. In addition to conducting their own investigations, they have been valuable partners in the research process. In addition to assisting in the national evaluation process, they conducted research in connection with their local programs that is reflected throughout this report, with special emphasis in Volume III. v

7 In the initial years of the project and in subsequent individual consultations, valuable consultation was provided by members of the Early Head Start Research Technical Working Group whose guidance on site selection, sample size, baseline data, cultural sensitivity, measures preparation, quantification of levels of implementation, theories of change, and analyses plans helped steer us on the right course. For these contributions, we thank J. Lawrence Aber, Mark Appelbaum, Gina Barclay-McLaughlin, Hedy Chang, Tom Cook, Eugene Garcia, Kathleen Hebbeler, Judith Jerald, Judith Jones, Sharon Lynn Kagan, Marie McCormick, and Suzanne Randolph. The authors of this report are grateful to our many colleagues at MPR and Columbia, whose work has been essential in enabling us to achieve this milestone. We list all contributing colleagues in Appendix A, but here we note the special contributions of Jeanne Bellotti, Anne Bloomenthal, John Burghardt, Julius Clark, Walter Corson, Cheryl DeSaw, Mark Dynarski, Jennifer Faerber, Stuart Kerachsky, Don Lara, Miriam Loewenberg, Linda Mendenko, Chuck Metcalf, Lorenzo Moreno, Linda Rosenberg, Margo Salem, Barbara Schiff, Andrea Sleeper, Susan Sprachman, Xiaofan Sun, and Welmoet van Kammen. We thank Jane Nelson for serving as the project secretary, who was able to call upon skilled support staff Lynne Beres, Connie Blango, Monica Capizzi, Kathy Castro, Jennifer Chiaramonti, Bill Garrett, Gloria Gustus, Cathy Harper, Cindy McClure, Jill Miller, and Marjorie Mitchell. Walt Brower, Roy Grisham, and Patricia Ciaccio provided editorial support. While acknowledging our indebtedness to these many individuals, the authors take responsibility for any errors or inadequacies that remain. In Appendix A, we more completely acknowledge the participation of hundreds of staff within the government, the consortium, and Columbia University and Mathematica, as well as a number of expert advisors. However, two individuals deserve special thanks for their unparalleled devotion to conducting quality research and developing meaningful policy messages. Helen Raikes and Rachel Chazan Cohen shared the responsibilities of federal project officer and have been special partners in this venture. vi

8 CONTENTS Chapter Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...xxiii I INTRODUCTION: BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT FOR THE EVALUATION... 1 A. OVERVIEW OF THE FINDINGS... 2 B. EARLY HEAD START, ITS HISTORY, AND ITS DEVELOPMENT AS A NATIONAL PROGRAM The Role of Legislation and Advisory Committees The National Early Head Start Program The Program s Policy Context The Research Context for the Early Head Start Program and Its Evaluation C. RESEARCH QUESTIONS ADDRESSED IN THE EARLY HEAD START IMPACT STUDY Central Questions of the Study Conceptual Framework Overarching Hypotheses D. THE EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS, FAMILIES, AND COMMUNITIES The 17 Early Head Start Research Programs The Families That Early Head Start Research Programs Served The Communities Served by Early Head Start Research Programs How Early Head Start Research Programs Compare with All Funded Programs from Which They Were Selected E. OVERVIEW OF THE EVALUATION Description of the Evaluation The Early Head Start Research Consortium Overview of the Implementation Study and Its Findings vii

9 CONTENTS (continued) Chapter Page II EVALUATION DESIGN, DATA, AND ANALYTIC APPROACHES A. STUDY DESIGN Site Selection Sample Enrollment Random Assignment B. DATA SOURCES AND OUTCOME MEASURES Data Sources Response Rates Timing of Interviews Outcome Variables Analysis Samples C. ANALYTIC APPROACHES Global Analysis Targeted Analysis Criteria for Identifying Program Effects III PARTICIPATION IN EARLY HEAD START SERVICES A. DATA SOURCES B. LEVELS OF OVERALL PARTICIPATION IN PROGRAM SERVICES C. DURATION OF PROGRAM PARTICIPATION D. LEVELS OF PARTICIPATION IN CORE CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES Early Head Start Home Visits Early Head Start Center-Based Child Care E. USE OF CHILD CARE SERVICES F. RECEIPT OF OTHER CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES Parenting Education and Parent-Child Group Socializations Child Health Services Services for Children with Disabilities viii

10 CONTENTS (continued) Chapter III (continued) Page G. FAMILY DEVELOPMENT SERVICES Case Management Family Health Care Family Mental Health Care Other Family Development Services H. ENGAGEMENT IN PROGRAM SERVICES I. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS IV EARLY HEAD START IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT A. GLOBAL IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT AND SERVICE INTENSITY Impacts on the Receipt of Core Child Development Services Impacts on Receipt of Other Child Development Services Impacts on Receipt of Family Development Services B. DIFFERENCES IN PROGRAM IMPACTS ON RECEIPT OF SERVICES ACROSS SUBGROUPS OF PROGRAMS Difference in Impacts on Service Receipt by Program Approach Differences in Program Impacts on Service Receipt by Implementation Status C. IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILD AND FAMILY OUTCOMES V EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS OVERALL IMPACTS ON CHILDREN S DEVELOPMENT, PARENTING, AND FAMILY WELL-BEING A. HYPOTHESES AND BRIEF SUMMARY OF FINDINGS B. OUTCOME MEASURES USED AT AGE Child Development Measures Parenting and Home Environment Measures Measures of Parent Health and Mental Health, Family Functioning, and Self-Sufficiency Data Sources for Child, Parent, and Family Measures ix

11 CONTENTS (continued) Chapter V (continued) Page C. OVERALL IMPACTS ON CHILDREN S DEVELOPMENT Overall Impacts on Cognitive and Language Development Overall Impacts on Children s Social-Emotional Development D. OVERALL IMPACTS ON PARENTING Parenting Behavior and the Home Environment Parenting Knowledge Summary of Impacts on Parenting E. OVERALL IMPACTS ON FAMILY WELL-BEING Parents Health and Mental Health and Family Functioning Economic Self-Sufficiency F. HOW IMPACTS ON PARENTING AT AGE 2 MAY HAVE INFLUENCED CHILD OUTCOMES AT AGE Mediators of Cognitive and Language Development Mediators of Child Engagement of Parent and Sustained Attention to Objects Mediators of Negative Aspects of Children s Social-Emotional Development Synopsis of Estimates from the Mediated Analyses G. FATHERHOOD RESEARCH AND LOCAL RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONS H. CONCLUSIONS VI VARIATIONS IN IMPACTS BY PROGRAM APPROACH AND PATTERN OF IMPLEMENTING KEY FEATURES OF THE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS A. HOW CHILD DEVELOPMENT, PARENTING, AND FAMILY WELL- BEING IMPACTS VARIED BY PROGRAM APPROACH Child Development Parenting Parents Physical and Mental Health and Self-Sufficiency x

12 CONTENTS (continued) Chapter VI (continued) Page 4. Exploring the Relationships Between Parenting Impacts When Children Were 2 and Child Impacts When Children Were 3 by Program Approach Understanding Program Services and Their Impacts B. HOW CHILD DEVELOPMENT, PARENTING, AND FAMILY WELL- BEING IMPACTS VARIED BY PATTERNS OF IMPLEMENTATION Child Development Parenting Parent Mental Health and Self-Sufficiency The Importance of Implementation C. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS VII DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS ON CHILDREN AND FAMILIES WITH DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS A. IMPORTANT VARIATIONS IN PROGRAM IMPACTS FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES WITH DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS Guiding Hypotheses Approach to Estimating and Interpreting Subgroup Impacts Variations in Impacts By Mother s Pregnancy Status at Enrollment Variations by Child s Birth Order Variations in Impacts Among Teenage and Older Mothers Variations in Impacts by Race/Ethnicity and Language Variations in Impacts By Number of Demographic Risk Factors Variations in Impacts By Mothers Mental Health Status Other Subgroups Examined B. THE IMPORTANCE OF PARTICULAR SUBGROUP FINDINGS FOR PROGRAMS AND POLICY Working With Teenage Parents and Their Children Engaging Depressed Mothers Working with High-Risk Families C. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS xi

13 CONTENTS (continued) Chapter Page VIII SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. KEY FINDINGS FROM THE ANALYSIS OF EARLY HEAD START IMPACTS B. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROGRAMS, POLICY, AND RESEARCH C. NEXT STEPS REFERENCES VOLUME II: FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPENDIXES APPENDIX A: APPENDIX B: APPENDIX C: APPENDIX D: APPENDIX E: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS DATA COLLECTION, SOURCES OF NONRESPONSE, AND FATHER STUDY RESPONSE RATES OUTCOME MEASURES, PSYCHOMETRICS, AND IMPLEMENTATION MEASURES ANALYTIC ISSUES AND DETAILS SUPPLEMENTAL TABLES BY CHAPTER VOLUME III: LOCAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO UNDERSTANDING THE PROGRAMS AND THEIR IMPACTS xii

14 TABLES Table Page I.1 KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES ENTERING THE EARLY HEAD START RESEARCH PROGRAMS I.2 COMPARISON OF RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND WAVE I AND II PROGRAMS II.1 EVALUATION SAMPLE SIZES, BY SITE AND RESEARCH STATUS II.2 RESPONSE RATES TO KEY DATA SOURCES II.3 II.4 II.5 RESPONSE RATES TO THE 26-MONTH PSI, 36-MONTH PI AND 36-MONTH ASSESSMENTS, BY SITE RESPONSE RATES TO THE 26-MONTH PSI, 36-MONTH PI AND 36-MONTH ASSESSMENTS, BY SUBGROUPS DEFINED BY SITE AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS CATEGORIES OF OUTCOME VARIABLES AND THEIR DATA SOURCES II.6 CATEGORIES OF EXPLANATORY VARIABLES FOR REGRESSIONS II.7 SUBGROUPS DEFINED BY PROGRAM APPROACH, IMPLEMENTATION LEVEL, AND COMMUNITY CONTEXT II.8 SUBGROUPS DEFINED BY SITE CHARACTERISTICS, BY SITE II.9 II.10 III.1 III.2 KEY FAMILY, PARENT, AND CHILD CHARACTERISTICS AT BASELINE, BY PROGRAM APPROACH SUBGROUPS DEFINED BY FAMILY AND CHILD CHARACTERISTICS AT BASELINE DURATION OF EARLY HEAD START PARTICIPATION BY PROGRAM FAMILIES, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS LEVELS OF PARTICIPATION IN CORE EARLY HEAD START CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS xiii

15 TABLES (continued) Table III.3 III.4 III.5 III.6 III.7 III.8 III.9 III.10 III.11 III.12 III.13 Page LEVELS OF PARTICIPATION IN EARLY HEAD START HOME VISITS, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS LEVELS OF PARTICIPATION IN EARLY HEAD START CENTER- BASED CHILD CARE, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS CHILD CARE ARRANGEMENTS USED BY EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS INTENSITY OF CHILD CARE USE BY EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS OUT-OF-POCKET CHILD CARE EXPENSES AND RECEIPT OF CHILD CARE SUBSIDIES, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE OF EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS LEVELS OF PARTICIPATION IN PARENTING EDUCATION SERVICES AND PARENT-CHILD GROUP SOCIALIZATION ACTIVITIES, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE OF EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS RECEIPT OF CHILD HEALTH SERVICES BY EARLY HEAD START CHILDREN, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS DISABILITY INDICATORS AND RECEIPT OF EARLY INTERVENTION SERVICES BY EARLY HEAD START CHILDREN, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS RECEIPT OF CASE MANAGEMENT SERVICES BY EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS RECEIPT OF FAMILY HEALTH CARE SERVICESa BY EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS RECEIPT OF FAMILY DEVELOPMENT SERVICES BY EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES, FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS xiv

16 TABLES (continued) Table III.14 IV.1 IV.2 IV.3 Page PROGRAM FAMILIES ENGAGEMENT IN EARLY HEAD START SERVICES FOR THE FULL SAMPLE AND KEY PROGRAM SUBGROUPS IMPACTS ON OUT-OF-POCKET CHILD CARE COSTS AND USE OF CHILD CARE SUBSIDIES DURING THE 26-MONTH FOLLOW-UP PERIOD IMPACTS ON RECEIPT OF CHILD HEALTH SERVICES AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES DURING THE COMBINED FOLLOW-UP PERIOD IMPACTS ON FAMILY HEALTH CARE SERVICES AND HEALTH STATUS DURING THE COMBINED FOLLOW-UP PERIOD V.1 IMPACTS ON CHILD COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT V.2 IMPACTS ON POSITIVE ASPECTS OF CHILD SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT V.3 IMPACTS ON NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF CHILD SOCIAL- EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT V.4 IMPACTS ON EMOTIONALLY SUPPORTIVE PARENTING V.5 IMPACTS ON THE HOME ENVIRONMENT AND PARENT STIMULATION OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING V.6 IMPACTS ON NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF PARENTING BEHAVIOR V.7 IMPACTS ON PARENTING KNOWLEDGE: SAFETY AND DISCIPLINE STRATEGIES V.8 IMPACTS ON PARENT HEALTH, MENTAL HEALTH, AND FAMILY FUNCTIONING V.9 IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY ACTIVITIES V.10 IMPACTS ON EDUCATION ACTIVITIES AND CREDENTIALS V.11 IMPACTS ON WELFARE PROGRAM PARTICIPATION V.12 IMPACTS ON FAMILY INCOME, RESOURCES, AND SUBSEQUENT CHILDBEARING xv

17 TABLES (continued) Table Page V.13 ESTIMATED MEDIATING EFFECTS OF PARENTING IMPACTS AT AGE 2 ON EARLY HEAD START IMPACTS ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT AT AGE VI.1 IMPACTS ON CHILD OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY PROGRAM APPROACH VI.2 IMPACTS ON PARENTING OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY PROGRAM APPROACH VI.3 VI.4 VI.5 VI.6 VI.7 VI.8 VI.9 VI.10 IMPACTS ON PARENT PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH AT THE 36-MONTH ASSESSMENT, BY PROGRAM APPROACH IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY AT 28 MONTHS, BY PROGRAM APPROACH IN IMPACTS ON CHILD OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY PATTERN OF PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IMPACTS ON PARENTING OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY PATTERN OF PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IMPACTS ON PARENT PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH AT THE 36-MONTH ASSESSMENT, BY PATTERN OF PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY, BY PATTERN OF IMPLEMENTATION IMPACTS ON CHILD AND FAMILY OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY IMPLEMENTATION STATUS FOR HOME-BASED PROGRAMS IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY AT 28 MONTHS, BY IMPLEMENTATION STATUS FOR HOME- BASED PROGRAMS VI.11 IMPACTS ON CHILD AND FAMILY OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY IMPLEMENTATION STATUS OF MIXED APPROACH PROGRAMS VI.12 VII.1 IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY AT 28 MONTHS, BY IMPLEMENTATION STATUS OF MIXED APPROACH PROGRAMS IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT DURING THE FIRST 28 MONTHS, BY PREGNANCY STATUS AT ENROLLMENT VII.2 IMPACTS ON CHILD AND FAMILY OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY PREGNANCY STATUS AT ENROLLMENT xvi

18 TABLES (continued) Table VII.3 VII.4 Page IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY AT 28 MONTHS, BY PREGNANCY STATUS AT ENROLLMENT IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT DURING THE FIRST 28 MONTHS, BY FOCUS CHILD S BIRTH ORDER VII.5 IMPACTS ON CHILD AND FAMILY OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY FOCUS CHILD S BIRTH ORDER VII.6 VII.7 IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY AT 28 MONTHS, BY FOCUS CHILD S BIRTH ORDER IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT DURING THE FIRST 28 MONTHS, BY AGE OF MOTHER AT BIRTH OF FOCUS CHILD VII.8 IMPACTS ON CHILD AND FAMILY OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY AGE OF MOTHER AT BIRTH OF FOCUS CHILD VII.9 VII.10 IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY AT 28 MONTHS, BY AGE OF MOTHER AT BIRTH OF FOCUS CHILD IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT DURING THE FIRST 28 MONTHS, BY RACE/ETHNICITY VII.11 IMPACTS ON CHILD AND FAMILY OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY RACE/ETHNICITY VII.12 VII.13 IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY AT 28 MONTHS, BY RACE/ETHNICITY IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT DURING THE FIRST 28 MONTHS, BY MAIN LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME VII.14 IMPACTS ON CHILD AND FAMILY OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY MAIN LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME VII.15 VII.16 IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY AT 28 MONTHS, BY MAIN LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT DURING THE FIRST 28 MONTHS, BY NUMBER OF MATERNAL RISK FACTORS VII.17 IMPACTS ON CHILD AND FAMILY OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY NUMBER OF MATERNAL RISK FACTORS VII.18 IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY AT 28 MONTHS, BY NUMBER OF MATERNAL RISK FACTORS xvii

19 TABLES (continued) Table VII.19 Page IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT DURING THE FIRST 28 MONTHS, BY MOTHER S RISK OF DEPRESSION AT ENROLLMENT VII.20 IMPACTS ON CHILD AND FAMILY OUTCOMES AT AGE 3, BY MOTHER S RISK OF DEPRESSION AT ENROLLMENT VII.21 IMPACTS ON SELF-SUFFICIENCY AT 28 MONTHS, BY MOTHER S RISK OF DEPRESSION AT ENROLLMENT xviii

20 FIGURES Figure Page I.1 KEY EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF EARLY HEAD START... 6 I.2 THE EVOLUTION OF PROGRAM APPROACHES OVER TIME IV.1 IV.2 IV.3 IV.4 IV.5 IV.6 IV.7 IV.8 IV.9 IV.10 IV.11 IV.12 IMPACTS ON RECEIPT OF CORE CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES DURING THE COMBINED FOLLOW-UP PERIOD IMPACTS ON RECEIPT OF HOME VISITS DURING THE COMBINED FOLLOW-UP PERIOD IMPACTS ON RECEIPT OF CHILD CARE DURING THE 26-MONTH FOLLOW-UP PERIOD IMPACTS ON HOURS OF CHILD CARE USED DURING THE 26-MONTH FOLLOW-UP PERIOD IMPACTS ON RECEIPT OF PARENTING EDUCATION SERVICES DURING THE COMBINED FOLLOW-UP PERIOD IMPACTS ON EARLY INTERVENTION SERVICES DURING THE COMBINED FOLLOW-UP PERIOD IMPACTS ON RECEIPT OF CASE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DURING THE COMBINED FOLLOW-UP PERIOD IMPACTS ON RECEIPT OF FAMILY DEVELOPMENT SERVICES DURING THE COMBINED FOLLOW-UP PERIOD SELECTED IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT BY PROGRAM APPROACH SELECTED IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT BY IMPLEMENTATION STATUS SELECTED IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT FOR MIXED- APPROACH PROGRAMS BY IMPLEMENTATION STATUS SELECTED IMPACTS ON SERVICE RECEIPT FOR HOME-BASED PROGRAMS BY IMPLEMENTATION STATUS xix

21 FIGURES (continued) Figure Page V.1 IMPACTS ON ANY SELF-SUFFICIENCY ACTIVITY, BY QUARTER V.2 IMPACTS ON PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS, BY QUARTER V.3 IMPACTS ON EMPLOYMENT RATES, BY QUARTER V.4 IMPACTS ON AFDC/TANF RECEIPT, BY QUARTER V.5 IMPACTS ON SUBSEQUENT BIRTHS, BY QUARTER xx

22 BOXES Box Page III.1 PATTERNS OF PARTICIPATION IN HOME-BASED SERVICES III.2 III.3 III.4 III.5 III.6 RELATIONS AMONG MOTHER AND HOME VISITOR PERSONALITY TRAITS, RELATIONSHIP QUALITY, AND AMOUNT OF TIME SPENT IN HOME VISITS PARENTS PERCEPTIONS OF TRAINING AND SERVICE ACTIVITIES REGARDING THEIR CHILD S NURTURING AND DEVELOPMENT: IMPLEMENTATION AND BENEFITS OF EARLY HEAD START OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN PROVIDING SERVICES TO CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES WITHIN EARLY HEAD START THE CHILD S EXPERIENCE IN A MONTESSORI EARLY HEAD START PROGRAM PREDICTORS OF PROGRAM PARTICIPATION AT THE EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE S EARLY HEAD START IV.1 FATHER PARTICIPATION IN PROGRAM-RELATED ACTIVITIES IV.2 EARLY HEAD START SUPPORTS FAMILIES IN OBTAINING SERVICES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES V.1 MEASURES OF COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT V.2 MEASURES OF POSITIVE ASPECTS OF CHILD SOCIAL- EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT V.3 MEASURES OF NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF CHILD SOCIAL- EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT V.4 MEASURES OF EMOTIONALLY SUPPORTIVE PARENTING V.5 MEASURES OF THE HOME ENVIRONMENT AND PARENT STIMULATION OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING V.6 MEASURES OF NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF PARENTING BEHAVIOR V.7 MEASURES OF PARENTING KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SAFETY AND DISCIPLINE STRATEGIES V.8 MEASURES OF THE PARENT S HEALTH, MENTAL HEALTH, AND FAMILY FUNCTIONING xxi

23 BOXES (continued) Box Page V.9 MEASURES OF ECONOMIC SELF-SUFFICIENCY V.10 FATHERS AND FATHER FIGURES IN THE LIVES OF EARLY HEAD START CHILDREN V.11 HOW MUCH BETTER THAN EXPECTED? IMPROVING COGNITIVE OUTCOMES IN UTAH S BEAR RIVER EARLY HEAD START V.12 MOTHER-CHILD LANGUAGE AT 14 AND 24 MONTHS: CONCURRENT AND LAGGED ASSOCIATIONS V.13 FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE USE IN MOTHER-TODDLER COMMUNICATION V.14 PARENT RESPONSIVENESS AND CHILDREN S DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES V.15 OUTCOMES OF PROGRAM PARTICIPATION AND CORRELATES OF CHILDREN S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AT THE EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE S EARLY HEAD START V.16 RELATIONS BETWEEN SPECIFIC AND GLOBAL FEATURES OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS AND LANGUAGE V.17 SYNOPSIS OF MOTHERS SOCIALIZATION OF TODDLER CONFLICT RESOLUTION V.18 CHANGE IN PARENT-CHILD INTERACTION IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES: LINKS TO FATHER STATUS V.19 FATHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS: MEASURING PAST PATERNAL INFLUENCES V.20 ANDREYA EARNS HER HIGH SCHOOL DEGREE: THE ROLE OF EARLY HEAD START V.21 VALIDATION OF NATIONAL CHILD LANGUAGE MEASURES AT 14 AND 24 MONTHS V.22 ASSOCIATIONS OF MATERNAL AND CHILD ATTACHMENT SECURITY WITH OUTCOMES OF CHILDREN ELIGIBLE FOR EARLY HEAD START V.23 EARLY HEAD START INTERVENTION WITH FAMILIES AND FAMILIES INVESTMENT IN CHILDREN xxii

24 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY EARLY HEAD START AND ITS EARLY DEVELOPMENT IN BRIEF Following the recommendations of the Secretary s Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers in 1994, the Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) designed Early Head Start as a two-generation program to enhance children s development and health, strengthen family and community partnerships, and support the staff delivering new services to low-income families with pregnant women, infants, or toddlers. In 1995 and 1996, ACYF funded the first 143 programs, revised the Head Start Program Performance Standards to bring Early Head Start under the Head Start umbrella, created an ongoing national system of training and technical assistance (provided by the Early Head Start National Resource Center in coordination with ACYF s regional offices and training centers), and began conducting regular program monitoring to ensure compliance with the performance standards. 1 Today, the program operates in 664 communities and serves some 55,000 children. At the same time, ACYF selected 17 programs from across the country to participate in a rigorous, large-scale, random-assignment evaluation. 2 The Early Head Start evaluation was designed to carry out the recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers for a strong research and evaluation component to support continuous improvement within the Early Head Start program and to meet the requirement in the 1994 and 1998 reauthorizations for a national evaluation of the new infant-toddler program. The research programs include all the major program approaches and are located in all regions of the country and in urban and rural settings. The families they serve are highly diverse. Their purposeful selection resulted in a research sample (17 programs and 3,001 families) that reflects the characteristics of all programs funded in 1995 and 1996, including their program approaches and family demographic characteristics. 1 The revised Head Start Program Performance Standards were published in the Federal Register for public comment in November 1996 and became effective in January From among 41 Early Head Start programs that applied with local research partners to be research sites, ACYF selected 15 to achieve a balance of rural and urban locations, racial/ethnic composition, and program approaches from among those that could recruit twice as many families as they could serve, taking into consideration the viability of the proposed local research. Subsequently, ACYF added two sites to provide the desired balance of approaches. xxiii

The Effectiveness of Early Head Start for 3-Year-Old Children and Their Parents: Lessons for Policy and Programs

The Effectiveness of Early Head Start for 3-Year-Old Children and Their Parents: Lessons for Policy and Programs Developmental Psychology Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association 2005, Vol. 41, No. 6, 885 901 0012-1649/05/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.41.6.885 The Effectiveness of Early Head Start

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