1 NONFORMAL PASTORAL MINISTRY TRAINING IN THE MAJORITY WORLD: FOUR CASE STUDIES by John M. Balmer, Jr. A Dissertation-Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Ministry Columbia Biblical Seminary and School of Missions Columbia International University Columbia, South Carolina May 2008
2 ._~~ APPROVAL This Dissertation-Project, entitled NONFORMAL PASTORAL MINISTRY TRAINING IN THE MAJORITY WORLD: FOUR CASE STUDIES by John M. Balmer, Jr. Candidate for the degree of Doctor of Ministry has been read and approved by ~LJ'W.~ on i'vlg! /~ 200B
3 CONTENTS Approval... iv Contents... vi Version Statement... ix Table of Figures... x Acknowledgements... xi Abstract...xii Chapter 1: The Problem... 1 Introduction... 1 Ministry Context... 2 Research Questions... 6 Delimitation of the Problem... 7 Definition of Terms... 9 Identification of Variables of Interest Importance of the Study Chapter 2: Precedent Research Introduction Theological Education Extension Education Other Models of Theological Education Nature of Theological Education Deficiencies of Formal Models Proliferation of Nonformal Models Nonformal Education Components Other Factors in Nonformal Education Contextual Issues in Nonformal Education Field of Adult Education Learning Outcomes in Theological Education Solutions to the Problems in Theological Education Conclusion Chapter 3: Research Methodology Introduction Research Procedure Variables of Interest Analysis Procedures Selection of Ministry Training Centers 47 vi
4 Selection of Subjects Instrumentation Research Findings Chapter 4: Timothy Training Institute Introduction Description of the Program Philosophy of Training Summary Analysis Chapter 5: College of Christian Theology Bangladesh Introduction Description of the Program Philosophy of Training Summary Analysis Chapter 6: African Ministries Network Introduction Description of the Program Philosophy of Training Summary Analysis Chapter 7: Nationals Training Institute for Village Evangelism Introduction Description of the Program Philosophy of Training Summary Analysis Chapter 8: Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions Recommendations Conclusion Appendix A. Sample Interview Questions B. Timothy Training Institute Student Questionnaire C. College of Christian Theology Bangladesh Student Questionnaire D. African Ministries Network Student Questionnaire E. NATIVE Student Questionnaire F. NATIVE Survey to State Coordinators vii
5 G. Timothy Training Institute Student Questionnaire Answers H. College of Christian Theology Bangladesh Student Questionnaire Answers I. African Ministries Network Student Questionnaire Answers J. NATIVE Student Questionnaire Answers K. NATIVE Survey to State Coordinators Answers Reference List viii
6 Unless otherwise noted all Biblical quotations are from the New American Standard Bible The Lockman Foundation 1960,1977 ix
7 TABLE OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. TTI Licentiate Certificate Program Growth Statistics Growth in TTI Partnering Relationships TTI Program Model CCTB Program Model AFMIN On/10 Training Program Statistics AFMIN Program Model Multiplicative Effect of MOTIVE Program NATIVE Strategy NATIVE Program Model Core Values Profile Chart Key Principles Profile Chart Training Strategies Profile Chart x
8 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This dissertation is dedicated to my wife, Jennifer Sayle Balmer, who has been a constant helpmeet in the true sense of the word. She has not only joined me in helping to make the vision of Training Pastors International a reality, but her tireless efforts help to give many Majority World pastors an opportunity to receive the pastoral training that they otherwise would not have in their lifetime. This dissertation also is dedicated to the many indigenous pastors in Africa and other countries that have been the impetus for this research and the benefactors as well. It is hoped that this research will provide assistance in the design of many more effective training programs for these pastors in the future in order to better equip them as ministers, aid their ministries, increase their understanding of the gospel message and the Word of God, and help them to fulfill the Great Commission in their churches. I would like to thank Dr. Robert Ferris and the late Dr. Kenneth Mulholland who both taught and demonstrated to me the principles that form the basis of this research. Their tutelage shaped my understanding of the significance of training Majority World pastors by utilizing nonformal, decentralized approaches in their cultural context. I also want to thank my wife, Jennifer, who greatly assisted me in transcribing all the cassette tapes from the interviews in the four ministry training centers and helped with the editing of this dissertation. Lastly, I want to thank Dianne Palmer-Quay for her efforts in editing this dissertation. xi
9 ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to study the programs of four indigenous, nonformal pastoral ministry training centers in the Majority World in order to identify: (1) core values that guide these programs in their context, (2) key principles that direct these programming efforts, and (3) training strategies that are influenced by the program model. One of the main observations of the researcher is that there is a single mission and vision common to all four nonformal ministry training centers to train indigenous pastors in the Majority World to become more effective in ministry. The challenge of the research design is that each center presents its own training context, philosophy of training, and training methods that flow from their individual core values and key principles. Consequently, there is an overlap between the core values, principles of training, and strategies and methodologies employed by the training centers. On the other hand, the core values, ministry principles, and training strategies and methodologies are unique for each institution and are dependent on the philosophy of program design, the student population, the cultural context, the training needs of the target audience, the personalities and philosophies of the main leadership core staff, and other factors related to the specific training institution. Despite these challenges and the resulting difficulty in isolating each item, there are certain general similarities and limitations that nonformal theological educators in the Majority World can extrapolate from this study to give xii
10 insight to future training programs. The four ministry training centers involved in this research are known by the following designations: (1) Timothy Training Institute (TTI), Somerset East, South Africa, (2) College of Christian Theology Bangladesh (CCTB), Savar, Bangladesh, (3) African Ministries Network (AFMIN), Johannesburg, South Africa, and (4) Nationals Training Institute for Village Evangelism (NATIVE) Hyderabad, India. The worldwide need for indigenous training of national pastors is escalating as missionary and evangelistic movements increase throughout the world. Seminaries, Bible colleges, and ministry training centers have been established on every continent to help provide adequate training for pastors of established churches. Even so, the number of training centers available in the Majority World is disproportionate to the requisite number of pastoral leaders to be trained. An inordinate number of pastors (ninety-five percent of all Majority World pastors) are functioning in their churches with little or no formal theological training, and most of them cannot afford the formal training opportunities available in their country. The following conclusions are drawn from this research. The key core values exemplified by the training centers are: (1) development of indigenous leadership, (2) contextualization of curriculum, (3) practical ministry training approach, (4) discipleship for life change focus, and (5) transdenominational approach to ministry training. The key training principles directing program efforts in the training centers are: (1) decentralized, nonformal approach to training, xiii
11 (2) offering the training program with the indigenous pastor in view, and (3) developing training programs to reach the country or continent with pioneer missions. The key training strategies utilized by the training centers are: (1) training for multiplication impact, (2) live seminar context, (3) use of tutors, (4) programmed text format, and (5) a well-organized indigenous infrastructure. The recommendations to educators in Majority World ministry training programs involved the following three priorities: (1) develop a strong indigenous infrastructure before launching the program, (2) avoid dependence on foreign funding and expatriate faculty, and (3) develop a healthy training model that plans for measured growth. In conclusion, it can be deduced from this research that any ministry training program, especially one from the West, should not be uncritically transported to cultural contexts in the Majority World without making the necessary changes to contextualize the curriculum and program design to that particular cultural context. It is, therefore, imperative that missiologists, theological educators, and pastoral leaders see the ongoing education of Majority World pastors as one of the main priorities of the Church worldwide. xiv
12 CHAPTER ONE THE PROBLEM Introduction The worldwide need for indigenous training of national pastors is escalating as missionary and evangelistic movements increase throughout the world. Seminaries, Bible colleges, and ministry training centers have been established on every continent to help provide adequate training for pastors of established churches. Even so, the number of training centers available in the Majority World is disproportionate to the requisite number of pastoral leaders to be trained. An inordinate number of pastors are functioning in their churches with little or no formal theological training. In fact, there are approximately two million pastoral leaders in the Majority World, and 1.8 million (ninety percent) of them have had no formal ministerial training (Richard 1997; Winter 1993; 1994; 1996). As a result, the development of formal and nonformal ministry training centers in the Majority World has burgeoned. This growth has produced a proliferation of training programs that have not been sufficiently field-tested or comprehensively evaluated in their ministry context. The lack of formal 1
13 2 evaluation makes it difficult to determine if the training is producing the desired effects, and thereby, reducing the deficiency of equipped national pastors. The number of seminaries, Bible colleges, and ministry training centers in the West is somewhat proportionate to the need for trained pastors and functional leaders in the church. In much of the world, however, this is not so. Rather, the training needs of indigenous pastors in the Majority World far outweigh the availability of qualified instructors to provide this training. The purpose of this research is to study the programs of selected ministry training centers in the Majority World. In order to make biblical and ministry training accessible to pastoral leaders in the Majority World, nonformal theological educators need to know: 1. What core values and key principles guide effective indigenous nonformal ministry training programs in the Majority World? 2. What training strategies are employed by effective indigenous nonformal ministry training programs in the Majority World? Core values and key principles are manifested in training practices. The research identifies how core values, key principles, and training strategies are used for training national pastors in the Majority World. Ministry Context Theological education is practiced in numerous contexts, utilizing various structures and methodologies, and incorporated in many different models. It has been defined as "the transmission to another person of what we know about God
14 and His relationship with the world" (Rooy 1988, 51). According to Ferris, the 3 task of theological education is "to nurture these gifted leaders who, in turn, nurture the church" (Ferris 1986, 43). Historical Context Historically, theological education has passed through several developmental stages in the United States. It began with a God-centered, unified approach to theology, then moved to a more academic study of the disciplines of theology, and finally, culminated with an emphasis on the practical aspects of theology and ministry skills (Farley 1983). Theological educators who are involved in training national pastors need to agree upon the essential elements that comprise the essence of theological education. These essentials will help to formulate the training methodology and core subjects of the training programs. One of the difficult questions concerning the development of nonformal ministry training centers is whether it is possible to create a universal program that can be duplicated in different ministry contexts. This research seeks to provide answers to this issue. Issues in Theological Education The problems encountered in theological education are diverse. Schuller and colleagues see a significant change in the concept of ministry along with a reexamining of its content and forms, which is based on an internal questioning by clergy who are haunted by a fear of ineffectiveness and a continued search
15 4 for relevance (Schuller, Brekke, and Strommen 1980). Farley (1983) makes the observation that the history of theological schools is a history of constant reform. A crucial issue in theological education is the effectiveness of ministry formation in students (Klaus 1986). Senyimba (1987) contends that leadership effectiveness must be based on a model of mentoring. Schuller and colleagues argue that the "professionalism mentality" of ministry training has led to a concern with defining the competencies demanded in contemporary ministry (Schuller, Strommen, and Brekke 1980). This focus on ministry competencies, along with an uncertainty about the criteria that reflects those competencies, helped contribute to the formation of the Readiness for Ministry Project in This project sought to define criteria for ministry in such a way that ministry readiness could be measured and analyzed. It also has helped to spur an interest in outcomes studies in theological education (Pell 1987; Klaus 1986; Bowlin 1980). As a result, the effectiveness of theological education is evaluated by its outcome or end product, the student himself. This places the focus of the training on the need for contextualization, which means training for ministry in the context of ministry (Ponniah 1986). The training also should be contextualized within the spectrum of a needs assessment of the student (Bond 1990). Furthermore, it needs to be evaluated in light of the "experiential component" of theological education (Downey 1985). Thus, the evaluation of theological training within ministry training centers must take into account the ministry and
16 cultural context of the pastors being trained in relation to the location of the 5 ministry training center itself, the curriculum, and the mode of delivery. Majority World Context One of the main problems in training national pastors in the Majority World has been the uncritical transference of Western models of seminaries, Bible colleges, and ministry training centers into non-western contexts. This transference, accomplished primarily by Western missionaries, has often neglected proper accommodation to the world views, cognitive processes, linguistic forms, behavioral patterns, or social structures of the host cultures (Hesselgrave 1991). Some theological educators who have wrestled with the apparent inability of the Western-model schools to adequately prepare their graduates to become the functional leaders of their churches have developed new models of training pastors (Kinsler 1981; Mulholland 1976, 1984; Padilla 1988; Snook 1992; Turley 1991; Winter 1969). Others have sought to reform and transform the Westerntype school to contextualize their theological training to meet the needs of the host cultures (Ferris 1984, 1985, 1990, 1992; McKinney 1982; Youngblood 1989). Evaluation of Training Programs There have been some theological educators who have conducted an ongoing evaluation of formal and nonformal training models that are employed to
17 train pastoral leaders in their particular ministry context (Ferris 1987; Padilla ; Ward 1973; Ward and Dettoni 1973). Certainly the question of efficacy needs to be raised in relation to the training program for pastoral leaders. Some have suggested that the effectiveness of short-term (two to seven days), nonformal seminars is limited, since the national pastor's initial receptivity of the training program should not be confused with long-term results (Young 1997). Finally, in evaluating ministry training programs, there is the issue of overcoming barriers that could prohibit accurate feedback from respondents in the program. A comprehensive evaluation is difficult to accomplish in the Majority World, given the many different factors involved in cross-cultural training situations. Nevertheless, the training process needs to include the development of some sort of measurement/assessment device that would provide accurate feedback to evaluate the training goals and to improve the ministry training program. Research Questions In order to investigate further how to develop better ministry training programs for pastors worldwide, the proposed research will examine selected non-western pastoral ministry training centers with a view to addressing the research questions below. The main empirical unknowns will help to determine how the main core values and key principles of the program are manifested in its training practices. It will address the following three research questions:
18 RQ1 What core values guide selected indigenous nonformal ministry 7 training programs in the Majority World? RQ2 What key principles direct selected indigenous nonformal ministry training programs in the Majority World? RQ3 What training strategies are employed by selected indigenous nonformal ministry training programs in the Majority World? Delimitation of the Problem A variety of approaches to theological education training models can be found throughout the different geographic regions of the world. In addition to cultural factors, these institutions vary according to theological perspective, polity, educational philosophy, and available resources. In order to define the parameters of this particular study, the following criteria have been utilized in selecting the ministry training centers to be analyzed: 1. The primary focus of the training is the preparation of indigenous pastoral leaders. 2. The primary model utilized by the training center is nonformal theological education. 3. The ministry training center is located at or near the ministry context for which it seeks to train its pastors. 4. The ministry training center has been established for at least five years. 5. The ministry training center is located in one of the contexts within the Majority World.
19 8 The research design is limited by the number of institutions evaluated and the types of models studied in the given time frame. Even though there are insufficient training institutions in the Majority World for the number of pastors that need to be trained, there are more alternative models than could be included in this research. The selected ministry training centers are not an exhaustive representation of all training models, but rather, a manageable sample of various approaches in different geographical contexts, which yield valuable conclusions in the field of nonformal theological education. The following factors were considered in choosing these training centers: geographical distribution in the Majority World, alternative models of nonformal theological education, the reputation of the institutions, recommendations from theological and missiological leaders, and the researcher s experience in the field of training national pastors. The researcher's personal experience in training national pastors has influenced his own bias to some degree. He has been involved in many shortterm (three to ten days), nonformal training seminars for national pastors in the Majority World over the past fourteen years. The primary limitation of this approach is a lack of knowledge of the ministry context of the receptor culture, even though more frequent excursions into a culture and further study help to reduce this deficiency. The researcher also had limited experience in models of cross-cultural ministry training other than the short-term, nonformal model.
20 9 Seven ministry training centers were identified as meeting the criteria for this study. These centers are: 1. Nationals Training Institute for Village Evangelism Hyderabad, India 2. College of Christian Theology Bangladesh Savar, Bangladesh 3. African Ministries Network (AFMIN) Johannesburg, South Africa 4. Timothy Training Institute (TTI) Somerset East, South Africa 5. Instituto de Estudios Pastorales (INSEPA) Medellin, Colombia 6. SEPAL do Brasil - OC International Sao Paulo, Brazil 7. Bible Education Extension (BEE) Cluj-Napoca, Romania The first four are the focus of this research. Definition of Terms There are three main terms that need to be defined for this study: Readiness the basic competence required to perform the work of ministry acceptably, including the ability to develop professionally by learning from experience outside the school context (Schuller, Strommen, and Brekke 1980). Readiness for Ministry the competence to begin or enter into professional ministry (Schuller, Strommen, and Brekke 1980). Professional Ministry: (1) An office or task that an individual fulfills or performs in relation to some community of faith or institution of the church or synagogue involving appointment, ordination, or commissioning by some authorized sector of the religious community (Schuller, Strommen, and Brekke
21 ); (2) Work that includes one or more functions such as leader of worship, preacher, teacher, counselor, as well as other direct or enabling service to an intentional community of people (Schuller, Strommen, and Brekke 1980). There are three methodological terms that describe the process of theological education which also need to be defined: Formal Education School refers to education structured and administered by the competent authorities, whether public or ecclesiastical (Padilla 1988, 100). It is that education in schools, which is intentional, planned, staffed, and funded. It involves going to a specific place, remaining there for specified blocks of time, and accomplishing certain standards or grade levels, which ultimately lead to a certificate or degree (Ferris 1995, 53). It relates fully to the social system of education, seeks societal recognition of its programs and graduates, and its curricular and institutional objectives conform to the standards set by the social system s accrediting bodies (Young 1996, 74). Nonformal Education Non-school education, which does not lead to a degree, but can lead to a certificate or diploma, is generally dependent and controlled by official (formal) education (Padilla 1988, 100). In contrast, Young characterizes it as an intentionally planned program that is not integrated into the dominant (formal) social system of education (Young 1996, 74). Similarly, Ferris places nonformal education between the two extremes of formal and informal education, borrowing characteristics from each of them. It is intentional, planned, staffed, and funded, but is not organized by grade levels. It is more practically
22 oriented in its focus since it addresses students' needs or interests, entails 11 teaching by example and practice, often simulates "field" situations, and is directed toward bringing about specific change (Ferris 1995, 54). Informal Education autonomous education in relation to the official educational system and imparted by extra-scholastic groups or institutions (Padilla 1988, 100). Young sees informal education as occurring in the context of natural relationships between teacher and learner without a relationship to the social system of (formal) education in a given context, nor does it seek recognition on the basis of its identity in that system (Young 1996, 74). It is rarely intentional or planned, and never staffed or funded. It is usually spontaneous, arising out of life situations, and can happen in any context, at any time. It involves the way we acquire our values and learn to express them as relational skills (Ferris 1995, 53-54). In addition, there is the need to define the following terms: Majority World the less developed countries of the world, including Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America, the Caribbean, many countries formally associated with the Communist blocs, and other peoples or nations as well (Ruiz 2005, 1-2; Anderson 2005, 29; Saadah 2002, 977). The United Nations utilizes the three indices of longevity, education, and income to indicate the wealth or poverty of nations (Saadah 2002, 977). This group of less developed nations and peoples were first designated as the Third World, and then later referred to as the Two-Thirds World since they constituted about two-
23 thirds of the world's population. They form an aggregate of minority groups 12 within a larger predominant culture and constitute the undeveloped nations of the world (Encyclopedia Britannica.com, October 4, 2007; Woolf 1973b, , ). The Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization (LCWE) designated the emerging Church from these nations and peoples as the Majority World Church, where seventy percent of the believers of the world live today (Ruiz 2005, 2). Southern Region the poor countries of the world wherever they may be, not just those situated in the southern hemisphere where the majority of economically disadvantageous nations are found. Researchers have estimated that presently sixty-two percent of Christians in the world live in the South, and they expect this percentage to reach seventy percent by the year 2025 (Noelliste 2005, 270; Johnson, Crossing, and Ryu 2004; Barrett and Johnson 2004, 24-25). Northern Region the developed nations of the world wherever located, even though the majority of well developed nations are in fact situated in the northern hemisphere (Noelliste 2005, 271). While one hundred years ago ninetyfive percent of Christians lived in the Western world, now only thirty-eight percent live in the two northern continents (including Russia), which represent the Northern Region (Ruiz 2005, 2; Barrett and Johnson 2004, 24-25).
24 Identification of Variables of Interest 13 The following variables were observed in the research of the selected ministry training centers: Historical Background The main goal is to determine the historical, cultural, and ideological factors that were involved in the formation of the training institute. These factors include the stated purpose of the training center, the target audience that comprises the origination of the student body, and any church body or denominational group affiliated with the institute. Faculty and Student Selection Another important aspect of research is the criteria used by the ministry training center in selecting the faculty and admitting students into the program. It is important to determine what qualities the administrators were looking for in their faculty because these qualities reveal what they hoped to replicate in their students. It is also significant to see what standards were employed for student admission into the training program in order to ascertain key core values of the program. Finally, it is important to observe what kind of relationship exists between the students and faculty in order to see if there is any informal training taking place outside the classroom, especially in the context of ministry practice.
25 Methodological Approach 14 One of the most important variables in developing a ministry training program for national pastors is the underlying training theory or philosophy of training that is employed in the training center. It is critical to understand who the founders of the training center were and their views of training pastors. What model of nonformal training is employed, and why was this model chosen? What were the specific training needs that the institute was designed to meet, and how did the program developers meet those needs? It is also important to determine what training objectives were developed in this process and how the administrators employed training strategies to develop their programs. Another key factor in the training of national pastors is the relationship between the institute and the local church. This research investigated how the training center addressed the needs of the church. This issue has two parts: (1) how the program developers sought to meet the needs of the national church in their training program, and (2) what specific provisions/criteria (such as entrance, selection, or exit criteria), if any, were put in place to ensure that students would be capable of meeting these needs when they completed the program. In addition to the philosophy of training, there is the question of the educational theories that are employed in the training. The types of learning experiences and activities, methods of teaching, and roles of leadership utilized in the educational process are valid research items. How the training relates to