ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION TARIFFS The Chilean Experience. Hugh Rudnick Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile

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1 ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION TARIFFS The Chilean Experience Hugh Rudnick Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile Brasilia, June 2009

2 Objective Describe the building of the electricity distribution tariff in Chile, within a regulation that aims at a pseudo competition against efficient reference models. A description is made of its implementation, the analytical cost models, the model company and model network concepts, the tariff structure and the actual results. 2

3 The Chilean electricity market framework Price structure and the efficiency signals Regulating the monopoly The distribution activity- costs to consider Analytical models and regulatory process The building of an efficient company Results Tariff structure The open challenges 3

4 Chile facts Population (June 2009 estimate) Density 22 inhab/km2 GDP (PPP) per capita 2008 estimate $ Electricity sector reform in 1982 All companies privately owned 4

5 Main Chilean Interconnected Systems NORTHERN INTERCONNECTED SYSTEM (SING) SING SIC Average load growth % Expected annual load growth 5.3 % Inst. capacity / Max. Dem. 3,610/ 1,700 MW Regulated/ Non Reg. Customers 10% / 90% Hydro / Thermal 1% / 99% Length 600 km Population 6% SIC CENTRAL INTERCONNECTED SYSTEM (SIC) Average load growth % Expected annual load growth 5.3 % Inst. capacity / Max. Dem. 9,538/ 6,150 MW Regulated/ Non Reg. Customers 65% / 35% Hydro / Thermal 60% / 40% Length 1,800 km Population 93% Figures: December

6 Chile GDP and electricity demand growth GWh Rate 14% % Demand GDP rate Demand rate 10% 8% 6% 4% % % % As in developing countries, high correlation between energy growth and GDP growth 6

7 GDP and electricity worldwide 7

8 The Chilean electricity market framework Price structure and the efficiency signals Regulating the monopoly The distribution activity- costs to consider Analytical models and regulatory process The building of an efficient company Results Tariff structure The open challenges 8

9 Chile pre reform conditions Electric energy as a strategic public service-monopolistic activity driven by the State, with minor role for private sector Vertical integration generation-transmission- centralized planning and operation Regulated cost based tariffs, subsidies Change of paradigm establish conditions for economic efficiency wholesale market deregulation (unregulated prices for large consumers) competition at generation level with centralized generation dispatch - marginal cost transfers among generators regulation of wire monopolies (transmission and distribution) protection of small consumers with regulated tariffs 9

10 The market segmentation Generation Trunk Transmission Subtransmission Large Consumers End Consumers Distribution LV Distribution MV Medium Consumers 10

11 Price structure relating different agents Unregulated price Large free clients >2MW Spot price for energy Auction price Distribution toll Spot price for capacity Generators Toll Transmiter Toll Toll Distributor Regulated price Unregulated price Large free clients > 2MW Regulated clients Competition at generation + efficiency signals at wires 11

12 Efficient cost for final domestic consumer 130 (Chi$ 2008/kWh) , , , Taxes Cta RM88 Distribution Transmission Generation Need to stimulate efficient distribution Spot price scheme plus toll payments for efficient transmission (investment and operation), including consideration of congestion Efficiency through competition (marginal spot price scheme for energy and capacity)

13 The Chilean electricity market framework Price structure and the efficiency signals Regulating the monopoly The distribution activity- costs to consider Analytical models and regulatory process The building of an efficient company Results Tariff structure The open challenges 13

14 Distribution characteristics and need for regulation No economies of scale Scope and density economies Possibility to distinguish the network business with the marketer DISTRIBUTION Large number of small users Inelasticity of demand Development in geographic regions as monopolies (wire technology restrictions) NEED FOR REGULATION 14

15 Distribution monopolies in Chile Largest ones grouped in holdings 15

16 Distribution monopolies in Chile CHILECTRA CGE y Filiales CHILQUINTA y Filiales SAESA y Filiales Otros Energy sold (GWh) by holdings in CHILECTRA CGE y Filiales CHILQUINTA y Filiales SAESA y Filiales Clients by holdings in

17 Regulating distribution prices in Chile Strategic objectives -avoid loses of monopoly prices -avoid individual tariff considerations (per company assessment) -provide -economic efficiency signals for operation and investment -flexibility and stability -adequate response to market changes -symmetry of risks and opportunities for the regulated agent Prices to be fixed considering -cost of service provision (reflect the supply cost structure) -adequate return to investment capital -incentives for cost reduction Incentive regulation -yard stick/benchmark regulatory model -competition of monopolies against model company 17

18 Regulating distribution in Chile Requirements -concession required to run the business -public service activity -obligation to serve -quality of service regulated -open access to wires Rights -concession granted for the right to use public roads -concession to ask rights of way in private grounds -price regulation based on benchmark approach -realistic price considering restrictions -adequate return to investment capital, if efficient -higher efficiency rewarded 18

19 Model company approach Yard stick approach -comparison of different companies achieved through identifying different distribution areas -model companies determined for each area, different tariffs for each area Challenges -definition of efficient investment and administration -manage information deficiencies (although limited assymetries) -avoid regulatory capture -avoid political manipulation by regulator Risks -conflictive interests between regulator and monopoly 19

20 Characteristics of distribution costs Pass-through of generation-transmission costs, summing up an added distribution value (VAD) reflecting distribution cost Cost of distribution dictated by capacity requirements (demand defines network dimensioning, thus defines investment and operation) Energy only important in reflecting network losses Important economies of scope (the higher the load density, the lower the unit costs). Marginal cost of distribution equal to average costs (except for high density)- determination of MgC through average cost of efficiently built, operated and expanded company 20

21 The Chilean electricity market framework Price structure and the efficiency signals Regulating the monopoly The distribution activity- costs to consider Analytical models and regulatory process The building of an efficient company Results Tariff structure The open challenges 21

22 Process of electricity distribution Investment planning Network construction System operations System maintenance Business management Identify new system needs. Develop plans to satisfy need. Facilitate plans and budgets. Assess large projects. Build lines, substations, low voltage networks. Connections & disconnections Follow up and control of system operations Correct damages & incidents. Maintenance of lines, substations and low voltage networks. Maintenance of protection equipment. Measurement, meter reading Billing Contracts Solution management. 22

23 Cost components in added distribution value Distribution Value Added Fixed costs Investment costs, Operation & Maintenance Distribution losses Meter reading Billing Distribution of bills Accounting related to client Bill follow up Client relation Other fixed costs related to client. High Voltage Feeders Control equipment. Protection equipment. Capital costs Low Voltage Distribution substations Low voltage networks Protection equipment Operational costs HV LV Technical losses Other losses Storage Workshops Labs and tools Operational engineering Transport Security Rent, insurance Network maintenance and operation Patents and property taxes 23

24 Characteristics of distribution costs Total monthly costs semi urban area, Chile, 1988 Average value 10,2 US$/kW/month Total cost (MUS$/Month Maximum demand (MW) 24

25 The Chilean electricity market framework Price structure and the efficiency signals Regulating the monopoly The distribution activity- costs to consider Analytical models and regulatory process The building of an efficient company Results Tariff structure The open challenges 25

26 Cost structure for distribution Cost = Investment annuity + Operation kw HV + kw LV + Losses Replacement cost concept for investment. Investment annuity considering useful life of installations and given return rate. Econometric models are built to represent the industry costs, with a loglog regression between the average cost per km*kw and the km*kw, for high voltage and low voltage. 26

27 Replacement cost and operation -New replacement cost (VNR) as basis for comparison -Audited GIS based accounting of installations -Valued at today s technologies and costs -High volume of network information 27

28 Replacement cost 28

29 Operation cost 29

30 Existing networks Physical parameters: Iength of HV and LV networks, kw demand HV and LV 30

31 Distribution function characteristics Chile Relation between unit costs HV and the product km HV *(kw HV +kw LV ) ln(cost HV per kw*km) (m$/kw/km) ln(kw*km) 31

32 Distribution function characteristics Chile Relation between unit cost LV and the product km LV *kw LV ln(cost LV per kw*km) (m$/kw/km) ln(kw*km) 32

33 The regulatory process Industry segmentation in typical areas -companies are grouped according to similar distribution costs, considering a maximum deviation -segments (typical areas) are identified Reference company is chosen for each typical area -cost close to the group average; representation coverage -existence of previous studies Efficiency distribution costs determined for each typical area -model company built and costed for each typical area (parallel studies by regulator and companies, averaged 2/3 and 1/3) -global industry check up (industry performance with calculated tariffs) Tariffs set every four years -indexation 33

34 The segmenting results for 2004 VAD $/kw/year Reference company Typical area Bars represent theoretical VAD for each company with real investment and operational costs Ref: Bitrán & Asociados 34

35 Changes in typical area concept Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Company 1 Area 2 Area 4 Area 1 Area 3 Company 2 Area 1 Company 1 Area 2 Company

36 The Chilean electricity market framework Price structure and the efficiency signals Regulating the monopoly The distribution activity- costs to consider Analytical models and regulatory process The building of an efficient company Results Tariff structure The open challenges 36

37 VAD calendar and institutions involved Studies completed Companies report simulated income Basis for studies Observations and beginning of studies CNE calculates tariffs Tariffs decree Start of new tariffs Month SEC-Superintendence of Electricity and Fuels (determines VNR and operation costs on previous year to VAD process) CNE-National Energy Commission (defines basis for studies and typical area segmentation, directs one study for each area, calculates preliminary tariffs and industry check up, fixes new tariffs) Companies (develop studies for each area) 37

38 Building the efficient company Minimize investment+operation Horizon :10 years Discount rate: fixed at 10% Efficient network -Low voltage network design -Distribution transformer sizing -High voltage network design Efficient infrastructure (buildings and facilities) Efficient management Energy and capacity balances (to determine divider for tariff calculation) Loss calculations (to determine loss expansion factors) Use of geographical information - GIS based 38

39 Load allocation to substations 39

40 Optimal location & sizing of transformers 40

41 LV network design Based on computational model Navarro-PUC 41

42 HV network design 42

43 Santiago high voltage network (12 and 23 kv) Based on computational model Peco-IIT 43

44 Management design ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS SALARIES RESULTS Study of processes Study of contracts Related Non Related Important areas Administrative Comercial & Operation Number of Employees Efficiency indicators & Benchmarking Adjusting to Salary Studies Study of Pay Bonds Sub Contracting 44

45 The Chilean electricity market framework Price structure and the efficiency signals Regulating the monopoly The distribution activity- costs to consider Analytical models and regulatory process The building of an efficient company Results Tariff structure The open challenges 45

46 2008 VAD results Typical Area 1 Chilectra, largest company M$ as of Dec 2007

47 2008 VAD results all Typical Areas ($) VAD HV ($/kw/year) VAD LV ($/kw/year) 47

48 2008 VAD results all Typical Areas (%) VAD HV (% difference) VAD LV (% difference) 48

49 Ene 00 Jul 00 Ene 01 Jul 01 Ene 02 Jul 02 Ene 03 Jul 03 Ene 04 Jul 04 Ene 05 Jul 05 Ene 06 Jul 06 Ene 07 Jul 07 Ene 08 Jul Cost of energy- generation level Spot price Regulated price Costo Marginal Precio de Nudo US$/MWh December

50 50 Final tariffs Nov-00 Ene-01 Mar-01 May-01 Jul-01 Sep-01 Nov-01 Ene-02 Mar-02 May-02 Jul-02 Sep-02 Nov-02 Ene-03 Mar-03 May-03 Jul-03 Sep-03 Nov-03 Ene-04 Mar-04 May-04 Jul-04 Sep-04 Nov-04 Ene-05 Mar-05 May-05 Jul-05 Sep-05 Nov-05 Ene-06 Mar-06 May-06 Jul-06 Sep-06 Nov-06 Ene-07 Mar-07 May-07 Jul-07 Sep-07 Nov-07 PERCENTAGE, % Generation+transmission Distribution Final tariff

51 Costs for final domestic consumers ($) (Chi$ 2008/kWh) IVA Cta RM88 Distribución Sub transmisión Generación 12,96 11,08 11,91 9,66 33,15 27,56 20,18 18,44 19,39 21,47 60,58 33,51 29,47 27,01 36,

52 Costs for final domestic consumers (%) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 18% 25% 32% 39% 38% 57% 49% 39% 41% 43% Generación Sub-Transmisión Distribución IVA 52

53 Variation of prices for public services 81% 43% 41% 20% 5% Electric Distribution Electric Generation Residential Electricity Local phones Sanitary Services Water 35% Period (Santiago base) Ref: Bitrán & Asociados 53

54 Quality Indicators (Chilectra) Frecuencia media de interrupción por kva 1,90 1,80 1,70 FMIK 1,60 1,50 1,40 1,30 1, FMIT 2,40 2,30 2,20 2,10 2,00 1,90 1,80 1,70 1,60 1,50 Frecuencia media de interrupción por transformador

55 Profits Chilean Distribution Companies 55

56 Latin American Data Base 56

57 Latin American Data Base Distribution losses (%) 57

58 Loss Reductions (Chilectra) % State monopoly Private regulated monopoly 58

59 Latin American Data Base Electricity sold per employee(mwh) Duration of interruptions per subscriber (hrs.) 59

60 Tariffs of Endesa Distribution Companies Average values US$

61 The Chilean electricity market framework Price structure and the efficiency signals Regulating the monopoly The distribution activity- costs to consider Analytical models and regulatory process The building of an efficient company Results Tariff structure The open challenges 61

62 Tariff Structure Defined and calculated by the regulator Transmit cost parameters to consumers (generation, transmission and distribution) Consider both energy and capacity costs No explicit subsidies among classes of consumers (they introduce distortions) Reflect use of distribution infrastructure (essentially capacity) Each distribution company with different tariffs, depending on geographical location (reflecting nodal pricing) and typical area Give the consumer the option to choose tariff options (for 1 year) Different tariffs at high and low voltage networks 62

63 Tariff Components Tariff = Use Dx + Energy + Capacity bought at generation + Use Tx Peak hours

64 Tariff Components Fixed charge ($/client) reflects fixed distribution costs Capacity payment at peak hours ($/kw) Generation capacity cost Capacity losses at distribution VAD costs (HV and LV capital and operation) Capacity payment outside peak hours ($/kw) VAD costs for infrastructure next to the consumer Energy payment Cost of energy bought at power substations plus distribution losses 64

65 Tariff Building Tariff integrating generation prices, transmission costs and VAD Tariffs built by regulator considering parameters determined by itself Hours of use (relating energy consumed by small consumers and their peak demand) Coincidence factors (relating distribution company peak and system peak) Neighborhood factors (relating different densities within a company) Underground and over ground infrastructure factors Indexing factors reflecting economies of scale 65

66 Tariff Alternatives LV BT1: Under 10 kw, only energy measurement, with capacity limiter (home consumers). Additional charge for energy consumed in winter months over 120% of summer one. BT2: Energy measurement and capacity (maximum demand) contract (home consumers, mid commercial and public lights) BT3: Energy and maximum demand measurement (larger commercial and mid industrial) BT4: Energy measurement and: BT4.1: Capacity contract al peak hours and capacity contract BT4.2: Measurement of maximum demand at peak hours and capacity contract BT4.3: Measurement of maximum demand at peak hours and maximum demand Similar tariffs at high voltage. Peak hours defined between 18 & 23 hrs, between April and September (SIC) 66

67 Chilectra tariffs June

68 Tariffs and Social Objectives Charges should be in line with what drives network costs No subsidies within tariff scheme, transmit efficient cost Legal restriction for government to change and distort tariffs Direct subsidies to lower income families under social umbrella (outside electricity sector, avoiding distortions and irrational use of resources) Direct subsidies for rural electrification National program for rural electrification administered by the National Fund for Regional Development. Tripartite funding of the capital costs of rural connections whereby the users pay 10%, companies 20% and state funding 70% with users expected to pay for running costs. In 1982, 62% of rural households (some 269,841 homes) were without electricity supply. By 2002 only 14% of rural households were without electricity. 68

69 The Chilean electricity market framework Price structure and the efficiency signals Regulating the monopoly The distribution activity- costs to consider Analytical models and regulatory process The building of an efficient company Results Tariff structure The open challenges 69

70 Improvements to tariff process Need for improvement in VAD basis -Improve design of management of model company -Define benchmarks for management -Improve determination of typical areas, increasing number Alternatives for coupling studies made by regulator and companies -Panel of Experts (special bar for the electricity sector) to decide between VAD costs Limit action of regulator into final tariff calculations 70

71 Challenges Incorporate distributed generation -Consideration of impact of distributed generation -Incorporate distribute generation concepts into tariff process -Create tools to facilitate distributed generation Incorporate load management schemes -Existing credit scheme for energy reduction in critical conditions -Consider load management schemes in tariff process -Introduce tariff flexibility (timid first step on 2009) -Create opportunities for smart metering Incorporate energy efficiency mechanisms -The more you sell, the better, as core distribution business -Decoupling of tariffs -Stimulus for proactive action of distribution companies 71

72 ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION TARIFFS The Chilean Experience Hugh Rudnick Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile Brasilia, June 2009

73 IEEE Power & Energy Magazine Volume 5, Number 3, July/August 2007, pp Special issue on Evolution of Distribution Systems 73

74 IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 24, No 2, pp , May

75 Chilectra Tariffs 75

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