Slovakia General the social security coverage is based on occupational activity, not residence

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1 Slovakia General In Slovakia, the social security coverage is based on occupational activity, not residence. The social security system falls under the competence of the Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic (www.employment.gov.sk). The Social Insurance Agency (www.socpoist.sk) and Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic (www.upsvar.sk) are the executive bodies. Health insurance in Slovakia is not included in the scope of social insurance. The healthcare system in Slovakia falls under the competence of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic (www.health.gov.sk). General structure of Health insurance in Slovakia Obtaining health insurance is obligatory and a proof of health insurance is required as a part of residence permit granting procedure. Before leaving their countries of origin, foreigners must make sure to be covered by their current health insurance also on the territory of Slovakia, or take out new insurance before or after arrival in Slovakia. Particular procedures apply depending on their personal situation, the length of stay and the terms of their current health insurance. They will either continue to be covered by the health insurance of the home country, or fall under the regime of the Slovak Republic. In both cases, it will be necessary to make specific arrangements for the continued health coverage. There are two types of health insurance in Slovakia: Mandatory public health insurance Holders of mandatory public health insurance are entitled to health care provision and all related services in compliance with the Act on Health Insurance. Public health insurance covers benefits in full or to a partial extent, depending on specific conditions. Individual (commercial) health insurance Commercial health insurance holders are entitled to health care services stipulated in the agreement with the Health Insurance Authority. Commercial health insurance is provided in compliance with special legislation (Civil Code). The scope of the health services is stipulated individually either as basic health care available to foreigners who cannot have the public health insurance; or supplementary insurance (above standard health care) or combination of both previously mentioned. Commercial health insurance is compulsory for everyone, who does not fall into the scope of the public health insurance. Commercial health insurance can be obtained from any provider, not necessarily a Slovak one. In case it is obtained from a foreign insurance provider, the contract must stipulate its coverage on the territory of the Slovak Republic and it must be translated into Slovak language by an official sworn translator. General structure of social security system in Slovakia (excluding health insurance) The social security system in Slovakia is made of three main components: Social insurance

2 Sickness insurance sickness benefit, maternity benefit, benefit for nursing a sick relative, equalisation benefit Pension insurance - the old-age insurance (old-age pension, early old-age pension, survivors pensions - i.e. widow s pension, widower s pension, orphan s pension), the disability insurance (disability pension, survivors pensions - i.e. widow s pension, widower s pension, orphan s pension), accident insurance, unemployment insurance and guarantee insurance There are two forms of pension insurance scheme: 1 st pillar (contributions to the state Social Insurance Agency, concurrent regime), which is mandatory and 2 nd pillar (oldage pension saving in pension management companies, capitalising regime). Participation in the 2 nd pillar is subject to one s own choice. There exists also a 3 rd pillar pension regime, which is completely voluntary and is meant as an additional old-age pension saving. Social assistance State social support - child allowance (recurrent), child allowance supplement (recurrent), parental allowance (recurrent, child birth grant (one-off, child birth grant bonus (one-off), allowance to parents to whom multiple children were born (recurrent once a year, child care benefit (recurrent), alimony substitution (recurrent), allowances supporting alternative child care (various one-off and recurrent allowances and funeral grant (one-off) The basic role of the social insurance system in Slovakia is the protection of the economically active population in the event of life contingencies. Mandatorily insured are employed and self-employed persons. Social insurance is financed by contributions; it is administered by the Social Insurance Agency (SIA). The system of social assistance allows citizens below the statutory subsistence minimum to receive substitute resources from the state in the form of benefits. The system of state social support is devised to address particular life contingencies, including the birth of a child, child care, death of a family member and others. These benefits are financed directly from the state budget. Usually benefits from state social support are based on the condition of permanent or temporary residence in Slovakia, and not the income of the family or economic activity of a person and his/her family members. For each particular benefit of state social support there exist special conditions for entitlement, which have to be fulfilled. Students Health coverage The health insurance of students/phd students is in Slovakia paid by the state (if the PhD study is at maximum of standard duration in a full-time PhD degree programme, the PhD student has not previously received PhD degree and is less than 30 years old). Students staying temporarily in Slovakia to pursue a part of studies mostly still reside in their home states. Students from the EU/EEA/Switzerland shall be therefore holders of the European Health Insurance Card issued by their home state before leaving their country of origin.

3 A foreign student, coming to Slovakia to study within a programme arising from an international treaty that is binding for the Slovak Republic is subject to mandatory health insurance, the Slovak Republic being the payer of such insurance. The student shall submit the necessary documents certifying his/her study at a higher education institution in the Slovak Republic, its international status proved by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic, to the chosen health insurance provider. In other cases, the student must arrange his/her health insurance himself/herself with a commercial provider. Social Security Fulltime PhD students are not considered as employees; hence a university is not in the position of their employer in connection with the social and health insurance. Levies into social insurance funds are not compulsory for doctoral students, although they may opt for voluntary insurance of defined percentage rates from the assessment basis of their choice. In case a labour relationship exists with the student, the work is carried out occasionally typically based on the concluded Contract for part-time work of students. An employer is obliged to register an employee, i.e. student, at the appropriate office of the Social Insurance Agency. The social contributions are paid both by the employee and the employer and are deducted automatically by the employer as a percentage of the assessment basis, which is usually the gross wage. Students have right for a waiver of the social insurance premiums, however they need to inform the employer in writing about exercising this right and file a statement of exercising this right with one employer only. Benefits from state social support - one component of the social security system in Slovakia, may be used by foreign nationals with permanent or temporary residence permit on the territory of the Slovak Republic upon meeting specific conditions for entitlement. a. Health coverage (in Slovakia not part of social insurance system) yes The health insurance of students in Slovakia is paid by the state. In some cases, the student must arrange his/her health insurance with a commercial provider. b. Sickness benefit (in Slovakia part of sickness insurance within social insurance) yes/no. Students can contribute voluntarily to the sickness insurance of social insurance fund. c. Unemployment benefit yes/no. Students can contribute voluntarily to the unemployment insurance of social insurance fund. d. Parental benefit (in Slovakia present within 2 main schemes: maternity benefit as part of sickness insurance within social insurance obtainable after some minimum duration of insurance; and parental allowance, child allowance, etc. within state social support) yes/no. Students can contribute voluntarily to the sickness insurance of social insurance fund. Different allowances within the state social support are available to students without condition of being employed, if having permanent or temporary residence on the territory of the SR and upon completion of certain conditions. e. Disability pension (in Slovakia part of pension insurance within social insurance) yes/no. In case a labour relationship in the form of a Contract for part-time work of students exists, contributions are mandatory for the employee and for the employer. (In case of several contracts with different employers, there is a possibility to assign one of those contracts, from which social

4 insurance premiums will not be deducted, if meeting also stated conditions.) Students can also contribute voluntarily to the pension insurance of social insurance fund. f. Old-age pension (in Slovakia part of pension insurance within social insurance) yes/no. In case a labour relationship in the form of a Contract for part-time work of students exists, contributions are mandatory for the employee and for the employer. (In case of several contracts with different employers, there is a possibility to assign one of those contracts from which social insurance premiums will not be deducted, if meeting also stated conditions.) Students can also contribute voluntarily to the pension insurance of social insurance fund. g. Supplementary pension rights yes/no. In case a labour relationship in the form of a Contract for part-time work of students exists, in addition to the mandatory 1 st and 2 nd pillar of pension regime, there exists a 3 rd pillar, which is completely voluntary, meant as an additional old-age pension saving. h. Other (guarantee and accident insurance, and solidarity reserve fund) yes/no Guarantee and accident insurance, as well as the contribution to the solidarity reserve fund, are mandatorily paid by the employer in case exists a labour relationship exists in the form of a Contract for part-time work of students. Voluntarily pension insured persons contribute to the solidarity reserve fund. Information for EU/EEA/Swiss citizens a. Health coverage- For entitlement to medical treatment on the basis of health insurance in another EU/EEA member state or Switzerland, an EU/EEA/Swiss national must present a European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) to the health care provider. A student/phd student from another EU Member State studying in Slovakia, who does not have permanent residence in Slovakia and is not covered by health insurance in another EU/EEA Member State or in Switzerland, must also have mandatory public health insurance. In such case the health insurance is paid by the Slovak Republic. b. Social security- PhD students are not considered as employees; hence a university is not in the position of their employer in connection with the social insurance. Levies into social insurance funds are not compulsory for doctoral students, although they may opt for voluntary insurance of defined percentage rates from the assessment basis of their choice. Then if needed and upon fulfilling stated conditions, they may receive social security benefits. If a labour relationship exists with a student through a Contract for part-time work of students, the social contributions are paid by the employee (old-age and disability pension insurance premiums) and the employer (pension insurance premiums, guarantee, accident insurance premiums and solidarity reserve fund premiums). Information for citizens from states that have a bilateral agreement with the Slovak Republic / other countries a. Health coverage - A foreign student/phd student studying in Slovakia according to an international treaty, which is binding for the Slovak Republic who does not have permanent residence in Slovakia and is not covered by health insurance in another EU/EEA Member State or in Switzerland, must also have mandatory public health insurance. In such case the health insurance is paid by the Slovak Republic. If the person does not fall into the scope of the public health insurance, commercial health insurance is compulsory for him/her. This

5 concerns students who are not EU/EEA/Swiss nationals, do not have permanent residence in the Slovak Republic, and do not study on the basis of international agreement binding for the Slovak Republic. A third country national (outside EU/EEA/Switzerland) based on the duties related to the granted temporary residence permit in Slovakia is obliged to provide the foreign police in Slovakia with a proof of concluded health insurance. b. Social security - Provisions on social security for citizens from states outside the EU/EEA/Switzerland are based on bilateral agreements on social security signed with the Slovak Republic. Therefore the rules applied depend on the country of origin of the citizen. Currently, the Slovak Republic has signed and active international agreements with the following states: Australia, Canada, Croatia, Israel, Quebec, Republic of Korea, The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (as of 1960; succession to Belarus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan), Ukraine and former Federal People s Republic of Yugoslavia (as of 1957; succession to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia). The list of the bilateral treaties can be found at (in Slovak only) for detailed information on the provisions. Citizens from third countries, which Slovakia does not have a signed and active international agreement with, have rights resulting from the social security system of Slovakia only in case the person has signed a work contract with an employer permanently residing in Slovakia or in case they perform self-employment activities in Slovakia. Foreign nationals with permanent or temporary residence permit may contribute to the social insurance system on a voluntary basis and if needed and upon fulfilling stated conditions, may receive social benefits. Employees with fixed or temporary employment contract a. Health coverage- When a foreign national takes up employment with an employer who has permanent residence in the Slovak Republic or commences to perform self-employment activities in the Slovak Republic, he/she becomes subject to mandatory public health insurance in the Slovak Republic, while the contributions are paid both by the employee and the employer (self-employed person) and are deducted automatically by the employer (self-employed person). b. Social security - Any foreign worker employed on the basis of an work contract on the territory of the Slovak Republic for the period appointed by the employer or a self-employed person performing activities on the territory of the SR, is subject to the Slovak social security system and must pay contributions to the compulsory insurance funds as if he/she were a national of the Slovak Republic. The contributions are paid both by the employee and the employer and are deducted automatically by the employer as a percentage of the assessment basis, which is usually the gross wage. The employer has also the duty to register the foreigner with the Social Insurance Agency (SIA) at least a day before commencing the employment relationship (regardless of whether the relationship is in the form of an employment contract full or part-time, fixed or temporary), and to inform SIA about changes of foreigner s situation. Selfemployed persons are obliged to contribute to sickness and pension fund depending on their gain of income in the particular year.

6 Benefits from state social support - one component of the social security system in Slovakia, may be used by foreign nationals with permanent or temporary residence permit on the territory of the Slovak Republic upon meeting specific conditions for entitlement. a. Health coverage (in Slovakia not part of social insurance system) yes Contributions to the health insurance are mandatory for all employees in Slovakia with an employer who has permanent residence in the Slovak Republic, or for self-employed persons performing activities in the Slovak Republic. b. Sickness benefit (in Slovakia part of sickness insurance within social insurance) yes Contributions to the sickness insurance of the social insurance system are mandatory for employees and their employer, and self-employed persons. Sickness benefits in cash are paid according to the Slovak legislation i.e. the state you are insured in. c. Unemployment benefit yes. Contributions to the unemployment insurance of the social insurance system are mandatory for employees and their employer. d. Parental benefit (in Slovakia present within 2 main schemes: maternity benefit as a part of sickness insurance within social insurance and parental allowance, child allowance, etc. within state social support) yes. Maternity benefit is provided upon completion of certain conditions, including the minimum duration of payments to mandatory sickness insurance. Parental allowance may be granted to persons with permanent or temporary residence on the territory of the SR and upon completion of certain conditions. e. Disability pension (in Slovakia part of pension insurance within social insurance) yes. Contributions to the disability insurance within pension insurance of the social insurance system are mandatory for employees and their employer, and also self-employed persons. f. Old-age pension (in Slovakia part of pension insurance within social insurance) yes Contributions to the pension insurance of the social insurance system are mandatory for employees and their employer, and self-employed persons. g. Supplementary pension rights yes. If employed, in addition to the mandatory 1 st and 2 nd pillar of pension regime, there exists a 3 rd pillar, which is completely voluntary and is meant as an additional old-age pension saving. h. Other (guarantee and accident insurance, and solidarity reserve fund) yes Guarantee and accident insurance, as well as the contribution to the solidarity reserve fund, are mandatorily paid by the employer. Solidarity reserve fund is compulsory also for self-employed persons. Information for EU/EEA/Swiss citizens a. Health coverage - for entitlement to medical treatment on the basis of health insurance in another EU/EEA member state or Switzerland, an EU/EEA/Swiss national must present a European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) to the health care provider. An individual, who does not have permanent residence in Slovakia and is not covered by health insurance in another EU/EEA Member State or in Switzerland, must also have mandatory public health insurance, if such person is employed with an employer whose seat or permanent establishment is in Slovakia or a self-employed person in Slovakia.

7 b. Social security - When living and working as an employee or a self-employed person in different Member States of the EU/EEA or Switzerland, each person is subject to the legislation of only one state at a time, which is usually the country where he/she exercises his/her occupational activity. The coordination of the social security schemes within the EU/EEA countries and Switzerland and the protection of migrant workers (including posted employees) are provided at the European level and Slovak Republic implements common rules. In case of a worker carrying out work in more than one EU/EEA Member State or Switzerland, he/she shall remain subject to single legislation only, i.e. it is necessary to determine the applicable legislation among several states of occupation. Consequently, contributions to social insurance from all states where the occupational activity is performed will go only to one of the states. Information for citizens from states that have a bilateral agreement with Slovakia / other countries a. Health coverage- An individual, who does not have permanent residence in Slovakia and is not covered by health insurance in another EU/EEA Member State or in Switzerland, must also have mandatory public health insurance, if such person is employed with an employer whose seat or permanent establishment is in Slovakia or self-employed person in Slovakia. If the person does not fall into the scope of the public health insurance, commercial health insurance is compulsory for this individual. A third country national (outside EU/EEA/Switzerland) based on the duties related to the granted temporary residence permit in Slovakia is obliged to provide the foreign police in Slovakia with a proof of concluded health insurance (for instance in the period between entry into Slovakia and employment contract). b. Social Security - Provisions on social security for third country citizens in the Slovak Republic are based on bilateral agreements on social security. Therefore the rules applied depend on the country of origin of the citizen. Currently, the Slovak Republic has signed and active international agreements with the following states outside the EU/EEA/Switzerland: Australia, Canada, Croatia, Israel, Quebec, the Republic of Korea, The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (as of 1960; succession to Belarus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan), Ukraine and former Federal People s Republic of Yugoslavia (as of 1957; succession to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia). The list of the bilateral treaties can be found at (in Slovak only) for detailed information on the provisions. Citizens from third countries, which Slovakia does not have a signed and active international agreement with, have rights resulting from the social security system of Slovakia only in case the individuals have signed a work contract with an employer permanently residing in Slovakia or in case they perform self-employment activities in Slovakia. Foreign nationals with permanent or temporary residence permit may contribute to the social insurance system on a voluntary basis and if needed and upon fulfilling stated conditions, may receive social benefits. Researchers without employment contract Researchers without employment in Slovakia are not considered to be unemployed, but as individuals having an employment contract or self-employment activities in another

8 state. At the same time they are moving to Slovakia on the basis of a hosting agreement, invitation from a hosting organisation or external funding (e.g. granted scholarship) of their activities. a. Health coverage - Obtaining health insurance is obligatory and a proof of health insurance is required as a part of residence permit granting procedure. Before leaving their countries of origin, foreigners must make sure to be covered by their current health insurance also on the territory of Slovakia, or take out new insurance before or after arrival in Slovakia. b. Social security - In Slovakia, the social security coverage is based on occupational activity, not residence. Researchers without having an employment contract in Slovakia do not have to pay the compulsory contributions and shall be subject to the legislation of the state, in which they are employed/self-employed, or their state of residence. Researchers without having an employment contract in Slovakia but having permanent residence on the territory of the SR, temporary residence permit or permanent residence permit may opt for a voluntary sickness, pension and unemployment insurance. Benefits from state social support - one component of the social security system in Slovakia, may be used by foreign nationals with permanent or temporary residence permit on the territory of the Slovak Republic upon meeting specific conditions for entitlement. a. Health coverage (in Slovakia not part of social insurance system) yes. Health insurance is mandatory when staying in Slovakia, before leaving their countries of origin, foreigners must make sure to be covered by their current health insurance also on the territory of Slovakia, or take out new insurance before or after arrival in Slovakia. b. Sickness leaves benefit (in Slovakia part of sickness insurance within social insurance) no/yes. If employed in another EU/EEA member state or Switzerland, sickness benefits in cash are paid to EU/EEA/Swiss nationals according to the legislation of the state they are insured in. Researchers with no employment contract may contribute on a voluntary basis to the sickness insurance in case of permanent residence, temporary residence permit or permanent residence permit on the territory of the SR, unless they are insured in another EU/EEA member state or Switzerland. c. Unemployment benefit no/yes. Researchers with no employment contract may contribute on a voluntary basis to the unemployment insurance in case of permanent residence, temporary residence permit or permanent residence permit on the territory of the SR, unless they are insured in another EU/EEA member state or Switzerland. d. Parental benefit (in Slovakia present within 2 main schemes: maternity benefit as a part of sickness insurance within social insurance and parental allowance, child allowance, etc. within state social support) no/yes. Researchers with no employment contract may contribute on a voluntary basis to the sickness insurance in case of permanent residence, temporary residence permit or permanent residence permit on the territory of the SR, unless they are insured in another EU/EEA member state or Switzerland. Maternity benefit is provided upon completion of certain conditions, including minimum duration of the payments to mandatory sickness insurance. Parental allowance may be granted to persons with permanent or temporary residence on the territory of the SR and upon completion of certain conditions.

9 e. Disability pension (in Slovakia part of pension insurance within social insurance) no See point f. below. Old-age pension (in Slovakia part of pension insurance within social insurance) - no/yes. Researchers with no employment contract may contribute on a voluntary basis to the pension insurance in case of permanent residence, temporary residence permit or permanent residence permit on the territory of the SR, unless they are insured in another EU/EEA member state or Switzerland. f. Supplementary pension rights no/yes. If being voluntarily pension insured, in addition to the mandatory 1 st and 2 nd pillar of pension regime, there exists a 3 rd pillar, which is completely voluntary and is meant as an additional old-age pension saving. g. Other (solidarity reserve fund) no/yes. In case a researcher without employment contract is voluntarily pension insured, he will also contribute to the solidarity reserve fund. Information for EU/EEA/Swiss citizens a. Health coverage - For entitlement to medical treatment on the basis of health insurance in another EU/EEA member state or Switzerland, an EU/EEA/Swiss national must present a European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) to the health care provider. b. If the person does not have health insurance from his/her home country valid also for Slovakia, he/she has to take out new health insurance, usually with commercial provider. Social security. c. Researchers employed or self-employed in another EU/EEA member state or Switzerland are subject to the social security legislation of this member state and continue paying contributions to social security system of that state. They might perform their activities on the territory of Slovakia on the basis of invitation from a hosting organisation or external funding (e.g. granted scholarship) of their activities; they also can be performing their activities as posted workers sent temporarily by their employer to work in Slovakia. In case a person does not work in any state (employed or self-employed), he/she is subject to the social security legislation of the state of residence. Information for citizens from states that have a bilateral agreement with Slovakia / other countries a. Health coverage - Health insurance is mandatory when staying in Slovakia, before leaving their countries of origin, foreigners must make sure to be covered by their current health insurance also on the territory of Slovakia, or take out new insurance before or after arrival in Slovakia. A third country national (outside EU/EEA/Switzerland) based on the duties related to the granted temporary residence permit in Slovakia is obliged to provide the foreign police in Slovakia with a proof of concluded health insurance. Commercial health insurance is compulsory for everyone, who does not fall into the scope of the public health insurance. This concerns researchers who are not employed/selfemployed (they perform activities e.g. on the basis of awarded stipend), do not have permanent residence in the Slovak Republic, and do not study on the basis of international agreement binding for the Slovak Republic.

10 b. Social security - Researchers might perform their activities on the territory of Slovakia on the basis of a hosting agreement, invitation from a hosting organisation or external funding of their activities. Provisions on social security for third country citizens in the Slovak Republic are based on bilateral agreements on social security. Therefore the rules applied depend on the country of origin of the citizen. Currently, the Slovak Republic has signed and active international agreements with the following states outside the EU/EEA/Switzerland: Australia, Canada, Croatia, Israel, Quebec, the Republic of Korea, The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (as of 1960; succession to Belarus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan), Ukraine and former Federal People s Republic of Yugoslavia (as of 1957; succession to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia). The list of the bilateral treaties can be found at (in Slovak only) for detailed information on the provisions. Foreign nationals with permanent or temporary residence permit may contribute to the social insurance system on a voluntary basis and if needed and upon fulfilling stated conditions, may receive social benefits. Citizens from third countries, which Slovakia does not have a signed and active international agreement with, have rights resulting from the social security system of Slovakia in case the person has signed a work contract with an employer permanently residing in Slovakia or in case they perform self-employment activities in Slovakia. Researchers without an employment contract are not entitled to any rights resulting from the social security system in Slovakia if they are not contributing to the system on a voluntary basis.

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