Schmidt s Conjecture and Star Formation in Giant Molecular Clouds and Galaxies. João Alves, University of Vienna

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1 Schmidt s Conjecture and Star Formation in Giant Molecular Clouds and Galaxies João Alves, University of Vienna

2 Schmidt s Conjecture and Star Formation in Giant Molecular Clouds and Galaxies With: Charles Lada, CfA Marco Lombardi, University of Milan Jan Forbrich, University of Vienna Carlos Roman-Zuniga, UNAM Chris Faesi, CfA João Alves, University of Vienna

3 The Star Formation Rate Across Cosmic History What are the physical processes that set the SFR and control galaxy evolution? Bouwens et al. 2010

4 Schmidt s Conjecture: It would seem most probable that the rate of star formation depends on the gas density and we shall assume that the number formed per unit interval of time varies with a power of the gas density... Schmidt (1959) Σ SFR = κ (Σ g ) β [M pc -2 ]

5 Schmidt s Conjecture: It would seem most probable that the rate of star formation depends on the gas density and we shall assume that the number formed per unit interval of time varies with a power of the gas density... Schmidt (1959) Σ SFR = κ (Σ g ) β [M pc -2 ] It is rather tempting to try to estimate the effects of star formation...in galaxies as a whole.

6 Galaxies (z ~ 0)

7 Galaxies (z ~ 0)

8 Galaxies (z ~ 0) Schmidt-Kennicutt Law Σ SFR = A (Σ gas ) 1.6

9 Galaxies (z ~ 0) Schmidt-Kennicutt Law Σ SFR = A (Σ gas ) 1.6

10 Galaxies (z ~ 0) Bigiel et al. 2008

11 Galaxies (z ~ 0) Bigiel et al. 2008

12 Galaxies (z ~ 0) Bigiel et al. 2008

13 Galaxies (z ~ 0) Bigiel et al. 2008

14 Galaxies (z ~ 0) Bigiel et al. 2008

15 Galaxies (z ~ 0) Bigiel et al. 2008

16 Galaxies (z ~ 0) Bigiel et al. 2008

17 Giant Molecular Clouds?

18 Milky Way GMCs

19 Milky Way GMCs SFRs: Direct Counting of YSOs and measured ages.

20 Milky Way GMCs SFRs: Direct Counting of YSOs and measured ages. Masses: Resolved measurements of dust column densities and an asssumed gas-to-dust ratio

21 Dust Column Densities

22 Dust Column Densities Optical

23 Dust Column Densities Optical Near infrared Alves+01

24 Dust Column Densities Optical Near infrared Alves+01

25 Dust Column Densities Optical Near infrared Alves+01 Nielbock+13, Roy+14

26 Local molecular clouds (same size scale) Perseus Pipe Ophiuchus Taurus 10 pc Orion 10 pc Lombardi Alves Lada 06-12

27 Giant Molecular Clouds Does a Schmidt Law exist for MW GMCs?

28 Giant Molecular Clouds

29 Giant Molecular Clouds

30 Giant Molecular Clouds

31 Giant Molecular Clouds A Schmidt Law does NOT exist between GMCs

32 Giant Molecular Clouds M = Σ c R 2 Lombardi et al. 2010

33 Giant Molecular Clouds M = Σ c R 2 Lombardi et al Well known scaling relation of Larson (1981)

34 Giant Molecular Clouds M = Σ c R 2 Lombardi et al Well known scaling relation of Larson (1981) A Schmidt Law does NOT exist between GMCs

35 Giant Molecular Clouds Does a Schmidt Law exist within GMCs?

36 1.0 5 Orion B Mon R2 λ Orion 0.8 LBN LDN 1652 LBN 1017 Galactic Latitude 15 TGU H1523 NGC 2149 NGC 2170 LBN AK (mag) GN LBN 1016 LBN 1019 Orion A IC Galactic Longitude

37 1.0 5 Orion B λ Orion Mon R2 0.8 LBN 1015 LDN 1652 LBN Galactic Latitude AK (mag) NGC 2170 TGU H1523 Mon R2 LBN 933 NGC 2071 NGC GN ri 16 O Galactic Latitude on B NGC NGC 2024 Orion A IC 423 LBN LBN 1019 Orion Nebula 0.2 NGC Orion A 10 pc Galactic Longitude Galactic Longitude

38 12 Mon R2 14 NGC 2071 NGC 2068 Galactic Latitude NGC 2024 Orion B Orion Nebula NGC Orion A 10 pc Galactic Longitude Lombardi et al Planck+Herschel+2MASS

39 12 Mon R2 14 NGC 2071 NGC 2068 Galactic Latitude NGC 2024 Orion B Orion Nebula NGC Orion A 10 pc Galactic Longitude Lombardi et al Planck+Herschel+2MASS

40 12 Mon R2 14 NGC 2071 NGC 2068 Galactic Latitude NGC 2024 Orion B Orion Nebula NGC Orion A 10 pc Galactic Longitude Lombardi et al Planck+Herschel+2MASS

41 12 Mon R2 14 NGC 2071 NGC 2068 Galactic Latitude β = 2 NGC 2024 Orion B Orion Nebula NGC Orion A 10 pc Galactic Longitude Lombardi et al Planck+Herschel+2MASS

42 Schmidt Law in Giant Molecular Clouds California Orion A California Results: Orion A Taurus California Orion B β 2.0 ± ± ± ± 0.2 κ 1.6 ± ± ± ± 0.1 σ 0.03± ± ± ± 0.02 A ± ± ± ±0.14 Herschel

43 Schmidt Law in Giant Molecular Clouds California Orion A California Results: Orion A Taurus California Orion B β 2.0 ± ± ± ± 0.2 κ 1.6 ± ± ± ± 0.1 σ 0.03± ± ± ± 0.02 A ± ± ± ±0.14 Herschel Gutermuth et al. 2011

44 Schmidt Law in Giant Molecular Clouds California Orion A California Results: Orion A Taurus California Orion B β 2.0 ± ± ± ± 0.2 A Schmidt Law Exists within GMCs κ 1.6 ± ± ± ± 0.1 Heidermann et al. 2010, Gutermuth et al. 2011, Lombardi et al. 2013, σ 0.03± ± ± ± 0.02 Lada et al. 2013, Evans et Aal ± ± ± ±0.14 Herschel Gutermuth et al. 2011

45 Giant Molecular Clouds Milky Way GMCs A Schmidt Law within clouds does NOT explain variations in SFRs between clouds.

46 Schmidt Law and Star Formation in GMCs

47 Schmidt Law and Star Formation in GMCs

48 Schmidt Law and Star Formation in GMCs N * (>A K ) = Σ * (>A K ) x S(>A K )

49

50 Surface Area Distribution Function, S(>A K )

51 Cloud structure plays a critical role in determining the SFR in clouds! Surface Area Distribution Function, S(>A K )

52 Scaling Relations for Local GMCs Need to consider integrated quantities

53 Extending the Scaling Relation to Higher Masses and SFRs: the Nearby Galaxy NGC 300

54 Scaling Relations for GMCs: Nearby Galaxies NGC 300 Faesi et al. 2014

55 A Column Density Threshold for Star Formation

56 Column Density Threshold for Star Formation Orion A Herschel: 250 µm Lombardi et al. 2014

57 Column Density Threshold for Star Formation Orion A Herschel: 250 µm Lombardi et al. 2014

58 Column Density Threshold for Star Formation Orion A Herschel: 250 µm 90% of Protostars at A K > 1.0 mag Lombardi et al. 2014

59 Column Density Threshold for Star Formation Orion A Local Dark Cloud Sample Protostars Evans et al. 2014

60 Column Density Threshold for Star Formation Orion A Local Dark Cloud Sample Protostars 90% of Protostars at A K > 1.0 mag Evans et al. 2014

61 Kruijssen Longmore+2013 Column Density Threshold for Star Formation?

62 Star Formation Scaling Law for Local Clouds A linear scaling relation 1 Lada et al A K > Myr The SFR is controlled by the mass or total amount of dense gas contained within molecular clouds SFR = (t gc ) -1 M dense t gc = gas consumption time = 2.2 x 10 7 yrs 1 SFR = 2.5 x 10-5 N(YSOs) M /yr

63 Star Formation Scaling Law for Local Clouds A linear scaling relation 1 The SFR is controlled by the mass or total amount of dense gas contained within molecular clouds t gc = gas consumption time = 2.2 x 10 7 yrs 1 SFR = 2.5 x 10-5 N(YSOs) M /yr

64 Star Formation Scaling Law for Local Clouds A linear scaling relation 1 The SFR is controlled by the mass or total amount of dense gas contained within molecular clouds t gc = gas consumption time = 2.2 x 10 7 yrs 1 SFR = 2.5 x 10-5 N(YSOs) M /yr

65 f = 1.0 f = 0.1 f = 0.01 From GMCs to Galaxies SFR = ( t gc ) -1 M >0.8 The SFR is controlled by the mass of dense gas contained within molecular clouds and entire galaxies. Gao & Solomon 2004

66 f = 1.0 f = 0.1 f = 0.01 From GMCs to Galaxies SFR = ( t gc ) -1 M >0.8 The SFR is controlled by the mass of dense molecular gas within GMCs and galaxies. Gao & Solomon 2004

67 Scaling Relations for Star Formation GMCs Scaling Law from GMCs to Galaxies SFR = ( t gc ) -1 M >A0 Gao & Solomon Wu et al. 2005

68 Scaling Relations for GMCs Star Formation Scaling Law from GMCs to Galaxies SFR = ( t gc ) -1 M >A0 The physical process of star formation in galaxies must be very similar to that in MW GMCs Gao & Solomon Wu et al. 2005

69 f = 1.0 f = 0.1 f = 0.01 Star Formation Scaling Law from GMCs to Galaxies SFR = ( t gc ) -1 M >A0 Gao & Solomon Wu et al. 2005

70 f = 1.0 f = 0.1 f = 0.01 Star Formation Scaling Law from GMCs to Galaxies SFR = ( t gc ) -1 M >A0 Early Universe: z = 2-4 Gao & Solomon Wu et al. 2005

71 f = 1.0 f = 0.1 f = 0.01 The physical process of star formation in distant galaxies and through much of cosmic history must be reasonably the same as it is presently in the nearest molecular clouds. Star Formation Scaling Law from GMCs to Galaxies SFR = ( t gc ) -1 M >A0 Early Universe: z = 2-4 Gao & Solomon Wu et al. 2005

72 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Scaling Relation

73 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846

74 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846 Schruba et al AJ 142;37

75 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846 Schruba et al AJ 142;37

76 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846 Schruba et al AJ 142;37

77 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 HI DILUTION Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846 Schruba et al AJ 142;37

78 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 HI DILUTION Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846 Schruba et al AJ 142;37

79 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 HI DILUTION Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846 Schruba et al AJ 142;37

80 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 4 M pc -2 f mb = 0.1 HI DILUTION Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846

81 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 4 M pc -2 f mb = 0.1 HI DILUTION 8 M pc -2 f mb = 0.2 Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846

82 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 4 M pc -2 f mb = 0.1 HI DILUTION 8 M pc -2 f mb = M pc -2 f mb = 1.0 Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846

83 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies HI H 2 4 M pc -2 f mb = 0.1 HI DILUTION 8 M pc -2 f mb = 0.2 CLOUD COUNTING 40 M pc -2 f mb = 1.0 Bigiel et al AJ 136:2846

84 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies Starburst Galaxies: Disks HI H 2 Starbursts 4 M pc -2 f mb = 0.1 HI DILUTION 8 M pc -2 f mb = 0.2 CLOUD COUNTING 40 M pc -2 f mb = 1.0 Bigiel et al. 2008

85 Deconstructing the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law: Galaxies Starburst Galaxies: Disks HI H 2 Starbursts 4 M pc -2 f mb = 0.1 HI DILUTION 8 M pc -2 f mb = 0.2 INCREASED f dense CLOUD COUNTING 40 M pc -2 f mb = 1.0 Bigiel et al. 2008

86 Summary 1. There is no Schmidt Law between GMCs 2. A Schmidt Law does exist within GMCs but it does not provide a complete description of a cloud s star formation activity. 3. The structure of a cloud plays a pivotal role in setting its global SFR and the overall level of its star formation activity. 4. The integrated SFR scales linearly with, and is most reliably traced by, the dense gas mass in a star forming region. 5. The amount of dense gas sets the SFR in systems ranging from individual GMCs to entire galaxies. 6. The Kennicutt-Schmidt law for galaxies is largely the result of unresolved measurements of GMCs and not a result of any underlying physical law of star formation.

87 Conclusion

88 Conclusion The physical process of star formation in distant galaxies and through much of cosmic history may be reasonably the same as it is presently in the nearest molecular clouds.

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