School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences. Development of a Compact Patient Ventilator Based on Novel Compressor Technology

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences. Development of a Compact Patient Ventilator Based on Novel Compressor Technology"

Transcription

1 School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences Development of a Compact Patient Ventilator Based on Novel Compressor Technology by Mario G. Bejarano M. Project Report for the Degree of MSc in Clinical Engineering with Healthcare Technology Management Supervisor: Dr. Justin Philips Co-supervisor: Dr. Keith Pullen London 14 th of September 2012

2 Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Theory Medical Background Treatment of OSA with Non-invasive ventilation BiPAP, CPAP and APAP devices architecture Market Devices State of the art in CPAP and APAP ResMed S9 TM series Philips System One Transcend Sleep Apnea Therapy System TM Common problems using compact ventilators Problem Identification Methodologies and Techniques Raspberry Pi Python language Motor controller Sensors and ADC Compressor Work done Motor controller design Temperature sensor Pressure sensor Analogue to digital converter ADC Range of operation with the sensor Interfacing sensor, motor control and RasPi I 2 C protocol communication for the temperature sensor SPI communication protocol PWM pin for motor control Algorithm implementation II

3 CPAP Algorithm APAP Algorithm BiPAP Algorithm User interface design with Python Results Relation speed of the motor pressure in close loop Calibration curve of the device Pressure sensor error margin between datasheet and calibration line Range of operation of the device Air flow range Maximum pressure Compressor noise levels Running temperature Power supplies Discussion of results Testing the compact ventilator Raspberry Pi as a tool for projects in clinical engineering Conclusion Suggestions for further work References Appendix A ResMed S9 Series Specifications... A-1 Appendix B CPAP market comparison... B-1 Appendix C APAP market comparison... C-1 Appendix D Schematic design of the compact ventilator... D-1 Appendix E CPAP Algorithm flowchart... E-1 Appendix F APAP Algorithm flowchart... F-1 Appendix G BiPAP Algorithm flowchart... G-1 III

4 Table of Figures Figure 1 CPAP machine with patient interface (16)... 7 Figure 2 Components of a CPAP APAP device... 8 Figure 3 ResMes S9 Series with Humidifier Figure 4 Philips System One with Humidifier Figure 5 Transcend II CPAP Figure 6 Raspberry Pi Model B Figure 7 Raspberry Pi Communication Port schema (32) Figure 8 Half H-Bridge drive configuration for a DC Brush Motor Figure 9 Modified portable vacuum used in the project as compressor Figure 10 MOSFET IRF9Z34N symbol and packing Figure 11 MOSFET STP16NF06FP symbol and packing Figure 12 Half H-Bridge design and components Figure 13 Schematic of the half H-Bridge with circuit protection Figure 14 Pin configuration of temperature sensor TC Figure 15 Schematic temperature sensor Figure 16 Pressure sensor 40PC001B and pin configuration Figure 17 Graph expected linearity pressure sensor Figure 18 MCP3008 Pin configuration Figure 19 Schematic of the pressure sensor - ADC interface Figure 20 Relation between PWM register and output in Volts Figure 21 CPAP mode window Figure 22 APAP mode window Figure 23 BiPAP Mode window Figure 24 Main menu options available Figure 25 Temperature reading mode Figure 26 Pressure reading mode Figure 27 Configuration window Figure 28 Pressure meter RIGEL BP- SiM Figure 29 Relation PWM register versus converted values from pressure sensor Figure 30 Calibration line using external reference Figure 31 Graph real calibration versus expected calibration IV

5 Figure 32 Flow meter Certifier FA Plus Figure 33 Flow graph versus speed of the motor Figure 34 Thermometer Kane-May KM Figure 35 Relation flow versus pressure Figure 36 Setting for testing the compact ventilator's accuracy Figure 37 Error comparison in CPAP mode Figure 38 Figure Error comparison in APAP mode V

6 Table of tables Table 1 American APAP vs CPAP vs BiPAP consumer preference (17).. 10 Table 2 Ideal operation of a half H-Bridge Table 3 Electrical characteristics of the motor Table 4 MOSFET IRF9Z34N features Table 5 MOSFET STP16NF06FP features Table 6 Features temperature sensor TC74A Table 7 Performance characteristics of the pressure sensor 40PC001B.. 30 Table 8 Main features ADC MCP Table 9 Operation range oh the ADC with the pressure sensor Table 10 Equivalent of temperature in HEX values Table 11 SPI Pin assignment on RasPi and ADC Table 12 Correlation calibration line versus pressure sensor expected values Table 13 Test results in CPAP mode Table 14 Test results in APAP mode VI

7 Symbols and abbreviation C: Degree Celsius µa: Micro Ampers A: Amperes ACK: Acknowledge ADC: Analogue to Digital Converter AHI: Apnea/hypopnea index APAP: Automatic Positive Airway Pressure ARM: Advanced RISC Machine BiPAP: Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure BJT: Bipolar Junction Transistor cmh 2 O: Centimetres of Water CO 2 : Carbon dioxide COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease CPAP: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure CPU: Central Process Unit CS: Chip Select VII

8 CSA: Central Sleep Apnoea CSV: Coma-separated values db: Decibels DC: Direct Current D IN : Slale Serial Data In D OUT : Slave Serial Data Out EPR: Expiratory Pressure Relief GND: Ground GPIO: General Purpose Input/Output GPU: Graphics Processing Unit HDMI: High Definition Multimedia Interfac HEX: Hexadecimal I 2 C: Inter Integrated Circuit IC: Integrated Circuit L/min: Litres per minute LCD: Liquid crystal display VIII

9 LSB: Least Significant Bit ma: mili Amperes MHz: Megahertz MISO: Master Input MMC: Multi Media Card mmhg: Millimetres of Mercury MOSFET: Metal oxide semiconductor Field-effect transistor MOSI: Master Output ms: mili seconds MSB: Most Significant Bit NIV: Non-Invasive Ventilation OS: Operating System OSA: Obstructive Sleeping Apnoea pf: Picofarad PWM: Pulse Width Modulation PWV: Pharyngeal Wall Vibration IX

10 RasPi: Raspberry Pi RCA: Radio Corporation America REM: Rapid Eye Movement RJ: Registered Jack SCL: Serial Clock SCLK: Serial Clock SD: Secure Digita SDA: Serial Data Line SDB: Sleep Disordered Breathing SDIO: Secure Digital Input Output SDRAM: Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory SoC: System on Chip SPI: Serial Peripheral Interface Bus Sps: Smaples per second t e : Expiratory Time t i : Inspiratory Time X

11 UA: Upper Airway UART: Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter USB: Universal Serial Bus V: Volt(s) XI

12 Project Title: Development of a Compact Patient Ventilator Based on Novel Compressor Technology Student: Mario G. Bejarano M. Supervisor: Dr. Justin Philips Co-supervisor: Dr. Keith Pullen 14 th of September 2012 Abstract There are three different types of compact ventilators for hospital and home users for the treatment of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). These devices are called continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP). These three types of machines shared common characteristics but in the market there is not a device capable to run the three modes in one machine with portable capabilities. This project endeavours to explore the design and development of a compact ventilator capable of running the three modes in one sole device using a novel compressor and the new Raspberry Pi (RasPI). For this an in depth analysis of the medical background and the current market was performed and some problems are identified for improvement. As a result of this analysis, a prototype for a compressor was designed using the RasPi as the heart of the project and including interfaces to control an external compressor and data acquisition attached to it. The project endeavoured to use a novel compressor but at the moment a scale model is still under development. Therefore, a portable vacuum cleaner was used as a compressor obtaining interesting results which show that this device can run with an accuracy of up to 0.5% for APAP mode. The data collected from the finalised project as a whole gives an interesting platform from which to develop the novel compressor under the suggestions given in section 8. 1

13 1. Introduction There are several illnesses related to sleeping disorders. These diseases are classified as sleep disordered breathing (SDB) (1). If a disorder in sleep time breathing is caused by upper airway (UA) collapse, it is called obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), but if caused by a lack of neural input from the central nervous system to the diaphragm it is called central sleep apnoea (CSA) (2). There are statistics which show that this illness may affect 4% of males and 2% of females between the ages of 30 to 60 years world-wide (1; 2). Most of the patients must be treated with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) during their sleep time. The length of the treatment will change according to the patient s pathology but it is a long term treatment. The most common medical device used for this purpose is a CPAP device (3). It has been shown that patients do not always require the same level of pressure every night time. As a result, APAP machines have been developed which adjust the pressure value according to the obstruction gravity using intelligent algorithms. Finally, there are some patients who require two different levels of ventilation during the inspiratory-expiratory process, for these cases a BiPAP device is used (4; 5; 6). Modern ventilator devices are designed for home use but there are some common problems that the patients face every night. Including the lack of portability, and the unconformity when using the device. In addition, there is not a machine capable of offering the three types of ventilation in one device, when patients may benefit from such a device and sometimes switch therapies in their treatments (7). The main objective of this project is the design of a compact ventilator capable of running the three different modes of ventilation CPAP, APAP and BiPAP for the treatment of patients with OSA. The compact ventilator should be able to run an external compressor and read the pressure produced from the positive air flow being given to the patient. This design is intended to be used in the future with a novel compressor technology created and designed by Dr. Keith Pullen. This novel compressor has been designed initially for the automotive industry as part of a turbo 2

14 charger engine. However, a new design could be done making the compressor smaller with the characteristics required to operate as a medical device as NIV that could fill the gap available in the market for portable ventilation devices capable to run the three modes in one device. The secondary objective of this project is to evaluate the use of the RasPi as an academic tool for the application in the clinical engineering field. For this, a group of interfaces that connect sensors and an external motor to the RasPi have been created. All this hardware together will be the base to integrate the future compressor designed by Dr. Keith Pullen. The results obtained using the RasPi were quite impressive, considering the cost-benefit relationship of the device. During the development process of this device, an electronic motor control to operate a common brushed 12 volts (V) direct current (DC) motor was designed as well as the electronics required to acquire data from temperature and pressure sensors. In addition, from the software point of view, it was required to develop all the algorithms for the adjustment of the speed of the motor to deliver positive pressure according to the type of treatment. All the algorithms were implemented with programing language Python which is run by the RasPi. Once completed, the device was tested in the workshop of the Medical Equipment Management at King s College Hospital where data was collected to help find the characteristics of the compact ventilator such as range of pressure, air flow, noise levels, temperature and efficiency. With all this collected data, a recommendation for the future design and implementation of Dr. Pullen s compressor is done at the end of the report. 3

15 2. Theory 2.1. Medical Background OSA is mainly characterized by persistent episodes of obstruction of the upper airways during sleep due to pharyngeal wall collapse. When this obstruction occurs the air exchange is reduced completely or partially and most of the time is followed by pharyngeal wall vibration (loud snoring - PWV) (8; 3; 9). This obstruction has physiological effects on the human body. Some of the common symptoms associated with OSA are PWV, daytime drowsiness, fatigue, heart problems and systemic hypertension (2). Abnormal breathing during sleeping can also contribute to the development of hypercapnia 1 when one is awake (3). There are other significant risks associated with OSA such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke and arrhythmias (10; 4). In the case of CSA, the apnea is originated mainly by neuronal causes during the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep cycle. REM is associated with sleep alterations especially inhibition of alpha and gamma motor neurons (3). This means that during this cycle the rib cage muscles, intercostal muscles, postural muscles and respiratory muscles reduce their contribution to ventilation. Hence, causing hypotonia or diminished muscle tone. As a consequence, the respiration during REM sleep cycle becomes highly dependent on the diaphragm s effort and not on the action of the rib cage and intercostal muscles (3). In addition, the lack of activity of the ventilation muscles means that they cannot maintain the end-expiratory pressure to prevent small airway closure. As a result, the ventilation-perfusion relationship is reduced, worsening gas exchange in the patient and efficiency of breathing. Hypoventilation is the common term to describe the lack of gas exchange caused either by obstruction of the upper airways or by hypotonia of the ventilation muscles. This in turn causes an increase of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 1 Condition indicating that there is too much carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the blood. 4

16 (hypercapnia) in the body during REM sleep. This level of CO 2 could be detected and monitored continuously during the evening using a pulse oximeter or transcutaneous methods (3). The development of technology has helped to better our understanding of breathing during sleep. The following devices have contributed to the development of the research of sleeping disorders. The use of the pulse oximeter has helped to continuously monitor the level of oxygen during the sleeping cycle. The development of a nasal mask interface that is comfortable and acceptable has been an effective, non-invasive way to treat breathing abnormalities. Lastly, yet another example of devices contributing to the research of sleeping disorders has been the development of portable ventilation devices that can even be used at home (3). Some patients who are candidates to use non-invasive ventilation (NIV) technologies for the treatment of their illnesses include patients with any of the following: Kyphoscoliosis: musculoskeletal disorder caused by abnormal curvature of the spine which causes chronic under ventilation due to low chest compliance. Cystic fibrosis: Autosomal recessive genetic disorder compromising mainly the lungs but also in some patients can affect the pancreas, liver and intestine (11). It has been recognized that the use of nocturnal ventilation shows beneficial effects in these kinds of patients. It must be pointed out that low CO 2 retention is a consequence of this disease because of the chronic hyperventilation that the patient suffers. As a consequence, if oxygen is also applied during therapy it could promote CO 2 retention which is beneficial in these patients. (3; 12). Duchene muscular dystrophy: It is a genetic illness which could lead to muscle degeneration, difficulty in breathing and walking. It has been shown that the use of long-term non-invasive ventilation could help to stabilise pulmonary function. Hence, prolonging life expectancy of the patient (13). 5

17 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: COPD is the limitation of the flow of air from/to the lungs by narrowing of the bronchi and bronchioles. This disease can affect the respiratory airways, the lungs, parenchym 2 and the pulmonary circulation (14). The use of noninvasive nocturnal ventilation has shown beneficial results mainly in patients with severe hypercapnic COPD by blowing off the extra CO2 and optimising gas exchange (3; 15). Motor neurone disease: is a neurological disorder that affects the motor neurones. The use of NIV is especially useful when respiratory insufficiency occurs in the late manifestation of this disorder because respiratory muscles and global peripheral weakness decrease the effectiveness of the patients breathing which is then improved with the NIV therapy (3). Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: This condition presents in overweight people. People with this condition usually fail to breathe deeply or quickly enough to maintain a healthy level of oxygen in the blood. The use of NIV has been shown to give a rapid and positive response in this group of patients (3) Treatment of OSA with Non-invasive ventilation The treatment of OSA with NIV therapy is a ventilation technique whereby positive pressure is applied to the lungs through the upper airways, without the need for an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube. The aim of this therapy is to improve the gas exchange by supporting the inspiratory effort and reducing the labour of breathing (3; 14). This device is manly used to manage acute or chronic upper airways obstructive disorders especially when the patient is sleeping. The use of this type of device during sleep prevents hypoventilation and may help to restore sensitivity to CO 2 and hence increase the drive to breath (3; 14). There are two different types of NIV systems: volume-preset and pressurepreset (3). The volume-preset ventilators deliver a fixed tidal volume 2 It refers to specializes organ tissue in the respiratory system 6

18 regardless of the airway pressure generated using a time-cycled flow generator. In contrast, the pressure-preset systems work delivering continuous positive pressure to the patient to the pre-set value. There are three types of these devices: the CPAP, APAP and BiPAP devices. The BiPAP devices deliver positive pressure at two different levels. Tidal volume will vary according to the set inspiratory pressure, the difference between inspiratory-expiratory pressure and chest wall and lung compliance of the patient (3). The CPAP/APAP delivers compressed air continuously to the patient s pharyngeal airway at a preset or sense pressured value. This value is set with the aim to act as a pneumatic splint which opposes airway collapse (2; 10; 5). The most common interface used between the device and the patient is a corrugated PVC tube and a specially designed mask (See Figure 1). This is why this method of ventilation is also known as mask ventilation (3). Most of the problems with ventilation are related to the mask, due to leaks or patient discomfort and hence non-compliance with the treatment. If the mask does not fit properly and leaks occur around the mask, this will reduce the effectiveness of the treatment (10). Figure 1 CPAP machine with patient interface (16) 7

19 2.3. BiPAP, CPAP and APAP devices architecture Nowadays, BiPAP, CPAP and APAP are the most common treatments of OSA and hypopnea. It has been demonstrated that this therapy relieves daytime sleepiness, improves driving performance, mood and the patient s overall quality of life (9; 10; 4). BiPAP machines deliver positive pressure at two different levels, inspiratory and expiratory. As a result, tidal volume varies according to the set inspiratory pressure, the difference between inspiratory-expiratory pressure and chest wall and lung compliance of the patient during sleep (3) On the other hand, CPAP machines continuously deliver the therapeutic pressure while the patient is sleeping with the aim of keeping the UA open. However, it has been proved that patients do not always require the same level of pressure every night time. As a result, APAP algorithms have been developed to deliver an auto-set pressure value according to the obstruction severity (4; 5; 6). User control User Interface Compressor Storage CPU AC/DC Converter Pressure Sensors External or Internal power pack External Battery Pack Figure 2 Components of a CPAP APAP device 8

20 All the NIV devices have the following architecture in common (See Figure 2). Including firstly, a central process unit (CPU) which is the brain of the device and performs the control and arithmetic calculations of the algorithms required to adjust the pressure needed by the patient. Some devices also include a storage port, which usually is a secure digital (SD) card. Secondly, a compressor which generates the pressure necessary for the treatment by air flow regulation is required. Thirdly, the analogue to digital converter (ADC) which is the interface between the sensors (temperature, flow and/or pressure) and the CPU is also part and parcel of the typical NIV architecture. As part of the device s set up, modern compact ventilators include user s interface. More modern devices now include data analysis and for this, storage devices have been added to the design. Most of them use SD storage cards for recording events and patients history Market Devices The market of compact ventilators is very competitive. In basic terms there are two segments, trusts and consumer markets. In the UK most of the equipment is bought by the trusts and some are given to the patients and others are used in respiratory wards. However, in the American market consumers tend to buy their own devices. The companies which traditionally have developed and designed these devices are: ResMed (ResMed, Bella Vista, NSA, Australia), Philips Respironics (Philips Electronics, Murrysville, Pennsylvania, USA) and Fisher and Paykel (Fisher and Paykel, East Tamaki, Auckland, New Zealand). However, new companies have been developing new economical devices that are popular between American consumer segments. This is the case of PMI Probasics (PMI Probasics, Marlboro, New Jersey USA), Somnetics (Somnetics International Inc., New Brighton, Minnesota, USA), DeVilbiss (DeVilbiss Healthcare, Somerset, Pennsylvania, USA) and Viasys (CareFusion Corporation, San Diego, California, USA). 9

21 Rank Individual Machine % of Orders Q Average Price Q % of Orders Q Average Price Q % Share Change 1 CPAPs 52.3% $ % $ % 2 APAPs 45% $ % $ % 3 BiPAPs 2.7% $ % $ % Table 1 American APAP vs CPAP vs BiPAP consumer preference (17) Table 1 shows the American consumer preference for CPAP vs APAP vs BiPAP over third quarter Q3 (Jul-Aug 2012) (17). In this table it can be appreciated that consumers are selecting more CPAP machines than APAP and the percentage of change is not very considerable in comparison to the Q2. According to the analysis done by cpap.com the lower price of CPAP machines may contribute to this trend. However, it suggests also that the device Trascend II (Somnetics International Inc., New Brighton, Minnesota, USA) could have influenced this trend because of its innovative size and portability. What can be also noticed on the table is the price difference between the three devices. BiPAPs are considerably more expensive than APAPs (about 200% more expensive). In comparison to the APAPs which are on average 187% more expensive than common CPAPs State of the art in CPAP and APAP The traditional companies are the ones that are always innovating and bringing new features to its products. The following analysis shows what are latest state of the art devices and the unique characteristics of each device. The smallest device available in the market will also be analysed. The Appendix B shows a comparison of the CPAP market and Appendix C shows a market comparison for the APAP. 10

22 ResMed S9 TM series The S9 TM series is the latest model of CPAP and APAP released by ResMed in Europe in February 2010 (18). The main key points of the device are: optimal climate control (temperature compensation for the pressure), reduced noise levels with the Easy-Breathe motor technology and also adaptation to the patient s breathing cycle with the enhanced Expiratory Pressure Relief (EPR) technology. The model S9 Autoset differentiates between obstructive and central apnoea events and adapts accordingly. It has been designed with simplified and intuitive interface. This model can store information, notably a summary of compliance and efficacy data for up to 1 year on an SD-Card, including mask leak, apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and central apnea statistics. The temperature and humidity are controlled by five different sensors achieving optimal humidification automatically when it is used in conjunction with the humidifier H5i (18). There are three different models available on the market. The model S9 Escape TM is a CPAP device focused mainly to treat OSA. The model S9 Elite TM is also a CPAP machine which treats OSA but includes additional features such as EPR. The S9 AutoSet TM is an APAP device that adjusts pressure throughout the night, this device is recommended for patients with OSA or CSA. It includes all the high end characteristics such as EPR (19). For full specifications of this device see Appendix A. Figure 3 ResMes S9 Series with Humidifier 11

23 Philips System One Due to the acquisition of Respironics by Philips in 2007 the product family is stopping to be branded as Respironics (20). The new family of products that Philips is offering is called System One sleep therapy platform. The main characteristics of this product are: use of advanced software algorithms which track 30 days of sleep apnoea progress and adapts to patient s needs keeping the patient informed. This is not an APAP device because it fixes the pressure of therapy and adjusts every 30 hours. Philips also claims that is the quietest device on the market with the WhisperSmart technology (21). In terms of humidification, it provides two types of humidification, auto-controlled and patient controlled. The system provides the technology System One Resistance Control which instructs the device to compensate any variable resistance characteristic related to different masks (22). It also includes C-Flex Pressure Relief technology for patient s breathing comfort; this is an adaptive control system which relieves pressure at the beginning of exhalation and returns to therapeutic pressure just before inhalation. This is possible due to Philip s patented Digital Auto-Track & Sensitivity algorithm (23). Figure 4 Philips System One with Humidifier As part of the software innovation, the System One provides the robust REMstar Auto algorithm which determines proactive performance for optimal therapy levels, comprising of: leak management, detection of obstructive apnea or hypopnea, flow limitation where the algorithm analyses changes in 12

24 roundness, shape, peak and flatness, as well as, snore detection. This last feature has been recognized as having the best reaction to changes of flow in the market (24) Transcend Sleep Apnea Therapy System TM This is one new competitor on the market that has visible differences compared to the rest of the market. This is a CPAP device that has been catalogued as the smallest CPAP in the world and an innovative humidifying system. Some of the key benefits of this device are that its size makes it highly portable, the water free humidifier is hassle free and the use of an external battery power pack makes it very convenient for outdoors travellers. In fact its low weight makes it highly portable. The technology behind the CPAP does not show any innovations related to pressure relief while breathing out or algorithms that improve the therapy or compliance (25). However, it includes software that must be installed in a computer to see the previous night s treatment, potential problems with apnea events and mask leaks. The only technological advances that this product offers compared to the leaders is the fact that it is highly portable due to extra power options available that can run from 5 8 hours (26). The only differentiator that this device offers is the innovative waterless humidification system. To achieve this, they developed a heat moisture exchange (HME) technology. This is a breakthrough in humidification technology because it does not require water, electrical heating elements and it is disposable. Figure 5 Transcend II CPAP 13

25 2.6. Common problems using compact ventilators Most of the problems related to CPAP/APAP/BiPAP treatment are related to the mask. A poor fit of the mask on the patient could cause a low compliance in the treatment. Mayo Clinic has identified the 10 most common problems related to these devices and possible solutions (7). The wrong CPAP mask size or style and no tolerance to the mask at the beginning of the treatment are the most common problems when using CPAP machines especially with new patients. It is recommended to find the most suitable mask for the patient and start to use the device in common activities such as watching TV or cooking. Mayo clinic recommends the use of a full face mask that covers the mouth and nose attached with straps for good grip. The nasal pillows are also recommended by Mayo clinic, these feature a nostril fitting with straps around the forehead to secure it (3; 7). The patient s ability to tolerate the forced air as well as the difficulty in sleeping whilst using this device are the second and seventh most common problems respectively. For this, it is recommended to use the ramp function that is included in most of the machines or use bilevel machines. The ramp function usually starts at a low level pressure and the pressure increases in small steps during certain periods of time until it reaches the therapeutic pressure (7). Philips and ResMes have solved this problem by adding C-Flex and EPR algorithms to their CPAP devices (18; 23). The fourth problem recognized by Mayo is a dry or stuffy nose. Overcoming this problem could be done by adding humidification. Most of the devices have an optional humidifier to be attached to their machines (See Appendix A CPAP market comparison) (7). The fifth problem is claustrophobia or panic attacks. Some of the masks fit around the nose and mouth making patients feel claustrophobic which can worsen when patients are given high pressure air flow. This can be solved by selecting the most appropriate mask to the patient or changing the patient to bilevel treatment (7; 27). 14

26 The sixth common difficultly is leaky masks, skin irritation or pressure sores. First of all, a leaky mask indicates that the patient is not getting the full treatment. Secondly, it could release air into the patient s eyes, causing irritation or conjunctivitis. This is one of the most distressing difficulties to patients. This can be solved by changing the mask to another one with a better fit or the use of cloth masks which alleviate this problem (7; 27). A dry mouth is the eighth most common problem. This usually happens when patients fall sleep with their mouth open and air comes in. A chin strap or a full face mask could help to cure this problem. Another recommendation is the use of an oral appliance which helps to lower the severity of the upper airways occlusion (7; 27). The ninth common problem is accidentally removing the CPAP/APAP machine while sleeping. During night time some patients tend to move a lot, as a consequence they can unintentionally remove their masks. There is not a solution for this issue, sooner or later this will occur during the patient s treatment. However, Mayo clinic recommends setting alarms in the night to remind the patient to check if the mask is still in position (7; 27). The last common problem related to the use of CPAP/APAP/BiPAP is when patients or their partners are annoyed by the noise of the device. Nowadays, most of the machines are very quiet with noise levels less than 30 dba. Nevertheless, if a filter is blocked it might cause the machine to overrun and make more noise. This can be solved by regularly servicing the machine (7; 27) Problem Identification According to the information and the background found, the following details to be improved can be deduced. 1. All the manufactures claim that their products are portable. However, there is no truly portable equipment that can run with internal batteries. Most of the commercial equipment require between 3.0 and 5.0 amperes (A) to run its motors. The only equipment that could fulfil this 15

27 requirement is the Transcend II but this device uses an external battery pack. 2. It is clear that the Transcend II is for now fulfilling the niche in the market for a portable device and it is becoming popular according to the statistics shown. Nonetheless, in the APAP and BiPAP field there is no such device that could bring the portability of the Transcend II and the software algorithm to create a smart device. 3. It can be seen that there are 3 different products to cover the market of compact ventilators. There is not a product capable to fulfil CPAP/APAP/BiPAP functions in one machine. This means that there is an increase in costs of hospitals and home patients when they need to swap to a different ventilation mode. This research has pointed out that there are still some areas of improvement in the NIV market of compact ventilators. The need and niche in the market of a portable device capable to work in all three modes CPAP, BiPAP and APAP has been highlighted. In the following sections the design of a prototype capable of meeting this niche market and suggestions to solve the portability issue will be discussed in detail. 16

28 3. Methodologies and Techniques A wide range of electronic tools and software were used in the design and development of this project. The basic components of the compact ventilator designed were based on the parts described in Figure 2 of section 2.3 (BiPAP, CPAP and APAP devices). Creating a compact ventilator capable of running CPAP/APAP/BiPAP modes was divided into different sections where hardware and software were primarily required. The hardware design included motor controllers, ADC and interfaces to transmit data/commands in and out the RasPi. The software implementation was aimed to process the data collected from the sensors and then control the speed of the motor according to the pressure set. Once the theory of all the components integrated in the design of this project have been explained, the operation of all the components together including the implementation of the circuits and algorithms will be described in section 4. (Work done) Raspberry Pi The RasPi is an ultra-low-cost credit-card size Linux computer (28) created mainly with purpose of teaching children how to program computers. This device was developed by the Raspberry Pi foundation (Raspberry Pi Foundation, Cambridge, UK, Registered charity Number ) which is a charity which aims to promote computer science and related topics particularly at school level. Figure 6 Raspberry Pi Model B 17

29 There are two different models of RasPi available in the market currently, the model A and model B. For the present project model B was used, this device has a price of (29) and can only be bought through Farnell and RS- Components websites. This device and the particular model were selected for the development of the project because it had all the tools required to achieve the objectives of the assignment. The RasPi includes peripherals such as communication ports with standard electronics protocols and high level programming language capable to execute instructions required by the algorithms. This device requires additional components that must be bought separately such as: an SD card, keyboard and mouse, external mini USB adapter, and cables HDMI or video composite RCA. This device comes equipped with the following characteristics (30): SoC Broadcom BCM2835 (CPU, GPU, DSP, and SDRAM) CPU: 700 MHz ARM1176JZF-S core (ARM11 family) Videocore 4 GPU Memory (SDRAM) Onboard storage/ Storage via: SD, MMC, SDIO card slot 10/100 Ethernet RJ 45 on-board network Another advantage of using this device is that it can run Linux and the programming language Python. This means that the device is able to perform several mathematical calculations and give results practically instantly due to its 700 MHz processor. The image of the operating system used in the assignment was Debian Linux with kernel 3.2 ( r1 built on ) compiled by Chris Boot (31). This version of kernel was selected over the official Raspbian Wheezy release, because it natively supports the communications protocol inter integrated circuit (I 2 C), serial peripheral interface bus (SPI) embedded in the chip and the pulse width modulation (PWM) module. Another advantage of using an open-source operating system and programming languages is that continuously new tools and libraries are being 18

30 developed which could continuously improve the device. For instance, a web server could be installed in the device making the device a candidate for telemedicine projects. However, one of the disadvantages of using the RasPi was that is still a new product and not much academic information or books are available. Most of the information found was on the internet and come from forums or hobbyists making projects with it. Consequently, it was quite time consuming trying to tune in the RasPi for this particular development. Figure 7 Raspberry Pi Communication Port schema (32) The Raspberry Pi has a 26-pin general purpose input/output (GPIO) expansion header (See Figure 7) (32). It provides 8 GPIO pins including access to I 2 C (GPIO 0 GPIO 1), SPI (GPIO 7, GPIO 8, GPIO 9, GPIO 10 and GPIO 11), universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART GPIO 14 and GPIO 15) as well as +3.3 V (PIN 1), +5 V (PIN 2) and ground (GND 19

31 PIN 6) supply. A special protection circuit was required to shield the RasPi from short-circuits or over-charges because its GPIO does not support voltages over +3.3 V and can just supply a few millivolts per pin. In addition, the RasPi does not include an ADC to connect sensors. For this reason, an external ADC operating at the same voltage level was required. In addition to the special communication options explained previously, the GPIO 18 also supports an alternative function such as pulse width modulation (PWM). This option was particularly useful during the project because it allowed the RasPi to directly control the speed of the motor using the PWM; section 4.1 will go into more depth as to how this function was used Python language As previously mentioned, one of the advantages of using a RasPi is that it runs the Linux operating system (OS) using an SD card. There are different versions of this OS with different types of add-ins that could be used for any specific application. It also runs different types of high level programming language running over Linux. RasPi has tested several programming languages such as Python, Java, PHP and Groovy. It also expects to work other several options of programming language (33). Python was selected as the programming language to implement the algorithms. This programing language is similar to C++ but it is easier to learn and implement. This programming language is free to use because of its open source license (34). There are two different versions available of Python the 2.6 and 3.0. This project is based on the version 2.6 because it has several libraries available on the internet and it is also the most stable version Motor controller The motor controller is one of the most active parts of the circuit. This requires a group of transistors switching constantly and working in the saturation region. As a result, the use of transistors capable of handling a high volume of current and dissipation of energy was required. 20

32 There are as many different types of motor controllers as there are motors (35). The portable vacuum cleaner is a common 12 V DC brushed motor with a maximum consumption of 3.2 A. To generate positive airflow the motor only needs to rotate in one direction. Thus, a half H-Bridge circuit was the most suitable circuit to be implemented (Figure 8). Enable Q1 Vsupply Motor PWM Q2 Figure 8 Half H-Bridge drive configuration for a DC Brush Motor As can be seen in Figure 8, the transistor Q2 is using a PWM signal as a voltage regulator. The operation mode for the half H-Bridge using transistors can be explained as follows: firstly, to operate the motor it is necessary to apply voltage to the positive pin of the motor. For this purpose, the transistor Q1 which is connected to the positive power supply is activated by applying a voltage to the input pin. Secondly, the motor requires a differential of potential between its two terminals to control the voltage required by the motor. For this reason, the input of the transistor Q2 is connected to a PWM generator. When the PWM signal is generated the voltage output of the transistor Q2 will vary according to the voltage applied to the input. If a voltage equivalent to Vsupply is applied to the input of Q2, the output will be Vsupply not allowing current to go through the motor. However, if a voltage less than Vsupply is applied to the input, this will create a differential of potential in the motor which will activate the operation of the motor. 21

33 In theory, a half H-Bridge would work ideally according to Table 2. Yet, a brush motor needs a minimum voltage to activate the motor. In the development of the project, the minimum voltage to operate the motor as well as the equations required to operate the motor were found. Q1 Q2 Result 0 0 Motor not enabled Vsupply/2 Motor enabled to operate. 0% of speed of the motor. Motor enabled operating 50% of maximum speed. 1 Vssupply Motor enabled operating maximum speed. Table 2 Ideal operation of a half H-Bridge 3.4. Sensors and ADC The design of a compact ventilator requires different types of sensors according to the application or the complexity of the device. The most common sensors used are temperature, pressure, flow and tachometer. The temperature sensor is commonly used to read the ambient temperature and perform adjustments in the pressure sensor according to the readings obtained. The pressure and flow sensor are constantly sensing the output of the compact ventilator and the air flow coming into the compressor. With this information it is possible to determine whether the therapy its being properly delivered or if there is a leak or fault in the system. Tachometers are used to constantly check the function of the motor in the compressor. If there is any mismatch between the pressure and the speed of the motor, this information could be used to identify possible faults in the device. All the features mentioned previously cannot be possible with a proper method to read these physical variables and making adjustments when the device is in use. This is only possible by incorporating an ADC to the system. All the analogue signals from the different sensors are converted into digital signals using this type of integrated circuit. All this data collected is then 22

34 processed by the main processor to make adjustments or verify the optimal operation of the compact ventilator. The use of the ADC in the project will be further explained in section (Analogue to digital converter) Compressor The compressor is one of the key features when designing a compact ventilator. The compressors available in the market for CPAPs/APAPs/BiPAPs are high-tech devices that can deliver high air flow and hence a great pressure can be created in the patient s UA. Modern ventilators include very quiet motors that can run in the order of decibels (dba), some of them run relatively cold and deliver therapeutic pressure from 4 20 centimetres of water (cmh 2 O). The energy consumption of these devices varies from A according to their power supplies with an input voltage of VDC. In the inspection of the awarded motor of the S9 Elite CPAP Dr. Keith Pullen pointed out some improvements that can be done in terms of the design of the compressor. Dr. Pullen s compressor is being implemented in other nonautomotive applications; this project looks forward to implement a scale model into the medical industry. At the end of this document, the recommendations done of the desirable characteristics of the motor for a compact ventilator will be described. Due to not having the prototype of Dr. Pullen s compressor at this stage; a commercial compressor was used in the project. Different types of compressors were tested but the only one capable to produce the air flow required to induce enough pressure for testing was a portable vacuum cleaner that runs at 12 VDC as shown in Figure 9. This compressor as expected is not designed to generate positive flow, therefore modifications in its case were performed such as sealing all the vents and inserting an air flow outlet on the side. The results obtained from this 9 device were truly 23

35 amazing and provided valuable information for the design of a future compressor 3. Figure 9 Modified portable vacuum used in the project as compressor 3 Commercial compressor bought on ebay in the following link m1439.l2649#ht_4440wt_

36 4. Work done The application of the theories and circuits explained before will be described in the present section. The Appendix D Schematic design of the compact ventilator shows the full schematic of the device. The development of the project was divided into the following sections: 1. Hardware design, selection of components and sensors to be used within the device. 2. Raspberry Pi tuning and programing of the algorithms using Python. 3. Calibration and results Motor controller design As explained in section 3.3 Motor controller, a half H-Bridge was used in the design. The motor characteristics were used to determine the right components to be used. The packaging of the vacuum did not have any electrical description of the motor but the operating voltage was described on the boxing. However, it was necessary to find the current consumption of the device which was not described. This value was essential for the selection of the proper transistors. Consequently, to find this value an experiment was run using a switched power supply with an ammeter display on the front. The motor was connected directly to the power supply and the 12 VDC were applied directly. Using the current limitation knob, this was adjusted until the maximum consumption of current was found. The following table describes the electrical characteristics of the motor. Characteristic Voltage Maximum current Value obtained 12 VDC 3.2 A Table 3 Electrical characteristics of the motor As portrayed in Table 3, the design of the half H-Bridge should be able to drive at least 3.2 A at 12 VDC. The most suitable device to run over this high 25

37 demand of current is a metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) (35). Another advantage of using this type of transistor is that the gate is driven by voltage and not by current, such as with the common bipolar junction transistor (BJT) which will also protect the RasPi in case of any overload or short-circuit. The MOSFET selected for this purpose was the p-channel type, which acts as the enable gate (Table 4 and Figure 10 illustrates the most significant features). On the schematic of Figure 12 this can be identified as the Q1. The transistor Q2 (As on Figure 12) is an n-channel STP16NF06FP 4 which will be doing the switching coming from the PWM. The features, symbol and packing are shown in Table 5 and Figure 11. Symbol Parameter Max Units I p Continuous Drain Current -19 A V GS Gate to Source Voltage ±20 V V DSS Drain to Source Breakdown Voltage -55 V Table 4 MOSFET IRF9Z34N features Figure 10 MOSFET IRF9Z34N symbol and packing Symbol Parameter Max Units I p Continuous Drain Current 16 A V GS Gate to Source Voltage ±20 V V DSS Drain to Source Voltage 60 V Table 5 MOSFET STP16NF06FP features 4 Datasheet available at 26

38 Figure 11 MOSFET STP16NF06FP symbol and packing As part of the design capacitors (10 picofarad pf) were required for filtering the back noise coming from the motor. Diodes (1N4005) were added on the drains-source pins to improve the response of the MOSFET. Figure 12 presents the schematic of the design and components of the half H-Bridge. 1N pf Q1 IRF9Z34N 12 VDC Motor Q2 STP16NF06FP 1N pf Figure 12 Half H-Bridge design and components Figure 13 Schematic of the half H-Bridge with circuit protection 27

39 A buffer was required for additional protection against short-circuiting or overloading on the RasPi. For this purpose a buffer microchip TC4428A 5 was used as shown on the schematic above. This integrated circuit (IC) works as an amplifier by increasing the voltage coming from the RasPi and putting it on the level of the power supply Temperature sensor The temperature reading is required in the device to compensate variations that this physical variable could cause to the pressure measured. A temperature sensor that works over protocol I 2 C was used in the circuit design. The reason why this type of sensor was selected is because it includes its own 8 bits ADC and directly sends the readings of the temperature over the protocol. Figure 14 Pin configuration of temperature sensor TC74 The temperature sensor used is the microchip TC74A5 6 (See Figure 14). As can be seen from Table 6, this device operates in a range of 5 V and gives and acceptable accuracy of 2%, enough for the application requirements. The resolution is 1 degree Celsius ( C) and the conversion rate is a nominal 8 samples per second (sps). Symbol Parameter Max Units V DD Supply Voltage +6 A I DD Operating Current 350 µa 5 Datasheet available at 6 Datasheet link 28

40 Temperature to bits converter T ERR Temperature Accuracy TC47A +2 C CR Conversion rate 8 Sps Table 6 Features temperature sensor TC74A5 Detailed explanations of how I 2 C, protocol and addresses are set to obtain the readings from the sensor are explained in section I 2 C protocol communication. The schematic of the pin connection to the RasPi are shown in the following figure. Figure 15 Schematic temperature sensor 4.3. Pressure sensor The compact ventilator requires an operation pressure in the range of 0 20 cmh 2 O which have been found to be the most common therapeutic pressures. For this reason, using a pressure sensor to work within this pressure specification was required. The pressure sensor selected was the Honeywell 40PC001B 7. This sensor provides a low consumption and a quick response required for the design. It also provides a wide operation range 7 Datasheet link 29

41 from -50 millimetres of mercury (mmhg) to +50 mmhg and the zero point is centred at the middle of the scale. All the details are shown in the table below. Characteristic Min. Typ. Max. Units Operating pressure mmhg Sensitivity 40 mv/mmhg Zero point offset Output at -50 mmhg 0.5 V Output at +50 mmhg 4.5 Current consumption 10 ma Response time 1 ms Table 7 Performance characteristics of the pressure sensor 40PC001B Figure 16 Pressure sensor 40PC001B and pin configuration According to the information found on the datasheet and shown in Table 7, a calibration line can be plotted taking as reference the voltage output at -50 mmhg (0.5 V), +50 mmhg (4.5 V) and 0 mmhg (2.5 V). According to this, it is expected that the sensor would have an ideal calibration line as shown in Figure 17. It is apparent form the graph below that a linear response is expected from the pressure sensor. 30

42 mmhg y = 25x R² = Volts Pressure sensor calibration line Linear (Pressure sensor calibration line) Figure 17 Graph expected linearity pressure sensor In order to identify the characteristic equation of the calibration line, the linear regression of the graph was performed. Thereby, calculating Equation 1 which represents the response of pressure versus voltage. Equation 1 Calibration line of the pressure sensor It must be noted that the characteristics given by the datasheet are represented on the scale of mmhg. However, the scale used in clinical terms is cmh 2 O. For a better understanding of the project all the values will be expressed in both scales were cmh 2 O should be the pressure to be considered for clinical tests Analogue to digital converter To process the readings coming from the pressure sensor, it was necessary to convert the analogue signals into digital values for further processing in the RasPi. The ADC selected for the project was the Microchip MCP This IC is an ADC operated by SPI serial interface (modes 0,0 and 1,1) which can be connected directly to the SPI pins of the RasPi as is explained in section SPI communication protocol. 8 Datasheet available at 31

43 Some of the highlighted features of the device are that it has 8 channels available and it has a 10-bit resolution which is enough to connect the pressure sensor to it. Within the specifications described on the datasheet, it was also found that the ADC use a sample rate of 75 ksps which is quick enough for the application of the compact ventilator. Table 8 shows the general characteristics of the ADC. Symbol Characteristic Min. Typ. Max. Units t conv Conversion Time 10 Clock cycles t SAMPLE Analogue Input Sample Time 1.5 Clock cycles Resolution 10 Bits V DD Operating voltage V I DD Operating Current µa f CLK Clock frequency MHz Table 8 Main features ADC MCP3008 Figure 18 MCP3008 Pin configuration The ADC was powered to the +3.3V of the RasPi which provided enough current and voltage to operate de ADC. The following figure shows the schematic of how the pressure sensor and the ADC were connected and its interface to the RasPi. 32

44 Figure 19 Schematic of the pressure sensor - ADC interface ADC Range of operation with the sensor The ADC was set to use as voltage references the lines +3.3V and GND. With these levels of reference the resolution of the system can be determined. Finding, the resolution of the ADC with these values is possible by using Equation 2. Equation 2 Resolution ADC The minimum resolution of the ADC is 3.2 mv which is enough to detect any change in the pressure sensors. According to the datasheet of the ADC (see Table 7) the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is 40 mv/mmhg. This means that the ADC will be able to detect any changes as small as 0.08 mmhg (0.11 cmh 2 O) per change in the least significant bit (LSB) according to the following equation. Equation 3 Minimum pressure resolution As can be seen in the equation above, this result shows that the sensor with the ADC provides a good response to minimum changes of pressure. It is very sensitive for the application of the compact ventilator. 33

45 The range of operation of the pressure sensor can be found by delimiting the maximum capability of the ADC conversion. For this, the operational range of the positive pressure of the sensor is found by the following assumptions. Firstly, the pressure sensor is powered to a 5V source as shown in Table 7. It is expected that the zero point is found at 2.5 V as per calibration line in Figure 17. The compact ventilator will be delivering positive pressure to the patient; this means that the effective range will be in the positive side of the calibration line. In other words, the operation range will be between 2.5 V (0 mmhg) and 4.5 V (50 mmhg). However, the ADC is using as voltage references +3.3V and GND. This means that the operational range will be limited to a maximum of +3.3V of the input of the pressure sensor. With these values it is possible to find the operational range of the sensor with the ADC. From Equation 1, we can find which will be the maximum pressure read by the system at +3.3V. Equation 4 Maximum pressure that the system can read According to this, the range of the ADC with the sensor is from 0 20 mmhg ( cmh 2 O). The Table 9 illustrates the whole range of values found in different scales. From this information, it can be deduced that the pressure sensor configuration is more than optimum for the application of the compact ventilator. Characteristic V mmhg cmh 2 O ADC value (DEC) Maximum Reading Zero Point Table 9 Operation range oh the ADC with the pressure sensor Now the theoretical digital output value produced by the ADC connected to the pressure sensor is a function between the voltage produce by the transducer in the sensor and the voltage of reference of the circuit. Equation 34

46 5 found in the ADC s datasheet provides an illustration of how to find the expected decimal values from the pressure read from the pressure sensor. Equation 5 Digital output code equation from ADC According to this, the digital range when the sensor is reading from 2.5 V to 3.3 V is 776 and 1024 in decimal values respectively. The Table 9 shows the sensor range and its representation in decimal value after the ADC s conversion Interfacing sensor, motor control and RasPi With all the data transformed to digital signals, now it is possible to process the information and implement the algorithms required for the compact ventilator. However, all the information captured by the sensors must be retrieved to the RasPi and must also control the speed of the motor according to the pressure feedback. As was previously explained, the temperature sensor operates over I 2 C bus and the ADC over SPI bus. The RasPi incorporate these functions on the chip and also provides PWM for motor controlling. In the following section how these buses work and are connected to the external hardware will be explained I 2 C protocol communication for the temperature sensor The I 2 C is a two wires serial single-ended computer bus invented to connect electronic peripherals. This system was developed by Philips. It also includes a protocol to interchange data between a master and slave. The RasPi which is the master of the circuit includes in its chip 2 pins which support I 2 C. These are the GPIO 0 (Pin 3) acting as serial data line (SDA) and the GPIO 1 (Pin 5) as serial clock (SCL). The thermometer sensor which is the slave of the circuit is connected to pin2 (SDA) and pin 4 (SCL). All transfers of information take place under control of the master, as previously mentioned the RasPi as master will provide the clock signal for all 35

47 transfers. The communication takes place when the master changes the start bit followed by the 7-bit address of the thermometer IC and followed by an 8- bit which indicates weather it wants to write (0) to or read (1). The data bytes are sent serially by representing either 1 or 0 according to the bit read, starting with the most significant bit (MSB) and the slave responses with and acknowledge (ACK) signal that the data was received successfully. The master and slave continue in either receive or transmit mode according to the 8-bit sent and the slave responds accordingly. Finishing the transition is achieved by a stopping sequence where the SDA changes from low-to-high while the SCL is high. In this project the thermometer sensor was allocated by default to the hexadecimal (HEX) address 0X4D ( b). Reading a temperature value from the sensor is performed by sending the HEX command 0x00 ( b). As a result, the sensor will respond with a HEX value according to the temperature read with a sensitivity of 1 C, this means that all decimals are rounded up. In the following table there is an example of how the temperature is expressed by the sensor. Actual Temp. Registered Temp. Binary HEX C Table 10 Equivalent of temperature in HEX values The full support of I 2 C and SPI in the RasPi was achieved by using the kernel 3.2 ( r1 built on ) compiled by Chris Boot (31). However, SMBus was the only library in Python available to run the RasPi s I 2 C module. 36

48 SPI communication protocol This is another communication method between ICs. It was developed by Motorola as a synchronous serial data link that operates in full duplex mode. This operates as the I 2 C establishing a master and slave in the circuit. The main difference compared to the I 2 C bus is that SPI uses 4 wires instead of 2. It also allows full duplex mode because the input and output use different wires. The interface specifies 4 logic signals that can be identified on the RasPi and the connection to the ADC MCP3008 as follows: Term Abbreviation Pins on RasPi Pins on ADC SCLK Serial Clock GPIO 11 PIN 13 MOSI Master Output GPIO 10 MISO Master Input GPIO 9 D OUT Serial Data Out PIN 12 D IN Serial Data In PIN 11 CS Chip Select GPIO 8-7 PIN 10 Table 11 SPI Pin assignment on RasPi and ADC At the moment of the implementation of the project, there was not support for the SPI module on the RasPi. As a result, an algorithm to communicate using this protocol was required using the same pins as the SPI on the RasPi and using GPIO 25 as chip select (CS) line. This pin is the first associated with data transmission, when its state is changed to 0 by the RasPi this means that data transmission will start. Then the SPI clock is sent by the master to receive and send data to and/or from the slave. One advantage of SPI is that is not just limited to words of 8-bit that is why transmitting the 10-bit words form the ADC is more convenient with this protocol than the I 2 C.. 37

49 Volts (V) PWM pin for motor control The PWM embedded in the RasPi is one of the functions which allows the motor to run. The PWM works by giving an equivalent voltage of 0V to 3.3V when a decimal value is written on its register value. The PWM works at 100 MHz (36) which is quick enough to create any noise caused by the rotation of the motor on the audible spectrum. The PWM works with a 10-bit register. It operates by assigning a value to the PWM register equivalent to the duty cycle of the signal. For instance, if 0 is assigned to the register the duty cycle will be 0, hence the effective voltage is 0. However, if the value assigned to the register is 512 this will deliver 50% of the duty cycle which is equivalent to 1.65 V and so on. Equation 6 shows the average voltage output when a value from is assigned to the PWM register. Equation 6 Relation voltage output on PWM pin with PWM register value y = x - 6E-16 R² = PWM Register Value Figure 20 Relation between PWM register and output in Volts Figure 20 illustrates the relation between the decimal value written in RasPi PWM register and its output in volts register. Performing the linear regression 38

50 of the graph, an equation expressing the relation between the two values can be found. Equation 7 Relation PWM realtion with the output of the signal Interconnecting the PWM pin of the RasPi with the half H-Bridge was performed using the buffer explained in section 4.1 and the schematic showed in Figure 13. The minimum voltage to start to operate the motor was found when the PWM register had a value of 850. By using Equation 6 it can be found that the starting voltage to kick off the motor is 2.73 V Algorithm implementation The implementation of the algorithms was accomplished using the programming language Python 2.6. Different libraries were needed to enable the functionalities such I 2 C and in general the handling of the RasPi s expansion port. There are three different libraries available on Python to use the expansion port on the RasPi. However, there is not a library capable of handling all the IO functionalities like input/output control, I 2 C, SPI and PWM. For the present project, two libraries were used for this purpose. The library wiringpi (37) developed by Gordon Drogon which enables Python to control the input/output ports including the PWM pin. Nonetheless, this library does not support I 2 C yet. Therefore, the library SMBus was used instead which access directly the I 2 C module embedded on the RasPi. For the SPI port, as explained before there was not a library capable to handle this module, hence a program was implemented to read the data coming from the ADC circuit. In terms of general programming the following libraries were used with the aim of providing different features to the algorithms. curses library: This library is used to develop the user interface. It provides support for working with windows. 39

51 sys library: access some variables used by Python interpreter. time library: It allows to use delays on the algorithms. os library: Enable python to execute Linux commands directly to the bash. multiprocessing library: used to execute two tasks at the same time. Especially useful to print graphics while reading sensors. decimal library: allows Python working with decimal point values. Is used to make the mathematical calculations of the algorithms. xml.etree.celementtree library: The configuration files were written using XML files. This library permits Python to create, read and write XML files. SMBus library: supports the use of the I 2 C ports on the RasPi CPAP Algorithm The CPAP algorithm was designed with the goal to provide positive air pressure during the whole treatment of the patient. The first step is to set the therapeutic pressure on the XML configuration file using a scale of cmh 2 O. There are two variables required to be set before running this mode: CPAP_static_pressure and CPAP_Delay. The first variable stores the pressure of the therapy. This means the value that the device should keep during the whole treatment. The second variable CPAP_Delay is used to refresh the readings from the sensors on the screen. Finding the relation between the speed of the motor and the pressure in closed loop was performed using the methodology explained in section 5.1. Using Equation 8 the value required to be applied to the PWM register can be found to apply a set positive pressure. The algorithm flowchart of the CPAP mode describing all the methodology used can be found in Appendix E CPAP Algorithm flowchart. Figure 21 illustrates the information shown when this mode is running. The top left window shows the readings from the sensors and the window messages illustrates the PWM values set and the readings from the ADC. It also 40

52 includes a graphic gauge that displays the level of pressure from 0 to 15 cmh 2 O. Figure 21 CPAP mode window APAP Algorithm This algorithm is aimed to keep the pressure at a certain level of aperture. This means that if the level of occlusion is bigger the motor will kick off harder to try to achieve the pressure goal. However, if the occlusion level of the UA is wide, the device will try to adjust to this new pressure by adjusting the pressure of the motor. This program uses three variables loaded from the XML configuration file: APAP_Pressure which is the value of the pressure to be set, APAP_Starting_Motor where the starting value of the PWM is stored when the algorithm starts, APAP_Delay for the update time and APAP_motor_limit_speed which stores the value when the motor reaches the maximum speed and the maximum leak is occurring. Finding the values where the APAP mode should auto adjust to the pressure store in the variable APAP_Pressure was performed by constantly reading the sensors and making adjustment within a margin of ±0.1 cmh 2 O of the pressure read. If the speed of the motor was out of the limits of the variable APAP_motor_limir_speed for a certain period of time the device will alarm that there is a leak in the system. 41

53 Figure 22 APAP mode window The full algorithm flowchart explaining the operation of this mode can be found in Appendix F APAP Algorithm flowchart. The windows layout showing the information from the APAP mode is similar to the CPAP mode BiPAP Algorithm The BiPAP algorithm is based similar to the CPAP mode but this mode uses two different levels of positive pressure during the inspiratory and expiratory cycle during a period of time. The algorithm also uses the methodology and equations from section 5.1 to find the values of the inspiratory pressure and the expiratory pressure stored in the variables of the XML configuration file. There are 4 variables that are adjusted in this mode such as expiratory pressure (variable BiPAP_max_pressure), inspiratory pressure (variable BiPAP_min_pressure), inspiratory time (t i variable BiPAP_ti) and expiratory time (t e variable BiPAP_te). Assigning the values of the PWM register for minimum and maximum pressure was done by using Equation 8. The values wrote in the variables are transformed to PWM register values. Then the system is constantly reading the values of the pressure sensor to find if the device is working according to the set pressures. 42

54 Figure 23 BiPAP Mode window The flowchart of this algorithm can be found in Appendix G BiPAP Algorithm flowchart where the details of how this function works is explained in more depth User interface design with Python Using the Python library curses a windows system was created to design a simple user interface. On the main screen there are 7 options as follows. Figure 24 Main menu options available 43

55 1. Temperature graph: This mode allows the system to check the function of the temperature. It is continuously running the sensor and plotting every second the temperature is read. Figure 25 Temperature reading mode 2. Pressure graph: As well as the temperature function, this mode plots the readings from the sensor. This function continuously runs the pressure sensor and checks the function of it. It plots the decimal ADC value. Figure 26 Pressure reading mode 44

56 3. CPAP Mode: This mode executes the algorithm in section It also shows an information window with the actual reading of the pressure and the messages received from the sensor in case of any error. For an example of how this mode looks like refer to Figure 21 CPAP mode window. 4. APAP Mode: This mode executes the algorithm in section As in the CPAP Mode it shows the actual reading of the pressure and the messages received from the sensor in case of any error. It also shows a pressure bar indicating the level of pressure on a scale of 0 to 20 cmh 2 O. See Figure 22 APAP mode window. 5. BiPAP Mode: This mode runs the algorithm as per section and the screen look can be seen in Figure 23 BiPAP Mode window. This mode shows the pressure graph with a scale from 0 20 cmh 2 O. On the information window, the pressure readings are shown for expiratory and inspiratory processes. 6. Configuration: This option executes an external program to read/write the value of the configuration files written on XML. There are three files generated for each mode. Modifying these options will give a new operation mode of the device. Figure 27 Configuration window 45

MODULE. POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE (PAP) Titrations

MODULE. POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE (PAP) Titrations MODULE POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE (PAP) Titrations POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE (PAP) TITRATIONS OBJECTIVES At the end of this module the student must be able to: Identify the standards of practice for administering

More information

No Other Sleep Therapy System Delivers More.

No Other Sleep Therapy System Delivers More. COMFORT STYLE INNOVATION No Other Sleep Therapy System Delivers More. Only the ResMed S9 Series Gives You More Comfort, Style and Sleep. About sleep apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common form

More information

Raspberry Pi. Hans- Petter Halvorsen, M.Sc.

Raspberry Pi. Hans- Petter Halvorsen, M.Sc. Raspberry Pi Hans- Petter Halvorsen, M.Sc. Raspberry Pi 2 https://www.raspberrypi.org https://dev.windows.com/iot Hans- Petter Halvorsen, M.Sc. Raspberry Pi 2 - Overview The Raspberry Pi 2 is a low cost,

More information

How to Choose CPAP Masks. Nasal Masks. Nasal Pillow Masks

How to Choose CPAP Masks. Nasal Masks. Nasal Pillow Masks How to Choose CPAP Masks One of the keys to CPAP success is choosing the right mask. Everyone has different needs and face shapes, so here's a quick guide to choose a mask and possible benefits of each.

More information

A simple solution for your complex patients. The market-leading servo ventilation device System One BiPAP autosv

A simple solution for your complex patients. The market-leading servo ventilation device System One BiPAP autosv A simple solution for your complex patients The market-leading servo ventilation device System One BiPAP autosv Advanced simplifies treating complex sleep-disordered breathing patients Developed for your

More information

BiPAP/CPAP Devices: BiPAP/CPAP Machines. New Jersey Respiratory Associates Nurse Competency Program

BiPAP/CPAP Devices: BiPAP/CPAP Machines. New Jersey Respiratory Associates Nurse Competency Program BiPAP/CPAP Devices: BiPAP/CPAP Machines New Jersey Respiratory Associates BiPAP/CPAP Machines Instruction Check Sheet Demonstrate: How to set up BIPAP/CPAP on resident Proper set up with Humidification

More information

INTRODUCING RESMED S. Home NIV Solutions. S9 VPAP ST-A with ivaps S9 VPAP ST. Why choose average when you can choose intelligent?

INTRODUCING RESMED S. Home NIV Solutions. S9 VPAP ST-A with ivaps S9 VPAP ST. Why choose average when you can choose intelligent? INTRODUCING RESMED S Home NIV Solutions S9 VPAP ST-A with ivaps S9 VPAP ST Why choose average when you can choose intelligent? Now you can provide intelligent air through ResMed s intelligent Volume-Assured

More information

Sleep Therapy I Ventilation I Patient Interface. Sleep Therapy. Sleep therapy solutions for every patient

Sleep Therapy I Ventilation I Patient Interface. Sleep Therapy. Sleep therapy solutions for every patient Sleep Therapy Sleep therapy solutions for every patient Sleep Therapy Sleep therapy solutions for every patient Tailor-made therapy for every patient Doctors working in many different medical specialties

More information

Understanding sleep apnea

Understanding sleep apnea Understanding sleep apnea What is Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)? OSA is a common, yet often undiagnosed sleep disorder. It afflicts 20 million adult men and women in the U.S. People who have OSA stop breathing

More information

How is Sleep Apnea Diagnosed?

How is Sleep Apnea Diagnosed? How is Sleep Apnea Diagnosed? The best method of diagnosing sleep apnea and other sleep problems is an overnight test in a sleep laboratory. This test is called polysomnography (PSG). You will be connected

More information

Effective Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

Effective Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Effective Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea The Series of Positive Airway Pressure devices from DeVilbiss Healthcare is designed to meet the varied needs of people suffering from Obstructive Sleep

More information

Restoring a good night s sleep

Restoring a good night s sleep Restoring a good night s sleep Products for diagnosing, treating, and monitoring sleep apnea Sleep apnea solutions A good night s sleep is an essential part of healthy living, but for patients diagnosed

More information

308 Nasal CPAP 308 / Page 1 Of 7

308 Nasal CPAP 308 / Page 1 Of 7 308 Nasal CPAP 308 / Page 1 Of 7 Description CPAP via nasal mask may be used to relieve upper airway obstruction. Nasal CPAP is primarily used with patients who suffer from sleep apnea disorders. It is

More information

CPAP TREATMENT Patient information September 2007

CPAP TREATMENT Patient information September 2007 LUNG FUNCTION UNIT CASTLE HILL HOSPITAL MEDICAL DIVISION CPAP TREATMENT Patient information September 2007 Working in Partnership to Provide a Quality Healthcare Service INTRODUCTION This leaflet has been

More information

ROLE OF ORAL APPLIANCES TO TREAT OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

ROLE OF ORAL APPLIANCES TO TREAT OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA 1 ROLE OF ORAL APPLIANCES TO TREAT OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA There are three documented ways to treat obstructive sleep apnea: 1. CPAP device 2. Oral Appliances 3. Surgical correction of nasal and oral obstructions

More information

THERAPY SYSTEMS Therapy Systems

THERAPY SYSTEMS Therapy Systems Therapy Systems CPAP Therapy REMstar Plus M Series with C-Flex Offers optional integrated humidification, optional Encore Pro SmartCard capability for basic compliance reporting, therapy meter display,

More information

Understanding Sleep Apnea

Understanding Sleep Apnea Understanding Sleep Apnea www.sleepmangementsolutions.com What is Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)? OSA afflicts 20 million adult men and women in the U.S. People who have OSA stop breathing repeatedly during

More information

UPS PIco. to be used with. Raspberry Pi B+, A+, B, and A. HAT Compliant. Raspberry Pi is a trademark of the Raspberry Pi Foundation

UPS PIco. to be used with. Raspberry Pi B+, A+, B, and A. HAT Compliant. Raspberry Pi is a trademark of the Raspberry Pi Foundation UPS PIco Uninterruptible Power Supply with Peripherals and I 2 C control Interface to be used with Raspberry Pi B+, A+, B, and A HAT Compliant Raspberry Pi is a trademark of the Raspberry Pi Foundation

More information

Philips Respironics CEU Programs

Philips Respironics CEU Programs Philips Respironics CEU Programs Sleep therapy presentations Interface and Therapy Options Overview Review the selection and fit of three mask categories: minimal contact or pillow masks, nasal masks,

More information

PAGE 1 OF 1 0 REFERENCE CURRENT EFFECT DATE 10/13 ORIGINAL ISSUE DATE 09/12 TITLE: SUBJECT: Patient Care

PAGE 1 OF 1 0 REFERENCE CURRENT EFFECT DATE 10/13 ORIGINAL ISSUE DATE 09/12 TITLE: SUBJECT: Patient Care PAGE 1 OF 1 0 REFERENCE [ ] All Sharp HealthCare AFFECTED DEPARTMENTS: ACCREDITATION: [ ] System Services Surgery Centers: [ ] SRS [ ] CV-OPS [ ] SCMG [ ] GPSC [ ] SHP [ ] SMH-OPP Hospitals (check all

More information

Chapter 17 Medical Policy

Chapter 17 Medical Policy RAD-1 LCD for Respiratory Assist Devices (L11482) Contractor Information Contractor Name Contractor Number 00635 Contractor Type LCD Information LCD Database ID Number L11482 AdminaStar Federal, Inc. DMERC

More information

Performance Comfort Connectivity

Performance Comfort Connectivity Performance Comfort Connectivity From concept to completion we took a fresh look at how a CPAP platform could help patients across the globe obtain the best possible night s sleep. Our DeVilbiss Blue series

More information

DS1621 Digital Thermometer and Thermostat

DS1621 Digital Thermometer and Thermostat Digital Thermometer and Thermostat www.dalsemi.com FEATURES Temperature measurements require no external components Measures temperatures from 55 C to +125 C in 0.5 C increments. Fahrenheit equivalent

More information

Watt Saver for a Cell Phone AC Adapter. Reference Design

Watt Saver for a Cell Phone AC Adapter. Reference Design Watt Saver for a Cell Phone AC Adapter Reference Design Document Number: DRM130 Rev 1, 10/2013 2 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Contents Section number Title Page Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview...5

More information

National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) Sleep Respiratory Unit

National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) Sleep Respiratory Unit National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) Sleep Respiratory Unit If you would like this document in another language or format or if you require the services

More information

AT HOME DR. D. K. PILLAI MUG @ UOM

AT HOME DR. D. K. PILLAI MUG @ UOM NON - INVASIVE VENTILATION AT HOME DR. D. K. PILLAI 07.09.2011 MUG @ UOM In the beginning came. OSA (HS) 1. CPAP for OSAHS (Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Hypopnoea Syndrome) 2 NIPPV 2. NIPPV (Non

More information

AND8336. Design Examples of On Board Dual Supply Voltage Logic Translators. Prepared by: Jim Lepkowski ON Semiconductor. http://onsemi.

AND8336. Design Examples of On Board Dual Supply Voltage Logic Translators. Prepared by: Jim Lepkowski ON Semiconductor. http://onsemi. Design Examples of On Board Dual Supply Voltage Logic Translators Prepared by: Jim Lepkowski ON Semiconductor Introduction Logic translators can be used to connect ICs together that are located on the

More information

PAP Therapy Devices: Delivering the Right Therapy To The Right Patient. Ryan Schmidt, BS,RRT Clinical Specialist Philips Respironics

PAP Therapy Devices: Delivering the Right Therapy To The Right Patient. Ryan Schmidt, BS,RRT Clinical Specialist Philips Respironics PAP Therapy Devices: Delivering the Right Therapy To The Right Patient Ryan Schmidt, BS,RRT Clinical Specialist Philips Respironics Conflict of Interest Disclosure(s) I do not have any potential conflicts

More information

FLYPORT Wi-Fi 802.11G

FLYPORT Wi-Fi 802.11G FLYPORT Wi-Fi 802.11G System on module 802.11g WIFI - Infrastructure mode - softap mode - Ad hoc mode Microchip PIC 24F 16 bit processor Microchip MRF24WG0MA/MB - Native WiFi 802.11g transceiver - PCB

More information

Titration protocol reference guide

Titration protocol reference guide Titration protocol reference guide Description Page Titration protocol goals 4 CPAP protocol CPAP protocol 6 CPAP titration protocol 7 CPAP reimbursement criteria 8 BiPAP S protocol BiPAP S protocol 10

More information

The ResMed VPAP Auto 25 CPAP Device Functional Description ResMed Corporation

The ResMed VPAP Auto 25 CPAP Device Functional Description ResMed Corporation The ResMed VPAP Auto 25 CPAP Device Functional Description ResMed Corporation Table of Contents Introduction 2 CPAP Control Unit 3 Control Panel 3 Heated Humidifier Unit 4 Memory Card Slot 4 Air Filter

More information

Understanding Hypoventilation and Its Treatment by Susan Agrawal

Understanding Hypoventilation and Its Treatment by Susan Agrawal www.complexchild.com Understanding Hypoventilation and Its Treatment by Susan Agrawal Most of us have a general understanding of what the term hyperventilation means, since hyperventilation, also called

More information

BIPAP Synchrony TM AVAPS

BIPAP Synchrony TM AVAPS BIPAP Synchrony TM AVAPS Product Presentation V1.6 Contents Home NIV Solution introduction BiPAP Technology and Auto-Trak algorithm Consensus conference, Chest 1999 The AVAPS algorithm The AVAPS settings

More information

CPAP Therapy and You

CPAP Therapy and You CPAP Therapy and You CPAP Treatment CPAP (pronounced "see-pap") is short for "continuous positive airway pressure." Positive airway pressure therapy is the most effective noninvasive treatment for Obstructive

More information

Fast and Effective Embedded Systems Design

Fast and Effective Embedded Systems Design Fast and Effective Embedded Systems Design Applying the ARM mbed Rob Toulson Tim Wilmshurst AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD чч*?? &Ш& PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO

More information

Pulmonary Diseases. Lung Disease: Pathophysiology, Medical and Exercise Programming. Overview of Pathophysiology

Pulmonary Diseases. Lung Disease: Pathophysiology, Medical and Exercise Programming. Overview of Pathophysiology Lung Disease: Pathophysiology, Medical and Exercise Programming Overview of Pathophysiology Ventilatory Impairments Increased airway resistance Reduced compliance Increased work of breathing Ventilatory

More information

CPAP/BiPAP Patient Instructions

CPAP/BiPAP Patient Instructions CPAP/BiPAP Patient Instructions 115 John Maddox Dr Rome, GA 30165 Phone: 706-266-4086 Kevin Cooper, Owner/Respiratory Therapist Purpose of CPAP/BiPAP Therapy The purpose of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

More information

Cold-Junction-Compensated K-Thermocoupleto-Digital Converter (0 C to +1024 C)

Cold-Junction-Compensated K-Thermocoupleto-Digital Converter (0 C to +1024 C) 19-2235; Rev 1; 3/02 Cold-Junction-Compensated K-Thermocoupleto-Digital General Description The performs cold-junction compensation and digitizes the signal from a type-k thermocouple. The data is output

More information

I2C PRESSURE MONITORING THROUGH USB PROTOCOL.

I2C PRESSURE MONITORING THROUGH USB PROTOCOL. I2C PRESSURE MONITORING THROUGH USB PROTOCOL. Product Details: To eradicate human error while taking readings such as upper precision or lower precision Embedded with JAVA Application: Technology Used:

More information

Wireless Temperature

Wireless Temperature Wireless Temperature connected freedom and Humidity Sensor Using TELRAN Application note TZ1053AN-06 Oct 2011 Abstract Dr. C. Uche This application note describes the complete system design (hardware and

More information

MECHINICAL VENTILATION S. Kache, MD

MECHINICAL VENTILATION S. Kache, MD MECHINICAL VENTILATION S. Kache, MD Spontaneous respiration vs. Mechanical ventilation Natural spontaneous ventilation occurs when the respiratory muscles, diaphragm and intercostal muscles pull on the

More information

Oxygenation. Chapter 21. Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing. Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing*

Oxygenation. Chapter 21. Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing. Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing* Oxygenation Chapter 21 Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing Inspiration ~ breathing in Expiration ~ breathing out Ventilation ~ Movement of air in & out of the lungs Respiration ~ exchange of O2 & carbon

More information

Arduino Leonardo ETH. Overview

Arduino Leonardo ETH. Overview Arduino Leonardo ETH Page 1 of 10 Arduino Leonardo ETH Overview The Leonardo ETH is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega32U4 (datasheet (http://download.arduino.org/products/leonardoeth/atmel-7766-8-bit-avr-atmega16u4-32u4_datasheet.pdf))

More information

Designing interface electronics for zirconium dioxide oxygen sensors of the XYA series

Designing interface electronics for zirconium dioxide oxygen sensors of the XYA series 1 CIRCUIT DESIGN If not using one of First Sensors ZBXYA interface boards for sensor control and conditioning, this section describes the basic building blocks required to create an interface circuit Before

More information

PACKAGE OUTLINE DALLAS DS2434 DS2434 GND. PR 35 PACKAGE See Mech. Drawings Section

PACKAGE OUTLINE DALLAS DS2434 DS2434 GND. PR 35 PACKAGE See Mech. Drawings Section PRELIMINARY DS2434 Battery Identification Chip FEATURES Provides unique ID number to battery packs PACKAGE OUTLINE Eliminates thermistors by sensing battery temperature on chip DALLAS DS2434 1 2 3 256

More information

Comparing the Performance and Efficacy of the 3B/BMC RESmart. Auto-CPAP with the ResMed S9 AutoSet

Comparing the Performance and Efficacy of the 3B/BMC RESmart. Auto-CPAP with the ResMed S9 AutoSet 3B MEDICAL, INC., 21301 US HIGHWAY 27, LAKE WALES, FL. 33859 Comparing the Performance and Efficacy of the 3B/BMC RESmart Auto-CPAP with the ResMed S9 AutoSet Zhi Zhuang, PhD, Research and Development,

More information

SBC8600B Single Board Computer

SBC8600B Single Board Computer SBC8600B Single Board Computer 720MHz TI s Sitara AM3359 ARM Cortex-A8 Microprocessor Onboard 512MByte DDR3 SDRAM and 512MByte NAND Flash UARTs, 2*USB Host and 1*OTG, 2*Ethernet, CAN, RS485, LCD/TSP, Audio,

More information

HARDWARE MANUAL. BrightSign HD120, HD220, HD1020. BrightSign, LLC. 16795 Lark Ave., Suite 200 Los Gatos, CA 95032 408-852-9263 www.brightsign.

HARDWARE MANUAL. BrightSign HD120, HD220, HD1020. BrightSign, LLC. 16795 Lark Ave., Suite 200 Los Gatos, CA 95032 408-852-9263 www.brightsign. HARDWARE MANUAL BrightSign HD120, HD220, HD1020 BrightSign, LLC. 16795 Lark Ave., Suite 200 Los Gatos, CA 95032 408-852-9263 www.brightsign.biz TABLE OF CONTENTS OVERVIEW... 1 Block Diagram... 2 Ports...

More information

VREFout CFG B TMS TCK TDI TDO CS ENSPI

VREFout CFG B TMS TCK TDI TDO CS ENSPI Using SPI to Control isppac80 and isppac81 October 2002 Application Note AN6037 Introduction This application note describes how to use the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) to adjust the gain, select

More information

Tire pressure monitoring

Tire pressure monitoring Application Note AN601 Tire pressure monitoring 1 Purpose This document is intended to give hints on how to use the Intersema pressure sensors in a low cost tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). 2 Introduction

More information

NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter

NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter Description: The NTE2053 is a CMOS 8 bit successive approximation Analog to Digital converter in a 20 Lead DIP type package which uses a differential

More information

Titration protocol reference guide

Titration protocol reference guide Titration protocol reference guide Titration protocol reference guide Description Page Patient types 3 Titration protocol goals 4 CPAP CPAP protocol 5-6 auto CPAP auto CPAP protocol 7-8 BiPAP S BiPAP S

More information

4/2/2014 Linux Dev-Boards. Linux Dev Boards. Tagung Forth Gesellschaft e.v. Maerz 2014. file:///home/cas/talk/linux-boards/html/linux-boards.

4/2/2014 Linux Dev-Boards. Linux Dev Boards. Tagung Forth Gesellschaft e.v. Maerz 2014. file:///home/cas/talk/linux-boards/html/linux-boards. Linux Dev Boards Tagung Forth Gesellschaft e.v. Maerz 2014 file:///home/cas/talk/linux-boards/html/linux-boards.html 1/26 Linux Boards "embedded" Boards mit Linux Forth ideal fuer die Boards mit wenig

More information

HEALTH EVIDENCE REVIEW COMMISSION (HERC) COVERAGE GUIDANCE: DIAGNOSIS OF SLEEP APNEA IN ADULTS DATE: 5/9/2013 HERC COVERAGE GUIDANCE

HEALTH EVIDENCE REVIEW COMMISSION (HERC) COVERAGE GUIDANCE: DIAGNOSIS OF SLEEP APNEA IN ADULTS DATE: 5/9/2013 HERC COVERAGE GUIDANCE HEALTH EVIDENCE REVIEW COMMISSION (HERC) COVERAGE GUIDANCE: DIAGNOSIS OF SLEEP APNEA IN ADULTS DATE: 5/9/2013 HERC COVERAGE GUIDANCE The following diagnostic tests for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) should

More information

UniPi technical documentation REV 1.1

UniPi technical documentation REV 1.1 technical documentation REV 1.1 Contents Overview... 2 Description... 3 GPIO port map... 4 Power Requirements... 5 Connecting Raspberry Pi to UniPi... 5 Building blocks... 5 Relays... 5 Digital Inputs...

More information

DS1621 Digital Thermometer and Thermostat

DS1621 Digital Thermometer and Thermostat www.maxim-ic.com FEATURES Temperature measurements require no external components Measures temperatures from -55 C to +125 C in 0.5 C increments. Fahrenheit equivalent is -67 F to 257 F in 0.9 F increments

More information

DEVICES AND COMMUNICATION BUSES FOR DEVICES NETWORK Lesson-1: IO port types- Serial and parallel IO ports

DEVICES AND COMMUNICATION BUSES FOR DEVICES NETWORK Lesson-1: IO port types- Serial and parallel IO ports DEVICES AND COMMUNICATION BUSES FOR DEVICES NETWORK Lesson-1: IO port types- Serial and parallel IO ports 1 1. IO Port 2 A port is a device Port to receive the bytes from external peripheral(s) [or device(s)

More information

AN2680 Application note

AN2680 Application note Application note Fan speed controller based on STDS75 or STLM75 digital temperature sensor and ST72651AR6 MCU Introduction This application note describes the method of defining the system for regulating

More information

SMART SENSOR COLLECTION

SMART SENSOR COLLECTION TEMPERATURE SENSOR This sensor measures temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. It works with all SensorHawk base units (SensorHawk-2, SensorHawk-8 and SensorHawk8/20) as well as the SecurityHawk-8

More information

CPAP BUYERS GUIDE A Guide to Finding the Best CPAP Machine for You

CPAP BUYERS GUIDE A Guide to Finding the Best CPAP Machine for You A Guide to Finding the Best CPAP Machine for You AUTHOR PAGE: Jesus Lopez Jesus Lopez is the Technical Director for the Los Angeles Sleep Institute and Inland Empire Sleep Medicine. Jesus is a Registered

More information

DATA LOGGER AND REMOTE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS. G.S. Nhivekar, R.R.Mudholker

DATA LOGGER AND REMOTE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS. G.S. Nhivekar, R.R.Mudholker e -Journal of Science & Technology (e-jst) e-περιοδικό Επιστήμης & Τεχνολογίας 55 DATA LOGGER AND REMOTE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS G.S. Nhivekar, R.R.Mudholker Department

More information

CPAP. Sleep Disorders Program UBC Hospital. 2211 Wesbrook Mall Vancouver BC V6T 2B5 Tel: 604-822-7606

CPAP. Sleep Disorders Program UBC Hospital. 2211 Wesbrook Mall Vancouver BC V6T 2B5 Tel: 604-822-7606 CPAP Sleep Disorders Program UBC Hospital 2211 Wesbrook Mall Vancouver BC V6T 2B5 Tel: 604-822-7606 What is Obstructive Sleep Apnea? Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs when your airway temporarily obstructs

More information

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis and Treatment Sleep Apnea: Diagnosis and Treatment Sleep Apnea Sleep Apnea is Common Dangerous Easily recognized Treatable Types of Sleep Disordered Breathing Apnea Cessation of airflow > 10 seconds Hypopnea Decreased

More information

Underwriting Sleep Apnea

Underwriting Sleep Apnea Underwriting Sleep Apnea Joel Weiner, MD, FLMI April 29, 2014 WAHLU The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company Milwaukee, WI A Brief Survey Before We Get Started The Weiner Sleepiness Scale How likely

More information

Using home NIV for the management of hypercapnic COPD

Using home NIV for the management of hypercapnic COPD Home NIV Program for COPD Using home NIV for the management of hypercapnic COPD This program offers COPD treatment guidelines to physicians to help appropriately target and qualify patients for noninvasive

More information

DS1104 R&D Controller Board

DS1104 R&D Controller Board DS1104 R&D Controller Board Cost-effective system for controller development Highlights Single-board system with real-time hardware and comprehensive I/O Cost-effective PCI hardware for use in PCs Application

More information

Daker DK 1, 2, 3 kva. Manuel d installation Installation manual. Part. LE05334AC-07/13-01 GF

Daker DK 1, 2, 3 kva. Manuel d installation Installation manual. Part. LE05334AC-07/13-01 GF Daker DK 1, 2, 3 kva Manuel d installation Installation manual Part. LE05334AC-07/13-01 GF Daker DK 1, 2, 3 kva Index 1 Introduction 24 2 Conditions of use 24 3 LCD Panel 25 4 Installation 28 5 UPS communicator

More information

1.5A Very L.D.O Voltage Regulator LM29150/29151/29152

1.5A Very L.D.O Voltage Regulator LM29150/29151/29152 FEATURES High Current Capability 1.5A Low Dropout Voltage 350mV Low Ground Current Accurate 1% Guaranteed Initial Tolerance Extremely Fast Transient Response Reverse-Battery and "Load Dump" Protection

More information

AC/DC Power Supply Reference Design. Advanced SMPS Applications using the dspic DSC SMPS Family

AC/DC Power Supply Reference Design. Advanced SMPS Applications using the dspic DSC SMPS Family AC/DC Power Supply Reference Design Advanced SMPS Applications using the dspic DSC SMPS Family dspic30f SMPS Family Excellent for Digital Power Conversion Internal hi-res PWM Internal high speed ADC Internal

More information

WHEN THINGS GO WRONG WITH CPAP

WHEN THINGS GO WRONG WITH CPAP 1 The Sleep Center at Rocky Mountain Heart and Lung A Department of Kalispell Regional Medical Center 350 Heritage Way, Suite 2100, Kalispell, Montana 59901 (406) 257 8979 Fax (406) 257 8964 WHEN THINGS

More information

Cardio Respiratory. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) Department. We Care

Cardio Respiratory. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) Department. We Care Cardio Respiratory Department Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a condition where the walls of the throat relax and narrow during sleep, interrupting normal breathing. If

More information

Theory of Operation. Figure 1 illustrates a fan motor circuit used in an automobile application. The TPIC2101. 27.4 kω AREF.

Theory of Operation. Figure 1 illustrates a fan motor circuit used in an automobile application. The TPIC2101. 27.4 kω AREF. In many applications, a key design goal is to minimize variations in power delivered to a load as the supply voltage varies. This application brief describes a simple DC brush motor control circuit using

More information

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Obstructive Sleep Apnoea What is obstructive sleep apnoea? People who suffer from Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) reduce or stop their breathing for short periods while sleeping. This can happen many times

More information

Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which you have one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths while you sleep.

Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which you have one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths while you sleep. Dear Patient: You have been referred for a Sleep Study, because your physician is concerned you may have a serious medical condition called Sleep Apnea. Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which you have

More information

Snoring. As you breathe, air passes in and out of your lungs through your mouth, nose, and throat.

Snoring. As you breathe, air passes in and out of your lungs through your mouth, nose, and throat. Snoring Introduction Snoring is the harsh sound that is made when the flow of air through your mouth and nose is blocked while you are sleeping. Snoring can be an annoyance for your partner or other people

More information

DIAGNOSING SLEEP APNEA. Christie Goldsby Florida State University PHY 3109 04/09/14

DIAGNOSING SLEEP APNEA. Christie Goldsby Florida State University PHY 3109 04/09/14 DIAGNOSING SLEEP APNEA Christie Goldsby Florida State University PHY 3109 04/09/14 Outline of Talk Background information -what is sleep apnea? Diagnosing sleep apnea -polysomnography -respiratory airflow

More information

TURBOtech srl. SED-635 Digital Excitation System. Industrial Electronics Sector FEATURES

TURBOtech srl. SED-635 Digital Excitation System. Industrial Electronics Sector FEATURES SED-635 Digital Excitation System SED-635 is a complete excitation system capable of adapting to control synchronous generators of any size. The integration of the TOUCH SCREEN operator interface and a

More information

Treating Sleep Apnea A Review of the Research for Adults

Treating Sleep Apnea A Review of the Research for Adults Treating Sleep Apnea A Review of the Research for Adults Is This Information Right for Me? Yes, if: A doctor said you have mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea, or OSA. People with OSA may

More information

Every Download Tells a Story. Lizabeth Binns PA-C University of Michigan Sleep Center October 2, 2015

Every Download Tells a Story. Lizabeth Binns PA-C University of Michigan Sleep Center October 2, 2015 Every Download Tells a Story Lizabeth Binns PA-C University of Michigan Sleep Center October 2, 2015 X Xx Mx X X x X X X X Conflict of Interest Disclosures for Speakers 1. I do not have any relationships

More information

NETWORK ENABLED EQUIPMENT MONITOR

NETWORK ENABLED EQUIPMENT MONITOR NETWORK ENABLED EQUIPMENT MONITOR Remotely Monitor Sensors over the Internet Connect Sensors to the Web to Remotely Monitor Equipment, Processes or Other Applications A Complete, Easy to Deploy, Stand-Alone

More information

Arlington Dental Associates Ira Stier DDS PC 876 Dutchess Tpk 2 Lafayette Ct. Poughkeepsie, NY 12603 Fishkill, NY 12524 845-454-7023 845-896-4977

Arlington Dental Associates Ira Stier DDS PC 876 Dutchess Tpk 2 Lafayette Ct. Poughkeepsie, NY 12603 Fishkill, NY 12524 845-454-7023 845-896-4977 Home Sleep Test Liability Form Study Equipment Due: @ I, accept responsibility for the sleep monitoring device while it is in rny possession. I understand that if I fail to return the device or I return

More information

Sleep Apnea: Treatment

Sleep Apnea: Treatment Sleep Apnea: Treatment I. Policy University Health Alliance (UHA) will reimburse for positive airway pressure devices for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) when it is determined to be medically

More information

MEDICAL SYSTEMS. Monnal T60. Touch and Breathe. www.airliquidemedicalsystems.com

MEDICAL SYSTEMS. Monnal T60. Touch and Breathe. www.airliquidemedicalsystems.com MEDICAL SYSTEMS Monnal T60 Touch and Breathe www.airliquidemedicalsystems.com Close to the emergency Monnal T60 has been designed for mobile medical intervention in all intensive care environments, both

More information

POCKET SCOPE 2. The idea 2. Design criteria 3

POCKET SCOPE 2. The idea 2. Design criteria 3 POCKET SCOPE 2 The idea 2 Design criteria 3 Microcontroller requirements 3 The microcontroller must have speed. 3 The microcontroller must have RAM. 3 The microcontroller must have secure Flash. 3 The

More information

Changes in the Evaluation and Treatment of Sleep Apnea

Changes in the Evaluation and Treatment of Sleep Apnea Changes in the Evaluation and Treatment of Sleep Apnea Joseph DellaValla, MD FACP Medical Director Center for Sleep Medicine At Androscoggin Valley Hospital Sleep Related Breathing Problems Obstructive

More information

Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong SAE 800

Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong SAE 800 Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong Preliminary Data SAE 800 Bipolar IC Features Supply voltage range 2.8 V to 18 V Few external components (no electrolytic capacitor) 1 tone, 2 tones, 3 tones

More information

Chapter 26. Assisting With Oxygen Needs. Elsevier items and derived items 2014, 2010 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 26. Assisting With Oxygen Needs. Elsevier items and derived items 2014, 2010 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 26 Assisting With Oxygen Needs Oxygen (O 2 ) is a gas. Oxygen It has no taste, odor, or color. It is a basic need required for life. Death occurs within minutes if breathing stops. Brain damage

More information

GPS & GSM BASED REAL-TIME VEHICLE TRACKING SYSTEM.

GPS & GSM BASED REAL-TIME VEHICLE TRACKING SYSTEM. GPS & GSM BASED REAL-TIME VEHICLE TRACKING SYSTEM. Introduction: The Proposed design is cost-effective, reliable and has the function of accurate tracking. When large object or vehicles were spread out

More information

MMA7455 3-Axis Accelerometer Module (#28526)

MMA7455 3-Axis Accelerometer Module (#28526) Web Site: www.parallax.com Forums: forums.parallax.com Sales: sales@parallax.com Technical: support@parallax.com Office: (916) 624-8333 Fax: (916) 624-8003 Sales: (888) 512-1024 Tech Support: (888) 997-8267

More information

Pmod peripheral modules are powered by the host via the interface s power and ground pins.

Pmod peripheral modules are powered by the host via the interface s power and ground pins. Digilent Pmod Interface Specification Revision: November 20, 2011 1300 NE Henley Court, Suite 3 Pullman, WA 99163 (509) 334 6306 Voice (509) 334 6300 Fax Introduction The Digilent Pmod interface is used

More information

For every breath he takes. Trilogy200 ventilator s added sensitivity lets you breathe easier knowing your patients are where they belong home.

For every breath he takes. Trilogy200 ventilator s added sensitivity lets you breathe easier knowing your patients are where they belong home. For every breath he takes Trilogy200 ventilator s added sensitivity lets you breathe easier knowing your patients are where they belong home. Sensitive to your patients needs Trilogy200, a portable life-support

More information

LM1036 Dual DC Operated Tone/Volume/Balance Circuit

LM1036 Dual DC Operated Tone/Volume/Balance Circuit LM1036 Dual DC Operated Tone/Volume/Balance Circuit General Description The LM1036 is a DC controlled tone (bass/treble), volume and balance circuit for stereo applications in car radio, TV and audio systems.

More information

USB 2.0 USB 2.0 ETHERNET AUDIO JACK AND RCA VIDEO HDMI MICRO SD CARD MICRO USB POWER

USB 2.0 USB 2.0 ETHERNET AUDIO JACK AND RCA VIDEO HDMI MICRO SD CARD MICRO USB POWER 3 USB 2.0 USB 2.0 ETHERNET 4 1 MICRO SD CARD HDMI MICRO USB POWER AUDIO JACK AND RCA VIDEO 2 TO SET UP YOUR RASPBERRY PI YOU WILL NEED: ITEM MINIMUM RECOMMENDED SPECIFICATION & NOTES 1 microsd card Minimum

More information

Sensors / Modules / Monitors. Breath Gas Sensing and Monitoring. For life supporting systems in intensive, emergency and ambulant care

Sensors / Modules / Monitors. Breath Gas Sensing and Monitoring. For life supporting systems in intensive, emergency and ambulant care Sensors / Modules / Monitors Breath Gas Sensing and Monitoring For life supporting systems in intensive, emergency and ambulant care Your competent partner for breath gas sensing and monitoring EnviteC

More information

Versions. Q.station Q.station T. Q.station D. Q.station DT x x

Versions. Q.station Q.station T. Q.station D. Q.station DT x x Most important features: Very high data rates up to 100 khz each channel 100 khz at 16 channels, 10 khz at 128 channels 64 Q.bloxx modules connectable Ethernet interface for configuration and data output

More information

Honeywell HumidIcon Digital Humidity/Temperature Sensors. HIH8000 Series ±2.0 %RH Accuracy. Datasheet

Honeywell HumidIcon Digital Humidity/Temperature Sensors. HIH8000 Series ±2.0 %RH Accuracy. Datasheet Honeywell HumidIcon Digital Humidity/Temperature Sensors HIH8000 Series ±2.0 %RH Accuracy Datasheet Honeywell HumidIcon Digital Humidity/Temperature Sensors Honeywell HumidIcon Digital Humidity/Temperature

More information

How to design an insulin pump

How to design an insulin pump How to design an insulin pump Learn about the purpose of an insulin pump, its overall workings, and the requirements needed for its design as well as implementation. By Asha Ganesan Applications Engineer

More information

Design of an Insulin Pump. Purpose of an Insulin Pump:

Design of an Insulin Pump. Purpose of an Insulin Pump: Design of an Insulin Pump Purpose of an Insulin Pump: Insulin is a hormone central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. It is secreted regularly within the body and aids in converting

More information

USER MANUAL V5.0 ST100

USER MANUAL V5.0 ST100 GPS Vehicle Tracker USER MANUAL V5.0 ST100 Updated on 15 September 2009-1 - Contents 1 Product Overview 3 2 For Your Safety 3 3 ST100 Parameters 3 4 Getting Started 4 4.1 Hardware and Accessories 4 4.2

More information

CMOS, the Ideal Logic Family

CMOS, the Ideal Logic Family CMOS, the Ideal Logic Family INTRODUCTION Let s talk about the characteristics of an ideal logic family. It should dissipate no power, have zero propagation delay, controlled rise and fall times, and have

More information