1 1 X-shaped project manager "X-shaped" project managers for fluid organisations In an increasingly interconnected environment, classic management and qualification methods are not up to par. When organisations, their employees and projects are in a constant state of flux and change, new paths for "fluid" organisations must be discovered. In this article you will learn: - what sets a fluid organisation and fluid project networks apart, - what makes an "X-shaped" manager, - how new options for further training and study can deal with the emerging need for qualifications. Prof. Dr. Doris Weßels Introduction In 2013, the Hanover Trade Fair, the leading trade fair in German industry, clearly signalled with the theme of "Integrated Industry"/"Industry 4.0" that "interconnection will lead to more cost efficiency, higher product quality and sustainability and thereby make companies more competitive" . Accordingly, integrated production processes i.e. those based on internal and inter-company interconnection will shape global industry for the long term over the next ten to 15 years. Industry 4.0 as a response to the "connected world" leads to fascinating new possibilities in manufacturing and managing production processes. However, due to increased complexity, staff and management are faced with new challenges to tap into the potential of the value creation network. These include the employee-centric interplay of production technology, software architecture and work organisations which promote learning . Lifelong learning is becoming more significant in internal and external exchange and knowledge management. Previously, CeBIT 2013 had already picked up on the trend towards interconnection in our society with its "Shareconomy" theme. With the internet as platform and IT tools as solutions for collaboration, the sharing and collective use of knowledge, resources and experience as part of a network are taking centre stage. Thus, interconnection in communication and knowledge transfer is emerging not only within companies, but also with suppliers and customers. Furthermore, consultants and external experts are being more tightly woven into the fabric of relationships. Cross-sector innovation processes and new combination products resulting from interdisciplinary and inter-organisational interconnection are a symbol of the significance of the value-creation network with the potential to increase productivity by up to 12 percent .
2 2 X-shaped project manager Therefore it is no surprise that (interconnected) companies are being reinterpreted as a node element of an interconnected society, a "connected company" . Yet networks are not only becoming increasingly significant to companies. Personal interconnection between individuals is also becoming more important, even in a professional context. This means that (informal) networks are seen as the guarantee for the success of an organisation and network-based management as an innovation, whereas in the past, sharing personal networks would have been somewhat taboo . The blurred lines between private and professional life mean that project workers as "connected employees" managing their personal networks are very important to the success of fluid organisations. This is particularly true of the managers of project networks. At this juncture, a digression into looking at criticisms of this development is appropriate. Sociologists believe that these new employment structures lead to an increasing level of "boundary dissolving", as employees are expected to show complete commitment and accept a "life stage partnership" with their employer. This means that private and professional lives dissolve into a "flux" from which they can barely be separated any longer. Fluid organisation The quest to find the organisation of the future leads to the model form of a fluid organisation, which manages to move "almost in 'sync' with the rhythms of change in its environment" [6, p. 16], i.e. an organisation which possesses the ability to cope with permanent (internal) change in bidirectional interaction with the organisational environment. This "flowing" organisation as a "non-structure-focused organisational concept" [6, p. 17] is characterised by its orientation towards processes and networks. The fluid company thereby becomes a node itself and thus an actor in the connection with external organisations and individuals as an interorganisational network. See Table 1. The ability to move "almost in 'sync' with the rhythms of change in its environment" internally [6, p. 16], i.e. the ability to cope with permanent (internal) change in bidirectional interaction with the organisational environment Organisation as a node in a highly dynamic interorganisational network Table 1: Characteristics of a fluid organisation in flux interconnected Anyone observing the processes of change in the economy and society will notice a continuous increase in the pace of change . The trend towards acceleration in this "flow" could be termed hyperfluidity and raises many issues on a management level. These challenges should be specified in relation to the "project" organisation form: - While the classic (hence internal) project organisation forms tend towards wellstructured and stable models for organisation forms such as "line", "rod" and the 2D "matrix", in the project economy, a shift towards interconnected and interorganisational structures is taking place .
3 3 X-shaped project manager - These networks may be interpreted as an evolutionary process of development in project organisation forms evolving from an individual project to project portfolio or programme management and moving towards a project structure in open (knowledge) networks . A comprehensive empirical study carried out by Söderlund in 2011 led to seven schools of thought in project management being discerned. The "relationship school" line of thought is particularly relevant to this article. It treats projects as complex, interorganisational networks featuring different actors. Ultimately, however, this school of thought conforms to the classic understanding of project management which brings the (project) marketing aspect to the fore and emphasises the significance to success of early project phases [10, p. 163]. Current publications on network-building in project work also prioritise project marketing perspectives . To expand on this line of thought, a link will be drawn between project networks and fluidity in the following.
4 4 X-shaped project manager Fluid project networks For a more precise definition of the term "project network", a disambiguation of both of its components, "project" and "network", is necessary in the context of this article. According to DIN , a project is characterised as a plan with a project-specific organisation which represents a unique "bundle of conditions" regarding the objectives and limitation of key resources such as time, finances, manpower and other parameters. The increasing global significance of projects also has a clear historical precedent. Starting with its roots in the 40s in military fields of application in the USA, the "project" organisation form is now penetrating all sectors of the economy and its use in public organisations is also on the rise . Project work in accordance with a "temporary organisation form" inevitably leads to forms of interconnection which shall be examined in more detail the following. The study "Betriebliche Projektwirtschaft eine Vermessung [The Operational Project Economy A Survey]  carried out by Fachhochschule Ludwigshafen and the personnel service provider Hays is based on the statements of around 300 commercial decisionmakers. In 2010, it showed the following result and confirmed the trend towards growing significance for projects as the organisation form of the future: - The operational project economy is now firmly established in 74% of the companies surveyed. - In a third of the companies, as many as 60% to 100% of operations were now organised in projects. This "new" organisation form represents a cultural challenge for some companies. Therefore, alongside the classic organisational structure (usually a line organisation), interconnection between those involved in projects can also create intraorganisational parallel worlds (with external connectors) which are not transparent to company management. These "parallel worlds" may be interpreted as hidden structures in the sense of personal networks [15, p. 50 f.]. For example, a development project as part of a project innovation may require a project risk assessment which may lead to cross-department (first-time) collaboration between an R&D specialist from the Research department and a lawyer from a Policy Unit. Moreover, connections may arise between these actors and relevant external experts. In the following section, the term network shall be explained in more detail. In its abstract form, it originates in graph theory and is a term which is used in multiple disciplines. However, there remains no comprehensive theoretical foundation for the term: I define a network as a set of nodes and the set of ties representing some relationship or absence of relationship between the nodes. In this most abstract definition, networks can be used to represent many different things, resulting in the adoption of the perspective across a wide range of disciplines (see Borgatti, Mehra, Brass, & Labianca, 2009). Even researchers in the hard sciences of physics and biology have applied networks to their favorite theories. Thus, we find no universal theory of networks. Rather, we find a perspective that applies many of the network concepts and measures to a variety of theories. 
5 5 X-shaped project manager The significance of networks for future project work has been vividly described in the study "Deutschland im Jahr 2020" ["Germany in the Year 2020"], published by the Deutsche Bank Research think tank in 2007 . This study envisages the new value creation models in the future "world of the project economy". These structures are networks which are built through flexible cooperation (in the sense of combinations and interactions) by specialists (= individuals as experts). See the diagram in Fig. 1. Fig. 1: Knowledge networking by combining individuals and interaction (Image copyright Taking into account increasing digitalisation, which promotes mobile working and virtual team structures in complex interconnected structures and the development of value creation chains into value creation networks, the following conclusion is drawn: Cooperative network structures (in and between organisations, intra- and/or interorganisational networks ) lead to new organisational forms, which are described as fluid project networks in the project context and require specific management skills. The distinctive feature of project networks is that the actors involved in a particular project interact not only during the short-term project work but also maintain a relationship beyond the individual project. Project networks are therefore more than a temporary or short-term organisation form. Following the completion of the project, the connection remains dormant, so that in the case of a possible subsequent project, this relationship may be quickly "reactivated":
6 6 X-shaped project manager [ ] also the sleeping phase of the relationship between projects has to be managed actively in order to maintain a good relational position for future project deliveries [19, p. 141]. The fluidity of project networks is reflected in the three dimensions of structure, time and organisation: - by the structural openness of networks as configurations with porous or partly "fuzzy boundaries" [6, p. 43], - by the absence of time limitation, in contrast to the classic notion of the project and - as an organisational component of a fluid organisation. Management requirements of fluid project networks For the management requirements of project networks to be understood, the implications of the "surrounding" fluid organisation on the organisation parameters must be explained first of all. The fluid organisation A fluid organisation as a "boundaryless" and "structurally open" organisation (disaggregated organisation) is shaped by an interorganisational intertwining which poses new management challenges : - reciprocity (reciprocal treatment according to the "tit for tat" principle), - cooperation and competition in a counterbalancing tension (usually with dominant cooperation targets), - dynamism and complexity, shaped by interactivity and non-linear system structures. It is clear that these characteristics must be taken into account on an inter- as well as intraorganisational level. As early as 2004, Kruse pointed out that forward-thinking organisations with an interconnected outer environment need a culture where "interconnection of internal structures is possible as a matter of course at all times" [7, p. 10]. But how does forward-thinking project network management now develop from the perspective of the project manager? To come to an answer, we must first of all examine the classic view as you may find among managers in company networks. In this instance, company networks means "cooperations" of varying intensity between legally independent organisations without focus on individual projects. From a structural perspective, they may be interpreted as interorganisational knowledge networks . After examining the classic view, we shall digress and take a look at the value and generational shift which leads into the modern view.
7 7 X-shaped project manager Classic view The following Fig. 2 presents a rather classic view of the specific requirements for employees and the management level in company networks. While employees working in teams seek empowerment, the manager is seen as a coach and "boundary spanner" between the network partners involved. As such, there is the risk of a gatekeeper with "supremacy" emerging who, as the "single point of contact", channels communication and may also hinder it. Company networks Employees Manager companyspanning cooperation Job enrichment Teams Job enlargement (methods) Specialist Work with Information and communications technology Job rotation Teamworker Intrapreneur Selfdeveloper Support, coordination, advice and motivation of employees and teams, development and communication of visions, composition of teams, promotion of change processes Manager as networker Networking of companies and their competencies Coaches Boundary spanners Empowerment Social skills, cooperation and compromise ability, ability to build trust and work in a team Autonomy, responsibility readiness, capacity for selfmanagement, decision-making skills, negotiation skills Professional and technical basic skills, learning ability and willingness to learn, flexibility, creativity, problem-solving ability Social and communication skills, integration capability, ability to build confidence, learning ability, cognitive ability Social and communication skills, representation capability, diplomatic skills, negotiation skills, ability to conflict management, ability to build trusting relationships Fig. 2: Requirements and roles in a company network [21, p. 5] Based on this hierarchical presentation of roles in company networks, we may question whether these strictly defined responsibilities and skills in "fluid" organisation structures are helpful in meeting targets for project success. On that basis, the evolved value shift and the self-awareness of project actors must be sufficiently taken into account. The increasing
8 8 X-shaped project manager demand on the part of employees for self-determination and self-organisation ought to be explained with reference to Generation Y. Value shift and Generation Y The increasing appreciation of the "knowledge resource" and the associated trend towards a learning organisation goes hand in hand with a value shift which sees the concept of the individual as "knowledge bearer" in the sense of "human capital" take on greater significance within an organisation. Alongside this, catalysed by the Agile Manifesto of 2001 , the agile value system has become more important in the project environment . The connection between networks and value systems is fundamental: a network requires a value consensus and appropriate codes of conduct to ensure its stability . Attention should be paid in this context to the dynamics of value systems and the current value shift. From the point of view of individuals seeking to endow their lives with meaning self-determination and self-organisation (by shaping the working environment and the network of relationships) is becoming increasingly important, while the significance of money and career is waning . Looking at organisation and network structures, it is evident that hierarchy has, in many places, inevitably become heterarchy (particularly regarding access to network actors outwith one's own organisation), which in turn requires new management approaches such as "lateral management". Project management is based on project targets which must be clearly communicated to all involved. Creating a common understanding of the project as a "collective mind" for interconnecting what are known as the knowledge islands in the mind is already a constant management task in classic project management [24, p. 25]. Furthermore, in project networks, the various targets, interests and cultural influences of the actors from various organisations involved must be continuously coordinated and harmonised. This capacity for integration and cementing interorganisational relationships is a particular management challenge [19, p. 138 ff.]. Looking at the "new" generation of project workers (Generation Y), it can be established that the "digital natives" have learned the capacity for "adhoc" networking and resolution early on. They have already come to know and apparently love "networks" very early on through social platforms such as studivz and Facebook. They are usually used to working in a team, integrating quickly and communicating in different modes. Their approach is described as pragmatic and cooperative  . However, for members of Generation Y, the attraction of entering a fixed organisation with established roles and set "career models" has visibly diminished. Instead, a culture of freelancing is emerging (see also its classification as a revolution  which is currently leading to new office designs and "coworking spaces"). See Table 2 for a depiction of the value shift and the characteristics of the three post-war generations from 1946 to 1994.
9 9 X-shaped project manager Baby Boomer Generation X Generation Y Generation Technology TV Telephone Typewriter Cable TV PC Web 2.0, mobile phone Instant Messenger Laptop Music LP, Woodstock Rolling Stones CD, Roskilde, Nirvana MP3, Love Parade Eminem Entertainment Board games, Mickey Mouse Computer games Lucky Luke, Baywatch MMORPGs Harry Potter Sex and the City Politics Willy Brandt, reconstruction, oil crisis Helmut Kohl Fall of Berlin Wall Chernobyl Gerhard Schröder Euro Climate change Attitude Idealistic, revolutionary, collective Needing security individualistic Table 2: Comparison of the generations according to DEGW 2008  pragmatic cooperative, networks The positive attitude to a possible freelance career is not currently shared by the generations. In early 2012, IBM's "employment model of the future", the Liquid programme, caused a great media sensation and even outrage: a very small core team of in-house staff was to manage the large group of external specialists as in flexible freelancers who can be employed where required . This development is not entirely new. Pioneers such as Danone have already been developing a new culture of interconnected working on projects, known as "networking atittude", for around 10 years, and combined them with a cultural shift in the thought and action of those involved away from hierarchies towards open structures i.e. those which are not predefined. As such, more than 70 "sharing networks" supported by Web 2.0 technology have formed within the Danone Group: Since 2003, Danone has promoted a networking attitude designed to encourage exchanges between managers and the direct sharing of good practices between subsidiaries without necessarily having to pass through the usual hierarchical processes. As a key performance lever for Danone in its ambition to become the fastest moving food company, networking consists in establishing contacts . The generation-specific developments and attitudes mentioned above are a particular challenge for companies looking for permanent qualified staff particularly in light of demographic change. We will now look at a modern view of knowledge and project work in fluid networks as related to factors of success.
10 10 X-shaped project manager Modern view What is absolutely clear is that project networks cannot be managed using traditional project management methods. From the point of view of system theory, these methods reach their limits, as the greater the concentration of interconnections, the more knock-on effects there are. These in turn increase internal dynamics and the pace of change . Therefore the capacity for self-organisation and self-reflection in the entier system becomes a factor for success [31, p. 95]. In classic project management, teamwork with clearly defined team allocations sufficed as a form of collaboration. Here, we observe a shift towards "collaboration on the fly", known as "teaming", in the form of an agile and dynamic interaction between experts [32, p. 24 f.]. These behavioural characteristics are of key consideration [32, p. 30]: 1. Genuine communication which includes admitting mistakes 2. Courage and openness towards new developments and changes 3. Retrospectives looking back as an integral building block for processes 4. Openness in interdisciplinary communication 5. Integrating and moderating a wide range of perspectives Connecting network actors to the project network is a difficult task and cannot be achieved as before in traditional organisations through incentives such as company parties or similar enticements. The "new" networkers are interconnected in many different ways (see also Generation Y), but the number of ways they are interconnected can have a negative impact on the quality or intensity of individual connections. On the other hand, from the perspective of an individual network actor, belonging to a network as a "valuable partner" cannot be achieved simply through the legal relationship to a company greater personal effort are necessary . This is complicated by the "boundary dissolving" effect mentioned earlier; the boundaries between professional and private networks are increasingly fuzzy. Problem solving approaches for fluid project network management For qualifications in classic project management, there are various internationally significant standards which are on offer alongside various options for certification worldwide by both leading organisations Project Management Institute (PMI) and the Project Management Association (IPMA). The latter divides the range of qualifications into three groups: technical, context-based and behavioural skills . There is currently no specific qualification for project managers of networks on offer. It may be concluded that in these organisations the focus is not being placed on project networks and the associated need for qualifications. In order to examine this need for qualifications, we may consult empirical skills studies for project managers. The results reflect that focusing on targets, communication and integration are highly important. With regard to network management, however, "leadership" and the ability to manage interpersonal relationships are required in the area of personal skills . For a more extensive, comprehensive identification of specific management requirements for fluid project networks, we inevitably come to "governance of networks". This organisational framework is based on four process groups which represent the functions and practices of network management [18, p. S. 177]:
11 11 X-shaped project manager - Selection how are partners chosen? - Allocation how were tasks, resources etc. distributed? - Regulation which rules apply to collaboration and communication? - Evaluation how are costs and benefits determined and distributed? The management, monitoring and audit functions indicated by these process groups acting as the organisational framework of a network reflect wishful thinking in network management and are extremely technocratic. Looking at a modern understanding of (project) management, however, a paradigm shift from a technocratic to an agile and social understanding of systems can be seen to take place . At this point, therefore, the project network should be understood first and foremost as a social network from the perspective of the individual. Factors for success in working in networks which also lead to the creation of the new type, the "X-shaped manager", ought to be analysed based on the anatomy of social networks (see Fig. 3). Fig. 3: Anatomy of a Social Network according to Dave Gray  When a social network is analysed based on its benefits, according to Gray , individual success in forming relationships and consequent collective work in new structures are key. These are defined as follows: - "Brokerage" in the sense that creating connections drives innovation, - "Closure" in the sense that building trusting relationships leads to a group performance which is greater than the sum of the individual achievements.
12 12 X-shaped project manager In turn, each individual node may be described using three dimensions: - "degree" the number of connections, - "closeness" closeness and access to further nodes, - "betweenness" the centrality value of a node represents its importance and positioning in the network structure. What implications does this understanding of a "social network" have on the qualifications profile of the network manager as manager of a "business network" (i.e. a project network)? A recent empirical study by Weßels and Peters  shows that the following complex abilities, alongside the classic management skills, are particularly important to success in the role of network manager in one's "business network": "Confident, well-connected leader with vision" with strong system and management skills and confidence in handling the balance between managing and giving free rein to the network actors involved, in order to generate trust in all phases of the work in the network "Stimulator and event manager" with the ability to shape events and creativity for building momentum and creating experiential value "Subversive innovator" analytical with intellectual flexibility and openness towards structures, processes, issues and actors "Network ambassador" characterised by proven skills as a communicator and representative, particularly in representing the network externally When these four skills descriptions are applied to the factors for success and dimensions of a "social network" according to Gray, the result is the mapping as shown in Table 3: Factors for success Network manager qualifications profile and dimensions of a "social network" according to Gray brokerage Network ambassador closure Confident, well-connected leader with vision degree The basic qualification: well-connected and highly accepted by the project environment closeness Subversive innovator his work brings people closer and helps create new connections with important new actors betweenness Stimulator and event manager The attractiveness of the network's contribution and subsequent acceptance creates new high-quality links and "followers", so that the node takes on greater significance as "control centre". Table 3: Social network and factors for success of a network manager The conclusion which can be drawn is that personal abilities and performance characteristics come to the fore. The individual is at the centre of successful work in a network.
13 13 X-shaped project manager In this context it is worth mentioning a recent Israeli study which analysed personality types differentiated according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in relation to project success. It was demonstrated that dealing with incomplete and unclear parameters was a particular strength of the classic project manager . This result can be drawn upon in the case of project managers of networks, as it demonstrates the capacity to find one's way in an environment which is initially experienced as unstable and not transparent, identify missing links and then connect and establish these successfully as defined by the above factors for success in Table 3. At this point it can be concluded that for "Human Resource Management", as well as successfully hiring employees, it is increasingly important to develop them and thereby ensure their loyalty to the company. Also with regard to job descriptions, it seems advisable to accept "flux" as a distinguishing characteristic. This flux is brought about by the constant shift in what is required of the actors in project networks. Established job descriptions unravel and now appear as "network positions" or discipline-based qualification profiles with a shifting list of requirements. The skills areas in project networks which are now already perceived as (heavily overlapping) disciplines (and also occasionally as a job description) are: - project management - innovation management - change management - information management - knowledge management In future, they will become more interdisciplinary and will therefore need to be construed in a more "interconnected" way. It may also be supposed that in this context, the classic career path which led either towards management or working as specialist staff will become a thing of the past. It is evident that a new type of manager is needed: "X-shaped manager" as a further development of the "T-shaped manager , see Fig. 4. In the case of the "T-shaped manager", the T is a metaphor for technical ability (vertical line as technical specialism) in combination with the willingness and ability to collaborate on an interdisciplinary level (horizontal as in a generalist for interdisciplinary orientation). On this basis, "X" shall symbolise the (additional) cross-functional orientation of networking. This denotes the actor's ability to manage complex interorganisational network structures analogous to the fluid organisation as "non-structure-focused" orientation. The "X" breaks with the outdated (and often stagnant) approach of two-dimensional differentiation between specialists and generalists. In future, the ability to transfer and apply knowledge in new, constantly shifting system surroundings and multidimensional contexts shall be important . For this purpose, willingness and ability to perform interdisciplinary "network roles" with the continuously shifting list of requirements of a fluid organisation are required.
14 14 X-shaped project manager Fig. 4: T-shaped manager versus X-shaped manager Sidenote on neuroscience and system theory Neuroscience in particular holds answers to the key questions regarding successful mangement of fluid and interconnected systems. Since "homo oeconomicus" has served its purpose as an explanatory model in economics , the driving forces of human activity can be more readily classed in the field of "emotions". Intelligent systems are shaped by a large capacity for change. Dealing with change constantly means adapting constantly and/or learning in the project environment. The currently dominant neuroscientific consensus proves that this learning process is feasible. This proceeds on the assumption that plasticity of our nerve cells (as a network structure in the brain) allows for continuous development . While the individual brain is able to deal with complexity, (company) cultures are "more conservative by necessity. The culture stabilises individuals." [7, p. 16] Changes create many fears in the minds of individuals and organisations involved. The key management task is thus to confront these fears, to relieve them (fear hinders creativity) and lead in a "visionary" manner. In doing so, the ability to communicate and the quality of communication are important factors for success. The level-based change model is depicted in the neurological levels in Fig. 5. It begins on the bottom level with the environment, where the project context is classified. The top of the pyramid emphasises the significance of a (strong) vision for the creation of a feeling of belonging for those involved. Changes on a higher level always have a bearing on the lower levels, too.
15 15 X-shaped project manager Belonging Spirituality Vision Identity Convictions Attitudes Values Skills Strategies Behaviour Environment Context Fig. 5: Neurological levels [31, p. 127] We have already mentioned the importance of the ability to integrate and create a "collective mind" through specific motivation and management characteristics for creating a sense of belonging. These aspects should be taken into account in particular when deciding approaches to qualifications. Approaches to further education and qualifications at higher education institutions The need for qualifications for professional management of project networks is not currently being dealt with sufficiently by academic training see the overview of courses available in classic project management at German universities compiled by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Projektmanagement [German Association for Project Management] . Budding project managers currently learn how to use instruments which allow efficient planning and management. This is important for network managers insofar as structures and standards must be created in networks to faciliate collaboration on projects. New approaches also focus on social skills and thereby offer opportunities to solve network conflicts which arise as a result of a collision between different organisational cultures. At the same time, however, there are no approaches which show how stimuli such as current issues or other activities can be used to create a lively "community atmosphere". Creativity will become more important and must be taken into greater account in course plans and approaches to qualifications . Selecting the correct skills and partners for a network and acting correspondingly in a forward-thinking manner as well as professional conduct are also not part of the training. Marketing and public relations are only rarely part of project management courses. These disciplines would be important both externally and internally. Outwardly, public relations can help the network management to raise awareness in industry circles and attract new actors.
16 16 X-shaped project manager Inwardly, it helps to direct the value of project successes onto the network and make its presence felt in this area. With regard to the previously presented "governance of networks" process groups, the fact that selection needs are not being met is perhaps the most worthy of criticism: in classic project management, the choice of (suitable) project workers is often a bone of contention between team leaders and management. Not uncommonly, project leaders must work with the project personnel staff member that they are allocated by their superiors. Future project managers must be qualified to that effect, as they will have to select partners for successful cooperation. In summary, it can be concluded that higher education institutions must work much harder to keep up with this need for skills. In order to pass on the previously established requirements as early as during education, curricula with forward-thinking courses or study specialisms must be constructed using new modules. Assuming that core project management modules are already in place, I suggest the following as a comprehensive catalogue of topics which should be incorporated at least partly into comprehensive project management courses under the rubric "Project Management of the Future - Managing (Knowledge) Networks : - Basic knowledge management in networks - Chaos/system theory and systemic management studies - Basics of operative network and community management - Social media and mobile marketing - Social collaboration techniques and tools - Agile management and new management concepts - Knowledge communication and visualisation - Evaluation and assessment techniques - Creative techniques - Innovation management (e.g. service design, user-driven innovation) - HR management: staff selection, team building (virtual teams) and management behaviour in networks - Project coaching - Conflict management and mediation - Intercultural skills - Trends in project management - Self-management - Event management - Business psychology (applied psychology in interorganisational project networks) - Drafting contracts in project networks - Additional optional modules: languages, soft skills, learning styles such as case studies, project and network internships, job shadowing Outlook The importance of network structures and up-to-date management for the success of a company is revealed very quickly when we examine the intellectual capital (IC) of an
17 17 X-shaped project manager organisation and its contribution to company value. As shown in Fig. 6, in the literature, human, structural and relationship capital are often (equally) separated. Company value Financial capital Intellectual capital (IC) External IC Internal IC Human capital: - Skills - Competence - Experience - Motivation - Relationship capital: - Customers - Suppliers - Investors - Research facilities - Structural capital : - Methods - Concepts - Processes - Culture - Infrastructure - Talents - Technology - Fig. 6: Company value and the contribution of intellectual capital (Copyright online: In contrast to Fig. 6, a modern display format is selected in Fig. 7 which arises from the shift to a network society with new priorities. Fig. 7: Relationship capital - the capital of the network society (Copyright: EU project "Wissensmarkt WIN- VIN )
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