Spektrum Schule Educational career possibilities in Baden-Württemberg. Baden-Württemberg. For pupils in their fourth year of primary education

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1 USEFUL INFORMATION FOR PARENTS Spektrum Schule Educational career possibilities in Baden-Württemberg For pupils in their fourth year of primary education Baden-Württemberg MINISTERIUM FÜR KULTUS, JUGEND UND SPORT

2 Foreword DEAR PARENTS, at the end of the fourth year of primary education, your child will move on to one of the schools offering secondary education: the Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. For many parents and pupils this decision is a difficult one. With this brochure we therefore want to offer you some important information in order to help you to decide on the further schooling of your child. From the school year 2004/2005 onwards, teaching at all schools offering general education takes place following the new curricula. The special merit of this lies in innovations such as educational standards, the interplay between core- and school curriculum, Kontingentstundentafeln (amount of compulsory hours in course subjects) and evaluation, that is the assessment and judgement of the results gained by teaching. This curriculum reform will also promote the partnership in matters of formal and social education between school and home. I would like to ask you to support the teachers in their work and to make use of the chances that you have as parents in cooperating in the successful education of your child. If school and parents cooperate in an open and trusting way, both will profit and above all, your child. As you will see, Baden-Württemberg gives a wide range of opportunities and is well organized, offering good chances for the individual talents and abilities of every child. Whichever form of secondary education your child should enter, he/she has every possibility open to him/her, including access to further and higher education (tertiary/university education). This also applies to children attending a vocational school or following the second pathway for gaining admission to tertiary education. When your child is in its fourth year of primary education, the school will also invite you to a meeting offering information on the next educational steps. During this meeting you also have the opportunity to seek advice should any points still be unclear to you. Yours sincerely, Helmut Rau MdL Minister for Education, Youth and Sport in Baden-Württemberg In this brochure you will find everything worth knowing about the different educational subject matter offered at the various types of school, as well as the components of the curriculum reform. It also contains extensive information about the promotion and support of children and young people with special needs or impairments, which can take place at mainstream schools and at special schools. 2

3 Spektrum Schule Contents Which school? New curricula Hauptschule Realschule Gymnasium Sonderschule (Special School) Berufliche Schulen (Vocational Schools) Addresses and information

4 Which secondary school is best for my child? In the final primary school year one question is dominant for you as parents: which type of secondary education shall I choose for my child? This important turning point for the further development of their child is, for many parents, linked with a great deal of uncertainty. Parents and children alike place many hopes and expectations on this decision on the further school career - but they are also afraid of failure and fear that excessive demands might be made upon the child. Irrespective of this, we are happy to note that most parents fully accept the recommendation given by the primary schools. But what happens when parents do not wish to accept that recommendation and do not, for example, want to send their child to the Hauptschule but to the Realschule or the Gymnasium? THE RECOMMENDATION GIVEN BY THE PRIMARY SCHOOL If the parents agree to the recommendation of the primary school, it becomes binding. Some parents, however, do not want to accept the recommendation given by the primary school. They wish their child to have what they themselves consider to be the best possible chances also with a view to the later competitive struggle in the field of education and on the job market. But wrong decisions on an educational career, based on an unrealistic evaluation of the chances of success, can be a heavy burden on the child, diminishing its motivation, causing behavioural disorders and even leading to a deformation of its personality. The efficiency of the secondary schools is also prejudiced if a larger number of wrongly placed children is forced to move to a different form of school after sometimes having spent years suffering failure upon failure. THE ADMISSION PROCEDURE In the first half of the fourth year of primary school parents are invited to an information evening taking place at the school itself. The heads of the Hauptschule, the Realschule, the Gymnasium and of a Berufsschule (vocational school) offer information on the requirements needed and the methods of working at their particular type of school. They also explain what qualifications their school leads to and what interconnections there are between the school types. On that evening form-tutors, head teachers and the chairperson of the parents council are also at hand to pass on information and give advice. If one should so wish, the advisory teacher can also be called in. These advisory teachers have extra training in psychology and educational science and are responsible for several schools. It is part of their job to offer advice on the procedure of changing to a different type of school. It is also advisable to make personal contact with the form-tutor and the other members of staff who teach in the class, in order to receive information and be given individual advice. The form-tutor knows the child best, can draw comparisons with other children and knows from experience which of the secondary schools is most suited to each individual child's interests and its present stage of intellectual development. The teachers in the fourth form of the primary school keep up regular contact with the colleagues of all secondary school types about learning methods, requirements and the problems of changing to a different school. PARENT-TEACHER CONTACT Regular contact between parents and school during the whole of the child s stay at the primary school is of particular importance because, above all, a genuine educational partnership can result from this bond of trust. In this way, one can also avoid the danger of an unexpected surprise when the primary school recommendations are distributed; a surprise that causes hectic activity to which the child generally reacts with insecurity and apprehension. If you, as parents, should be unsure despite the teacher s advice, you can also visit a school psychological counselling office, which, amongst other things, is able to give recommendations on school careers. This visit should take place at the beginning of the fourth school year at the latest.

5 Spektrum Schule The staff conference deliberates on each individual child at the beginning of the second half-year of the 4th school year: should the child be recommended for the Realschule, then the marks gained in the socalled Anmeldezeugnis (enrolment report: not the half-year s interim progress report) must have an average of at least 3.0 in the subjects German and Mathematics. If the recommendation is for the eightor nine-year Gymnasium, the average mark in German and Mathematics must be at least 2.5. It is not only the marks, however, which are decisive for a recommendation. Also taken into consideration are the child s attitude to learning and work, the type and character of the child's achievements at school and his/her development so far, all of which may lead one to expect that the child will suffice the demands of the type of school recommended. THE COUNSELLING PROCEDURE If parents do not agree with the primary school's recommendation there are two possibilities: either they go through the procedure of counselling or they sign their child up immediately for the entrance examination - a path which remains open to them, by the way, after counselling, too. During this counselling procedure, several children are tested by an advisory teacher, using two different aptitude tests. These tests are uniform throughout Baden-Württemberg and are marked according to set norms. After counselling talks with the parents, the staff conference confers together with the advisory teacher, who is entitled to vote, and they decide together upon the Joint Educational Recommendation. If this recommendation coincides with the wishes of the parents they can then enrol their child at the desired school. Should this, however, not be the case, the parents can decide whether to sign their child up for the entrance examination. THE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION The questions for the entrance examination are set centrally by the Ministry of Education, on the basis of the curriculum for the 4th year of primary school and in cooperation with teachers from all the secondary school types involved. In this way the entire requirements of the primary school as well as the expectations of the secondary school are taken into account. The examination consists of a written and an oral section. If the child does not reach the required level (a mark of 3.0 for the Realschule, 2.5 for the Gymnasium ), the oral examination is conducted. The results of the written and the oral examination each count equally. THE CHILD'S CHANCES IN THE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION An examination is always the assessment of the performance of one very short period of time, the result of which depends on factors such as fear of examinations, unknown surroundings, unknown people and whether the child is on form or not on the day in question. We know from experience that children whose marks in the enrolment report are lower than ausreichend ( acceptable ) are often entered for an examination. When parents are considering whether to enter their child for the entrance examination, they should consider the following points: Does the child have a realistic chance of passing the examination, or is he/she well below the required average as far as marks are concerned? Does the child itself want to take part in the examination? Does the child tend to be frightened of failure or does it reckon with success? Is the child capable of performing successfully on its own now and will it be able to do so in the future, without the need of support or help from a third party? Would the child and the family be able to cope with the idea of the child s failing the examination? The examination at the end of the fourth year of schooling is by no means a final decision. Corrections in the child's school career can still be made in any direction during the orientation phase, i.e. the first two years of secondary education in the 5th and 6th years of schooling. The advisory teachers have another special job during the orientation phase. Keeping close contact between the child's home and school is also of great importance during this period. WHY CAN THE PARENTS NOT MAKE THE CHOICE IN THE FIRST PLACE? Children differ in performance, motivation, in their strong and weak points and therefore also in their 5

6 chances of success at the various secondary schools. The carefully planned school system in Baden- Württemberg offers every child a type of secondary school that is fitting for his/her gifts and talents. The multi-phase decision process, together with the possibility of correcting the educational career during the orientation phase, offers a maximum of reliability. If the decision on the secondary school is to be taken first and foremost with the child in mind, the following question must take absolute preference over any other consideration: which school is the most suitable for the child and will give it the best chance to achieve its potential? In order to avoid demanding too much or too little of the child, parents and primary school - this is here the crux of the matter - must cooperate and trust in each other. *The various types of school in Germany have no exact equivalent in the Anglo-Saxon school system. The 'Hauptschule' is the upper division of elementary school - covering a basic compulsory education to the age of 16. The 'Realschule' leads to an intermediate school-leaving certificate called 'Mittlere Reife' (roughly equal to the British GCSE Ordinary Level), also at the age of 16. The 'Gymnasium' generally leads - at the age of 18/19 - directly to tertiary education. Further information is to be found in the Internet under www. grundschule-bw.de FHSR 'Fachschule' Technical/ Specialized School 1-2 years 93 EDUCATIONAL CAREER POSSIBILITIES IN BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG HSR 'Berufsoberschule' Advanced Vocational School 2 years 'Mittlerer BA' 'Berufsaufbauschule' Vocational School 1 year Vocational School in-service training /2 years Vocational Preparation Year 1-year 'Berufsfachschule' Vocational Technical School 'Hauptschulabschluss' 'Fachhochschulreife' (FHSR) Qualification for vocational tertiary education 'Berufskolleg' Vocational College 1, 2, 3 years 2-year 'Berufsfachschule' Vocational Technical School 10th school year at the 'Hauptschule' (the socalled 'Werkreal schule') 'Hochschulreife' (HSR) Qualification for tertiary education 'Berufliches Gymnasium' Vocational 'Gymnasium' 3 years 'Mittlerer Bildungsabschluss' (BA) (Intermediate School-leaving Certificate) 'Aufbaugymnasium' Late-Entry Gymnasium (with boarding-school) 'Sonderschule' (Special School) (Partially with courses from the 'Hauptschule', 'Realschule', the 'Gymnasium' and the Vocational Schools) 'Hauptschule' 5 oder 6 years Primary School generally 4 years 'Realschule' 6 years 'Gymnasium' 8 years 6

7 Spektrum Schule New curricula NEW CURRICULA FOR A NEW STYLE OF TEACHING All the schools offering general education in Baden- Württemberg were provided with new curricula in the school year of 2004/2005. These had been compiled during the previous years as part of a fundamental reform. In spring 2004 the printed curricula were already distributed to all schools and were also available to parents. They can be called up in the Internet under With this reform Baden-Württemberg wishes to strengthen the general education of the pupils, promote the pedagogic independence of schools and improve the comparability of the results of the work done there. With the alterations, prerequisites are created for forms of teaching that promote independent learning and working, also offering manifold opportunities for multidisciplinary and projectoriented teaching. The pupils are accompanied in the process of their development with the aim of gaining competencies that they can also fall back on when their school careers are over. The main points in the new curricula are given on page 8. Educational standards were introduced bindingly in the school year of 2004/2005 in the following school years: Primary school, years 1 and 2 Hauptschule, years 5 and 6 Realschule, years 5,6 and 7 Gymnasium offering general education, year 5 In the years following, they are to be introduced step by step: For children in the fourth year, the educational standards will be used for the first time to form the decision on which type of school the child should attend from year 5 onwards, that is, for secondary education. Coupled with the introduction of the new curricula, there is also a further development in the structure of schools offering secondary education. The new development is characterized by increased teaching in the foreign language and in the science and technical sectors, the further development of interdisciplinary learning, as well as an alteration in the pattern of subjects, due to the formation of interrelated subject clusters and theme-oriented projects. This is also supported by extending school learning into the community and into firms and companies. New points of reference are also offered - by the new curricula for schools offering general education - for the Special Schools with the usual courses of education, that is Primary School, Hauptschule, Realschule and Gymnasium. The Special Schools were constantly included in the development work for this very reason. The new framework created for formal and social education by the curriculum reform for the schools offering general education is also the motive, and offers the prerequisite, for reassessing the curricula for Schools for Children with Special Needs and with mental impairments. As a consequence of these innovations, the schools are freer to go their own way in putting the new curricula into practice. By developing their own school curricula and concepts they contribute to the formation of the curricula and thus bear more responsibility than they previously did. The Continuous Improvement Plan ( Innere Schulentwicklung ) thus becomes the permanent task of all those who are engaged in this process. It can genuinely be seen as a process, because schools are in a constant state of change and development. Keeping an eye on the changing world, teachers and schools must, via their school curriculum, widen and deepen the core curricula and the clearly defined educational standards. The curriculum formulates the basic prerequisites for this, gives clear instructions, conveys ideas, gives directions, shows possibilities and opens up areas for free and creative work which the schools so far did not have in such a dimension. It is the task of both schools and teachers to seize the many opportunities offered and, together with the school s partners including the parents to put them to use in their teaching work. The Ministry for Education and the school administration will support and accompany the schools in the implementation. 7

8 THE MOST IMPORTANT TERMS CONCERNING THE REFORM OF THE CURRICULUM EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS Educational standards determine what specialized, social and methodical competence pupils should have at a certain point in their education. The Conference of the Ministers of Education of the German Laender (Kultusministerkonferenz der Länder = KMK) sets up educational standards for single subjects, which are coupled to school-leaving certificates and are valid for all types of school. In contrast Baden-Württemberg has compiled a separate educational standard for each subject and interrelated subject clusters for every type of school in a two, resp. three-year rhythm. COMPETENCE The term competence, which forms the basis of the educational standards, was explained by the educationalist Hartmut von Hentig in the introduction to the curricula, and encompasses a child s general attitude, ability and knowledge. EXEMPLIFICATION OF STANDARDS The demands made by the educational standards are clarified by the exemplification of standards. By means of exemplary problems they show an average demands profile and define a corridor of achievements that must be accomplished, as a binding guideline for planning lessons and assessing teaching success. CORE CURRICULUM Binding contents are laid down in the educational standards, which together form the core curriculum. These contents are so chosen that they can be covered in approximately two thirds of the time allocted to teaching. The core curriculum is supplemented by the school curriculum and reinforces and safeguards the areas this offers for free and creative work. SCHOOL CURRICULUM The school curriculum is to be devised by the school itself and is intended to deepen and widen the contents set down by the educational standards. With additional subject-specific and interdisciplinary contents and teaching offers, it follows the key ideas of the separate subjects and interrelated subject clusters. For the elaboration of the school curriculum each school has at its disposal around one third of the entire teaching time. With the deepening and widening of the core curriculum by the school curriculum, a complete curriculum is created for the school. KONTINGENTSTUNDENTAFEL (AMOUNT OF COMPULSORY HOURS IN SUBJECTS) The Kontingentstundentafel of each type of school stipulates for several years the minimum amount of weekly lessons per year that are to be given in a subject, an interrelated subject cluster or a group of subjects. The school decides how these weekly lessons per year are to be divided up between the subjects and the school years in question. In this way the school can set its own focuses. EVALUATION In general, evaluation means assessment. In the context of school and the reform of the curriculum, one understands it to mean the systematically implemented survey and assessment of processes in, and results brought about by, school and instruction. Its aim is to secure and further develop the quality of schools. The vital point is that consequences are taken from the evaluation results. CONTROL TESTS Control tests are standardized tests that take place in those schools offering general education. They follow binding educational standards and take place at the end of the lower, intermediate and upper school with the exception of the classes of school-leavers. They check, in several subjects or interrelated subject clusters, in how far the school has succeeded in fulfilling the relevant educational standards. All pupils in the relevant classes must do a test in chosen competencies, which has been set centrally. These tests are marked and the marks are included in the end-of-year report. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS At the Primary Schools, diagnostic tests are given instead of control tests. By checking chosen competencies, they show to what extent each individual school has managed to fulfil the educational standards set for school years 2 and 4 in the subjects German and Mathematics. Although the pupils are not given marks for the results that they have gained, these standardized tests nevertheless offer information as to individual learning levels, thus supporting the planning of ideas for furthering the children and also giving help in the advising of parents. GUIDELINES In its guidelines the school establishes what it intends to achieve as its primary aims. They are tuned to the individual needs of each school; the planning activities of the school are oriented to them. SCHOOL CONCEPT The school concept embraces all the measures taken by each separate school, taking into account the super-ordinate mission (the mission to give formal and social education), the guiding educational ideas, the school s guidelines and the local circumstances. 8

9 Spektrum Schule Hauptschule FUNCTIONS AND AIMS A SCHOOL TYPE WITH HIGH INNOVATORY ENERGY A good third of all pupils engaged in secondary education attends the Hauptschule. Following on from Primary School it leads the pupils to year 9 and ends with a central final examination. Particularly gifted children can continue for a further year and gain an intermediate educational qualification ( Werkrealschule ), which is equivalent to the final qualification at a Realschule. Learning at the Hauptschule with Werkrealschule is oriented towards the educational needs and demands of the pupils. The education offered is designed to suit the initial situations, learning motivation and the individual biographies of the pupils. The Hauptschule with Werkrealschule furthers capable pupils who are ready and willing, just as much as it does those pupils who are less capable or disadvantaged. To this aim the Hauptschule offers promotion measures for the weaker as well as extra teaching for the more able pupils. That promotion is also characterized by close cooperation with extra-mural partners. Extra teaching from year 8 onwards prepares the more capable pupils for attending the voluntary tenth Hauptschule year, which they finish with an intermediate educational qualification. It is the aim of the Hauptschule with Werkrealschule to offer the prerequisites for this and to ascertain that the pupils gain competence in basic cultural techniques, in the areas of methodical working and social behaviour and also in the sector of general education. By strengthening and fortifying the personality of the pupils, their ability to learn ( learning to learn ) is also stabilized. The foundations are hereby laid for their further career at school, at work and in personal matters. The Hauptschule with Werkrealschule opens up the pathway to many forms of further education or vocational fields, either directly or via vocational schools. A PLACE OF INTEGRATION The Hauptschule very successfully integrates pupils from different ethnic and social backgrounds. The schools thus differ in their pedagogic work, according to the background from which their pupils come. Children and young people are received by the Hauptschule with Werkrealschule, and are individually promoted according to their own personal faculties, inclinations, interests and cultural and social experience. Pupils should gain the ability to succeed in life, both personally and vocationally. This is the main aim of the Hauptschule. Further information is to be found in the Internet under www. hauptschule-bw.de 9

10 THE REFORM PLAN IMPULSES FOR THE HAUPTSCHULE M. Armbrust AIM OF THE REFORM PLAN IMPULSES FOR THE HAUPTSCHULE Best possible pedagogic promotion Improvement of the ability to learn Promotion of the weaker and the disadvantaged Increasing the motivation to learn and be schooled Increasing personal capabilities PARTNER OF BUSINESS AND COMMERCE The Ministry for Education of Baden-Württemberg and the regional section of the Federal Union of Employers Associations (BDA) signed a joint declaration on a modern Hauptschule education that is open to future developments. In this declaration the BDA supports the reforms specific to the Hauptschule in Baden-Württemberg and recommends the reform concept Impulses for the Hauptschule to all other parts of Germany. The Hauptschule is particularly open towards the working world. Planning a professional career at the Hauptschule with Werkrealschule is an elementary part of the preparation of the pupils in their change from Hauptschule to training for a professional career. Together with work administration and with firms and companies, training for a professional career was newly conceived and taken up into the new curriculum for the Hauptschule. Grappling with careers that are moulded by the working world, descriptions of jobs and with mechanisms of what happens on the market all these things are central contents of lessons from year 5 onwards at the Hauptschule. In three phases of practicals, which are chiefly held in year 8, pupils acquire, further and deepen their insight into the working world and thus gain an overview of the spectrum of careers open to them. PRACTICAL STREAM AND WORKING WORLD The practical stream at the Hauptschule demonstrates particularly well how important the cooperation between Hauptschule and business and commerce is. Weaker pupils at the Hauptschule gain, via the practical stream, the chance of working in firms or companies one day per week, and in this way they experience the demands made in the working world under the conditions found in real life. They realize what their deficits are, and are now motivated to remedy these in their lessons. The practical stream at the Hauptschule leads to an increase in motivation for school and learning. At the same time firms and companies get to know pupils better in their entire personality and with their individual strong points, which can lead to the pupils being offered professional training contracts. CONTENTS AND SUBJECTS THE CURRICULUM FOR THE HAUPT- SCHULE WITH WERKREALSCHULE The new curriculum for the Hauptschule with Werkrealschule stipulates what competencies are to be achieved by the pupils in specialized, personal, social and methodological areas. For this purpose, binding educational standards have been formulated 10

11 Spektrum Schule for the whole of Baden-Württemberg, for the stages up to the sixth, ninth and tenth years at the Hauptschule. These cover around two thirds of all the teaching time, and are the so-called core curriculum. At the Hauptschule with Werkrealschule, the following subjects are taught: Protestant and Catholic Religious Instruction, Ethics (from year 8 onwards), German, Mathematics, English, French (in the areas along the Upper Rhine), as well as the interrelated subject clusters Matter-Nature-Technology, Business and Commerce Work Health, World-Time-Society and Music-Sport-Design. It is chiefly due to the interrelated subject clusters at the Hauptschule with Werkrealschule that educational standards are set regarding life as it really is, which can be of great importance to the pupils later on for the world in which they are to live and work. The interrelated subject cluster Matter-Nature- Technology focuses on scientific and technical phenomena and problems. Business and Commerce- Work-Health is intended to show the pupils ways of reacting in the working world, in public and private fields of life, in order to help them to lead their lives successfully. The interrelated subject cluster Business and Commerce-Work-Health is a further development of the previous profile area Work-Business and Commerce-Technology. The interrelated subject cluster World-Time-Society includes historical, economic and geographical themes and Social Studies. Music- Sport-Design promotes the pupils capabilities in the fields of physical exercise, observation and perception, reflection and deliberation, thus helping them to form conclusions. The Basic Training in Information Technology (ITG) trains the pupils how to deal creatively on their own but also critically with information and communication technology as a means of gaining information, to communicate and as a means of expression. The pupils are hereby enabled to take part in developments in society and are made fit to participate in every-day and workaday life. Basic Training in Information Technology is integrated into the various subjects and interrelated subject clusters. German hereby takes the role of a key subject. SUBJECTS AND INTERRELATED SUBJECT CLUSTERS M. Armbrust 11

12 Theme-Oriented Projects 3 Sum THE KONTINGENTSTUNDENTAFEL (CF. P.8) The Kontingentstundentafel shows the amount of lessons that a pupil is to be given during his or her entire school career. The complete amount of lessons is the same as the amount in the previous curriculum. Each individual school can spread the amount of lessons allocated to each subject, interrelated subject cluster and school year as they feel fit, according to the local circumstances and regional peculiarities prevalent. Thus the Kontingentstundentafel is made into an educational instrument. KONTINGENTSTUNDENTAFEL (CF. P 8) HAUPTSCHULE WITH WERKREALSCHULE Subjects/interrelated subject clusters weekly lessons per year I Core areas Religious Instruction/Ethics 1 11 German 28 Mathematics 26 English 23 World-Time-Society (WZG) 21 History, Social Studies, Politics, Geography, Economics 2 Matter-Nature-Technology (MNT) 22 Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Technology, Household Management/ Textile Handicrafts (HTW) 2 Business and Commerce-Work-Health 18 Economics, Biology, Household Management/Textile Handicrafts, Technology 2 Music-Sport-Design 30 Music (and Dance), Sport (including Optional Extra Sport), Fine Arts, Biology, Technology, Textile Handicrafts 2 Basic Training in Information Technology 3 The school can thus decide in situ, on the basis of the educational needs and desires of the pupils, how the lessons are to be distributed, even in which school years. Examples of the possibilities which this opens up are block lessons, self-organized learning, communal lessons for several school years, core teaching and optional lessons, days of project work, proposals for work on various themes, course teaching and so forth. The decisive point is that the standards demanded by the curriculum after years 6, 9 and 10 are reached. INSTRUCTION Instruction at Hauptschule with Werkrealschule is oriented towards application and practice, creativity and active discovery. German is the medium of instruction in all subjects and interrelated subject clusters. To this aim, suitable concepts for the promotion of the language must be developed in the schools. Education in the science and technical sector runs like a red thread through instruction at the Hauptschule with Werkrealschule. In order to promote durable learning, the school day is given a new rhythm. A lesson, for example, is no longer necessarily 45 minutes in length. Teaching and learning phases alternate with breaks and phases of movement and exercise. Additional lessons 5 5 II Extension areas Supplementary offers For pupils from year 8 who do not take part in Religious Instruction, five lessons per week. 2 Underlining means that the main teaching in this subject is to be found in this interrelated subject cluster. 3 Integrative within the subjects and interrelated subject clusters. 4 The Kontingentstundentafel (cf. p. 8) for the Hauptschule applies to pupils who do not take part in additional lessons. Two weekly support lessons are guaranteed. 5 Four weekly lessons of additional teaching in English and one weekly lesson additional teaching in Mathematics are guaranteed. 6 In years 5 to 7, six weekly lessons can be allocated for support lessons by the state education office, within the framework of the resources available. Hauptschule schools in the Upper Rhine area that cooperate in regional alliances have already been allotted extra weekly lessons for three hours additional French lessons as from year 5 (from the school year 2005/2006), the remaining Hauptschule schools in the Upper Rhine area will be granted these extra lessons from the school year 2007/2008 onwards. 12

13 Spektrum Schule By consequent work on theme-oriented projects, the pupils at the Hauptschule gain competencies in subjects and in non-subject-related areas, which they need in order to manage their lives in the present and the future. THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM In developing a school curriculum, which is intended to cover round about one third of the entire teaching time, the needs of the pupils are the main focal point. The school s own curriculum gives the school a certain amount of elbow-room for educational creativity. It deepens and complements the core curriculum, which is binding for the whole region of Baden-Württemberg, by offering extra learning possibilities and school-specific projects. Those who are engaged in the life of the school, parents, too, are supposed to cooperate in the development and design of the school s curriculum. The compulsory educational plan set down by the Land of Baden- Württemberg the core curriculum and the curriculum to be developed by the school together form the complete curriculum, that is the whole educational plan of the Hauptschule with Werkrealschule. At the centre of all the work done at a school lies formal and social education in its entirety. Guiding pupils towards independent life-long learning and working presupposes that the Hauptschule simultaneously furthers and demands, that it requires output and performance, at the same time awakening pleasure in just those things. EXAMINATION OF THE LEVEL OF LEARNING In the plan for the entry level at the beginning of year 5, which is known as A good start at the Hauptschule, the reform plan Impulses for the Hauptschule has in mind an examination of the level of learning. This is, however, not legally binding. With this examination of the level of learning the present teacher receives information on the individual initial learning situation of the pupils at the start of their educational career at the Hauptschule. On the basis of this, individual plans for support and school concepts for promotion can be drawn up. SCHOOL-LEAVING CERTIFICATES AND WHAT FOLLOWS What the Hauptschule has to offer in the way of education is highly varied, and thus opens up to the pupils different ways of entering their vocational lives and gaining further qualifications, according to their individual capabilities and inclinations. For every school-leaving certificate there is a suitable vocation to follow. SCHOOL-LEAVING CERTIFICATE AFTER YEAR 9 After five years at a Hauptschule pupils will have learned the basic techniques of culture and civilization, competence in specialized areas, in methods and in the personal sector, and will have received a solid basic education. This is the basis for vocational training in the Dual System. The Hauptschule school-leaving certificate at the end of year 9 at the Hauptschule and the schoolleaving certificate at the end of year 10 at the Werkrealschule are composed of tasks which have been set by a central examination board. The successful documentation of the competences gained in the school-leaving certificates is the requirement for many educational and vocational paths, in particular for vocational full-time schools or colleges. The project examination part of the Hauptschule school-leaving certificate after years 9 and 10 examines competence in the subjects studied and in personal and social areas, as well as methodical competence. It is held in high esteem by trade and industry, as it gives, for instance, proof of the competences expected by firms that offer training. The Hauptschule is the first type of school offering secondary education to have introduced the project examination compulsorily, in the school year , after a trial phase lasting several years. Within the framework of the school-leaving examinations, pupils with a mother tongue other than German are given the possibility of having their knowledge tested and certified in their mother tongue. In this area, too, the Hauptschule pays a large contribution towards securing trainability, especially with regard to training places in firms that are internationally active. 13

14 ACQUISITION OF THE MITTLERE REIFE (INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL-LEAVING CERTIFICATE) Three paths lead to the Mittlere Reife : 1. The direct path via attending the voluntary 10th year at the Hauptschule, the so-called Werkrealschule, which is offered at central Hauptschule locations. Whoever passes the final examination at the end of the 10th school year has an intermediate certificate of education ( Mittlerer Bildungsabschluss ) in his/her pocket. This certificate is equal in value to the Mittlere Reife at the Realschule and is accepted in the whole of Germany. 2. The path leading via the two-year Berufsfachschule (vocational or trade school) which pupils of the Hauptschule have visited and successfully completed after ending the 9th year at the Hauptschule. 3. Whoever finishes the Berufsschule with a total average mark of 3.0, can give evidence of a sufficient command of a foreign language (English) after five years of teaching, and has passed the apprentices final examination or the test in professional skills ( Gesellen-/Gesellinnenprüfung or Facharbeiter/ Facharbeiterinnenprüfung ), has also gained an intermediate educational certificate ( Mittlerer Bildungsabschluss ). The qualification for tertiary technical education ( Fachhochschulreife ) and the university entrance qualification ( Abitur ) are also possible: with a certain average mark, gifted pupils can, via vocational school, gain the matriculation requirements for tertiary education. TRANSFER TO A DIFFERENT TYPE OF SCHOOL AND FURTHER EDUCATION Pupils can change from the Hauptschule to the Realschule or Gymnasium. The prerequisites for this are stipulated in the Multilateral Transfer Regulations (Multilaterale Versetzungsordnung), which also names the criteria for a transfer to an Aufbaugymnasium (Late-entry Gymnasium ). Gifted pupils with a certain average mark or who have passed an entrance examination, can, after a successful trial phase, qualify for university entrance there with the Abitur examination in 6 or 7 years. Further information can be had at any Hauptschule. The chart on p. 6 gives an outline of the "Paths to Education in Baden-Württemberg. The employment exchanges also give information on questions about the choice of vocation and vocational training. www. km-bw.de INTRODUCTION OF THE NEW CURRICULA DATES AND TIMES 2001/ / / / / / / /09 Primary School Foreign Language pilot phase Foreign Language in the whole region* Pilot phase "The Human Being-Nature-Culture years 1/2 year 3 year 4 Pilot phase other subjects years 1/2 year 3 year /2008 all Primary School pupils pass on with a compulsory Foreign Language to schools offering secondary education 'Hauptschule' Pilot phase at project schools and trial schools years 5/6 year 7 year 8 year 9 year 10 14

15 Spektrum Schule Realschule FUNCTIONS AND AIMS The curriculum for the Realschule aims at preparing the pupils for the world that is ever faster changing. In order to reach this aim, basic competences are to be conveyed that make it possible for the young people to find their way in the present and future world. Personal and social competence, competence in the use of methods and in specialized areas, all these form the basis for mastering one s future vocational and private life. The qualified intermediate school-leaving certificate at the Realschule is gained via a school-leaving examination set by a central examining board, and opens the way for pupils to enter officially recognized skilled vocations as well as further courses of school education, which can lead to entrance qualifications for tertiary education. The Realschule in Baden-Württemberg understands itself particularly as a school that feels committed to authenticity and reality. It has always tried to find the correct balance between tradition and progress, between general education and vocationally oriented learning modules. Theory and practice as well as an orientation towards the human individual and specific subject matter are traditionally viewed as being equal in value. CONTENTS AND SUBJECTS At the centre of the educational reform is the idea of a school that works independently and which on the basis of centrally given regulations but to a large extent freely guarantees a well-founded education for its pupils. Within the framework of this further development and modernization it is especially intended to improve classroom methodology and also the quality of school and teaching, and to establish these durably. This takes place above all with the following instruments: Standards in education Core curriculum School curriculum Evaluation Explanations of these expressions are to be found on p. 8. The education offered by the Realschule in Baden- Württemberg is characterized above all by the following: the core subjects (German, Mathematics and a compulsory Foreign Language), both of the interrelated subject clusters Scientific Work (NWA which is also a core subject) and Geography-Economics- Social Studies (EWG), the offer given in the sector of subjects from which one must be chosen, the integrated area (four theme-oriented projects and Basic Training in Information Technology) and separate subjects. 15

16 INTERRELATED SUBJECT CLUSTERS The interrelated subject clusters ensure that teaching and learning at the Realschule is realized on the basis of interrelationships between subjects. Both interrelated subject clusters characterize the education offered at the Realschule as a constant integral component. Subjects that thus far were taught in one lesson per week are given more weight in connection with the interrelated subject cluster. The following interrelated subject clusters have been newly created: Scientific Work (NWA) Nature and the world in which we live are both extremely complex. Only by receiving a basic education in the sciences, that is the synopsis of the biological, chemical, physical and to a certain extent technological aspects, is it thus possible to develop a comprehensive understanding of nature. We succeed, by viewing these as one entity within the framework of a basic scientific education, in making understandable to the pupils the relationship between details and the general entirety. In accordance with the Pisa Study we understand a basic scientific education to be the following: the ability to apply scientific knowledge, to recognize scientific questions and to arrive at conclusions from evidence, in order to understand and make decisions concerning the natural world and the changes made to it by human actions. Geography-Economics-Social Studies (EWG) Our global world demands, beyond the systematics of each subject, an increasingly integral approach and a way of thinking that is networked and is not confined to the mere subject itself. Therefore a basis is laid in the interrelated subject cluster EWG for school work in the Economics and Social Studies sector. As they grow older pupils think in an increasingly networked way. Due to this, lessons focus more and more on questions and problems which can be tackled by all the subjects together and treated as one whole entity. In particular integrative themes that contain various political, social and economic aspects are of great value here. SECTOR OF SUBJECTS FROM WHICH ONE MUST BE CHOSEN The sector of subjects from which one must be chosen consists of the subjects Technology, The Human Being and the Environment (MUM) and the second Foreign Language. In order to enable the pupils to make a purposeful and well-founded decision between the subjects to choose from, Technology and The Human Being and the Environment, the Theme-Oriented Project Technological Work will be offered in future in the Orientation Phase. The subjects Technology and The Human Being and the Environment inter-exchange compulsory teaching modules in years 7 to 10, so that pupils can gain experience in both subjects. 16

17 Spektrum Schule In the subject The Human Being and the Environment (MUM), the pupils taking the private household as a model work through the theme areas Nutrition, Clothing, Living, Household Economics and social themes. On the basis of Natural Science, Social and Cultural Studies, expertise and competence are conveyed that should enable pupils to organize their lives responsibly. Special emphasis is laid on the interdisciplinary subject areas Health, Environment, Economics and the Consumer World, as well as on their consequences for a responsible treatment of resources. The subject Technology has been brought completely up to date. It begins in year 7 and leads on to the technical Gymnasium and Berufskolleg (Vocational College), which are also new. It also takes into consideration the demands of the Dual Education System, which have been altered correspondingly: practice phases in firms and theory at the Berufsschule SUBJECTS, INTERRELATED SUBJECT CLUSTERS, THEME-ORIENTED PROJECTS (TOPS) AND INTEGRATED AREA ITG Basic Training in Information Technology German, 1st Foreign Language, Mathematics, History, Religious Instruction/ Ethics, Music, Fine Arts, Sport TOP SE Social Engagement TOP WVR Economy, Administration, Law NWA interrelated subject cluster Scientific Work EWG interrelated subject cluster Geography- Economics Social Studies TOP BORS Vocational Orientation/ Transition Programme Subjects, one of which must be chosen: Technology or MUM or 2nd Foreign Language TOP TA Technical Work It is the central task of lessons in the second Foreign Language - French or English - to develop communicative competence; that is the promotion of speaking proficiency and of listening and reading skills. Apart from the conveyance of competence in the subject it is also important to train pupils to become communicatively competent, open, tolerant and responsible citizens in a Europe that is constantly becoming increasingly close-knit. In learning a foreign language, strategies for language learning are also taken into consideration, so is the implementation of modern media and learning with media. THEME ORIENTED PROJECTS The four theme-oriented projects mentioned here are intended to offer pupils the possibility of working integrally on selected themes in the framework of projects and project-oriented teaching: - Technological Work (TA) - Social Engagement (SE) - Economy, Administration and Law (WVR) - Vocational Orientation at the Realschule (BORS) The theme-oriented projects are thus important elements in forming the profile of the Realschule, playing a role not only in the development of specialized competence, but also methodical, personal and social competence. This is also demanded in the pupils later training. The set themes were chosen so as to confront the pupils with concrete questions and problems like those to be found in real life. These are worked through and solved actively in the projects. 17

18 KONTINGENTSTUNDENTAFEL REALSCHULE Subjects/interrelated subject clusters FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE SINGLE SUBJECTS The following subjects continue to exist as single subjects: Religious Instruction, Mathematics, Foreign Languages, History, Sport and the Music and Fine Arts area. In the core subjects in particular, we would like to draw attention as an example to the following aspects: weekly lessons per year years Compulsory area Religious Instruction/Ethics 1 11 German 26 English/French 23 Mathematics 24 History 8 Geography, Economics, Social Studies(EWG) 15 Scientific Work (NWA) 24 Arts area: Music, Fine arts 19 Sport Subjects, one of which must be chosen: from year 7 onwards Technology 12 The Human Being and the Environment 12 French/English Integrated area Theme Oriented Projects 3 (8) Basic Training in Information Technology 4 (12) Sum Pedagogic focal points 4 1 For pupils from year 8 onwards who do not take part in Religious Instruction, five hours per week 2 Bridging Courses are offered in years 5 and 6 for pupils who had French at Primary School 3 In years 5 to 10 the following Theme Oriented Projects are carried out integrally: Technological Work (two lessons); Social Engagement (two lessons); Economy, Administration and Law (two lessons); Vocational Orientation at the Realschule (two lessons); the weekly lessons per year stated are the minimum amount to be given. 4 Basic Training in Information Technology is taught integrally in all the subjects. In the curriculum of 1994 German was already laid down as being the medium of instruction. This idea is to be continued and intensified. The chief aim of Mathematics teaching is to make the pupils use their knowledge and ability more independently, more flexibly and more creatively than they have so far been able to do. Open tasks and open teaching methods are therefore essential. Pupils should above all get to know inner-mathematical structures together with their usage. During lessons attention is also paid to the pupils own assessment of their mathematical talents. The Foreign Languages offered at the Realschule are still intended to give pupils an intensive schooling in foreign language competence from year 5 onwards. They will be enabled to communicate with European neighbours and will learn to lead the Dialogue of Civilizations. The continuation of the Foreign Language Lessons begun at the Primary School will help to promote bilingual learning and other differentiated types of teaching approaches at the Realschule. The changing demands made by training and vocation and an increase in intercultural encounters make it necessary for pupils to have communicative competence and the capacity to act. A further development of classroom methodology, and thus a changed method of measuring and documenting performance in the Foreign Language are indispensable, in order to prepare pupils for these requirements. Therefore, in addition to the written and oral examination, the Eurocom Examination is intended to take place in year 10. Eurocom means European Communication Skills. In this examination the pupils demonstrate in particular their ability to understand the spoken word and to speak the language themselves. They show that they are in a position to speak adequately in a given situation, to implement the language correctly, to relate to a partner and to hold a conversation. Further information is to be found in the Internet under www. realschule-bw.de 18

19 Spektrum Schule VOCATIONAL ORIENTATION/TRANSITION PROGRAMME AT THE REALSCHULE Vocational Orientation has a central function at the Realschule on the way towards helping the pupils to be able to choose their own vocation. In addition to competence in the subject itself, project-oriented methods of working especially demand and promote the social, personal and methodical competence that is absolutely necessary for this process. At the school itself, in the school s guiding bodies and in work groups, the school-specific principles, the specific BORS-idea, responsibilities and the time-schedule for the annual planning are laid down. The contents and aspects of vocational orientation contained in the various subjects in years 8 to 10 are completed by extra offers made by the school, such as, for instance, vocational information days for pupils and parents. These events are carried out by, amongst others, ex-pupils and parents in cooperation with local firms and institutions. EXAMPLE OF A SUCCESSFUL TOP WVR PROJECT: SWISS CLIENTS IN WALDSHUT Initial situation: A well-known picture for everyone: every day one can see cars with number plates of the most varying Swiss cantons in the streets and on car parks in Waldshut (a small town on the Swiss-German border). Sometimes there are less, sometimes more and sometimes so many that the people of Waldshut and the surroundings prefer not to go into town at all at these times, because there is not one free parking lot left. The town centre of Waldshut is 2.5 kilometres from the border to Switzerland. Project idea: Class 9b at the Robert-Schumann- Realschule in Waldshut-Tiengen took up the idea of Swiss clients in Waldshut and began their survey with a great deal of motivation. Various project groups were formed and they dealt with the following sectors: 1. Questions of economy, for instance, Which shops in Waldshut profit from the Swiss clients and to what extent? 2. Personal questions such as, Why do the Swiss shop in Germany/in Waldshut? 3. Statistical questions like, When do how many cars go through Customs and Excise at the border to Germany? 4. Legal questions such as, What import and taxation law is valid for Swiss citizens in Germany? What influence does the outer border of the EU have on German nationals? and so on. The first and most important project step for the Realschule pupils was the compilation of various questionnaires, which were formulated differently according to the target group. In shops and in the streets the respective opinion polls took place. By intensively studying the customs and excise regulations the pupils saw that there was a great deal of difference between both countries. In their last project phase class 9b were able to make a precise graph of the streams of customers, evaluate the questionnaires, make a statistic survey of the movements of the cars and finally publish and present the results of their WVR project. 19

20 DIFFERENT PATHS TO A VOCATION... AND TO THE ABITUR EXAM... in the Dual System: vocational training at a Berufsschule (vocational school) (theory) and in a firm (practice), e.g. to become a bank clerk, to become a mechanic... at the Berufsfachschule (technical vocational school): vocational training at school theory and practice in one hand, e.g. training to become a nurse in the field of geriatrics... at a Berufskolleg (vocational college) (BK I or BK II) with many different branches of study (e.g. commercial-technical, business), partly with a diploma qualifying for a special vocation; entrance qualification for an institution of higher technical education ( Fachhochschulreife ) is possible... at a berufliches Gymnasium (vocational Gymnasium ): with a certain average mark this leads to a general university entrance qualification in 3 years Branches of study: Economics, Technology, Nutritional Science, Social Pedagogics, Agriculture, Bio-technology... at a Gymnasium offering general education: with a certain average mark this leads to a general higher education/university entrance qualification in 3 years... in the civil service: in the intermediate service, e.g. police force, local government SCHOOL-LEAVING CERTIFICATES AND WHAT FOLLOWS After six school years at the Realschule, that is at the end of year 10, the pupils finish their schooling with the Mittlere Reife (Intermediate school-leaving certificate). After they have successfully passed that examination there are many possibilities of vocational training or further school education. PUBLICATIONS Publications of the Departmental Section Realschule can be ordered from: Ministry for Education, Youth and Sport, Referat 34, Postfach , Stuttgart: 1. Theme Oriented Project Technical work 2. Theme Oriented Project Social Engagement: Social and how?! REALSCHULE IN THE INTERNET: 20

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