Facing an Uncertain Future: Increasing Resilience at Marinas and Harbors. Recreational Boating Educational Conference December 11, 2014

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1 Facing an Uncertain Future: Increasing Resilience at Marinas and Harbors Recreational Boating Educational Conference December 11, 2014

2 Operators Face Change and Challenges Environmental Conditions Fluctuating water levels Increased frequency and intensity of storms Changes in precipitation and temperature Policy and Budget Deteriorating infrastructure Limited funding for repairs/improvements Difficult Issue Information overload! Controversy, uncertainty Focus on day-to-day operations

3 2013 Great Lakes Climate Assessment Grant Assist marinas and harbors with sector-specific problem identification, decision making and planning related to climate change adaptation.

4 Online Training Tool Unit 10: Increasing Resilience Section 1: Potential Risks and Impacts Background Section 2: Infrastructure Section 3: Dredging Section 4: Planning and Financing Unit Review

5 Section 1: Potential Risks and Impacts Background Fluctuating Water Levels Increased Storm Frequency and Intensity Precipitation and Temperature Changes

6 Fluctuating Water Levels Lower Levels Higher Levels Undermine stability and strength of structures; increased dredging need; beach access; native vegetation Safety and access issues Need for additional dredging Channel access and bottom strikes Create a greater potential for flooding of critical land areas and operational structures Credit: Gene Clark/UW Sea Grant

7 Understanding Lake Levels Three main factors related to inputs and outputs (i.e., the water budget): Evaporation off the lakes Precipitation onto land and lakes Runof from the land and rivers into lakes Factors influenced by climate: Air and water temp, plus ice cover influence evaporation Increased precipitation predicted

8 Increased Storm Frequency & Intensity Larger waves, higher seiches and greater storm surges: Damage harbor infrastructure Increase channel sedimentation and scour Resuspend contaminated sediments Damage patrons boats Erode shorelines (Jeff Kiessel / Ludington Daily News / AP)

9 Increased Precipitation Overwhelm onsite stormwater management system, resulting in flooding Impaired water quality and beach closures (polluted runoff, CSOs) Dry then very wet > shoreline collapse

10 Understanding Storms and Precipitation Increase in overall precipitation Dark blue = 4 increase projected for 2041 Intensification of the heaviest rainfalls Dark blue = 1.5+ increase in # of days with very heavy rain (top 2%)

11 Storm Damage: Operational Risk Storm damage from Hurricane Sandy at a Lake Erie marina. (Source: Ohio Department of Natural Resources) Wind-generated waves breach the harbor structure in Canal Park in Duluth, Minnesota. (Source: Gene Clark, Wisconsin Sea Grant)

12 Temperature Changes Shifts in shoulder season Operational impacts: - earlier start dates for seasonal staff, - varying dates launch/ storage of vessels Hot & humid - could bring more people to waterfront Increased cooling costs Late spring freezes vs. dewinterized boats Changes in freeze-thaw cycles may accelerate slope erosion processes

13 Understanding Temperature Changes Increase in annual average temperatures Dark orange = 5 degrees F warmer projected for 2041 Frost-free season Dark orange = 25 more days of frost free season

14 Section 2: Infrastructure Evaluate Risks to Infrastructure and Grounds Invest in Long-term Adaptations

15 Evaluate Risk to Infrastructure and Grounds Infrastructure Assess how buildings perform in extreme conditions Assess condition of piers, docks, breakwaters Grounds Shoreline and lakebed erosion Sensitive areas (e.g., dunes, wetlands, coastal bluffs) Gene Clark, UW Sea Grant Institute USACE

16 Address Failing Wood Infrastructure 75%+ navigation infrastructure over 60 y.o. - becoming even more vulnerable due to low water levels, which expose and further deteriorate weakened timber crib core sections. GL Commission, 2010 (Gene Clark/UW Sea Grant Institute)

17 Make repairs Invest in Long-term Adaptations Install floating docks Reinforce breakwaters or conduct restoration Improve stormwater management capacity

18 Repair Wood Infrastructure Update walls: gentle slope, steel H-piles, scour protection Source: Gene Clark, WI SG; Failing Coastal Wood Infrastructure on the Great Lakes

19 (Gene Clark/UW Sea Grant Institute) Repair Pilings

20 Install Floating or Fixed Adjustable Docks Uniform freeboard regardless of water level Floating dock and gangway at Straits State Harbor; Mackinaw City, Michigan

21 Enlarge Breakwater or Conduct Restoration Where possible, use soft engineering or natural shorelines Increase height and strength of structure to withstand higher water levels & stronger storms Credit: Bill Brose/Smith Group JJR Recommendations: Contact your state agency for permit and guidelines Work with coastal engineer to reduce ecological impacts

22 Source Control (LID) Stormwater treatment (structural controls) Improve Stormwater Infrastructure

23 Section 3: Dredging Identify Jurisdiction for Dredging Collect Required Information Explore Funding Options

24 Identify Jurisdiction for Dredging U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) regulates dredging in the Great Lakes and all other navigable waters Continuous, 27 deep draft waterway (2,400 miles): 140 harbors (60 commercial; 80 recreational) 3 navigation lock facilities 104 miles of breakwaters piers, jetties 610 miles of federal navigation channels 20 active confined disposal facilities

25 Collect Required Information Typical permit requirements: Quantity of materials to be dredged Survey or dredging plan to show area to be dredged The location and condition of the proposed disposal site Names and addresses of nearby landowners who may be affected Likely environmental impacts Sediment testing Sample dredging plan diagram. (Ohio Dredging Fact Sheet, 2013)

26 Permits MDEQ-USACE joint application permit MDEQ Technical Assistance: Land-Water Interface Permitting Staff Source: MDNR

27 Explore Funding Options Federal government, through the Army Corps Operation and Maintenance (O&M) budget funded by the Harbor Maintenance Tax funds dredging in the designated Great Lakes navigation system

28 Funding Alternatives Identify alternative sources for dredging funds Water Resource Improvement Tax Increment Finance Authority (TIFA) Marine Investment Fund (non-marine users pay to help offset infrastructure improvements) Federal funding for projects in Great Lakes Area of Concern

29 Section 4: Planning and Financing Represent Your Facility in Community Planning Create Facility-specific Plans Estimate Costs of Adaptation Explore Financing Options

30 Represent Your Facility in Update Master Plans and Waterfront Vision Capture value of waterfront Community Planning Infrastructure updates that account for new range of conditions Grand Haven Waterfront Plan

31 Represent Your Facility in Community Planning Future land use plan from St. Joseph, Mich Master Plan Light blue area designated as water recreational district

32 Create Facility-specific Plans Reduce risk and plan for how to recover after hazardous events when making infrastructure and land use decisions Review facility and operations through the lens of increased exposure to climate-related hazards How do variable environmental conditions affect your facility s goals, objectives and strategies?

33 Estimate Costs of Adaptation Costs will likely increase: storm damage repairs, increased dredging needs, water level variability Given a 3-foot drop in water levels costs range from $53,000 to $83,000 per marina, depending on the lake International Upper Great Lakes Study Great Lakes Port & Harbor: Infrastructure Matrix & Dredging Cost Estimate Tool WI & MN Sea Grant

34 Explore Financing Mechanisms Policy Efforts for Funding Financing from the local, state or federal government grants or low interest loans supported through general fund revenue, bonds or indirectly through taxes. Cost savings that may qualify for tax benefits e.g., energy reduction through increased efficiency Restore intent of Harbor Maintenance Trust - WRRDA 2014!

35 Find allies to improve access to funding sources: Public-private partnerships Waterfront non-profit or trade association

36 Into the Future Clean Marina Classroom Unit Michigan Sea Grant webpages Policy and Planning for Coastal Communities Climate Adaptation Project Summary Print and mail to MI harbors and marinas Distribute to GL Clean Marina programs Fact sheet series (PDFs)

37 Amy Samples (734) Mark Breederland (231)

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