INF2793 Research Design & Academic Writing Prof. Simone D.J. Barbosa sala 410 RDC. presentation

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1 On Presentations INF2793 Research Design & Academic Writing Prof. Simone D.J. Barbosa sala 410 RDC 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 1

2 communication not 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 2

3 slides notes handouts At a minimum, a presentation format should do no harm. (Tufte, 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 3

4 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 4

5 ethos credibility of the speaker pathos emotional connection to the audience logos logical argument preparation (Reynolds, 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 5

6 How much time do I have? What s the venue 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 6

7 Who is the audience? What is their background? What do they expect of me? What do I want them to 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 7

8 What is the fundamental purpose of my talk? What s the story 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 8

9 What s my absolute central point? content design 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 9

10 structure natural chronological time progression sequential process or step-by-step spatial relations in a physical space climactic from least to most important contrast problem solution compare contrast cause effect advantage disadvantage (Duarte, 2010: 129) making your ideas 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 10

11 The SUCCESs framework Simplicity Unexpectedness Concreteness Credibility Emotions Stories core + compact idea attention + interest understanding belief care action (Heath & Heath, 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 11

12 story s sparkline what could be contrasting emotion and delivery what is (Duarte, 2010) questions 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 12

13 content design delivery It s laziness on the presenter s part to put everything on one slide. (Duarte, 2008: 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 13

14 rules of 3 abound 3 points 3 seconds Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 14

15 Face your message. four design principles Contrast Repetition Alignment 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 15

16 contrast contrast contrast contrast contrast repetition Another text Some text Here, too Yet 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 16

17 alignment and proximity Possibly Long Title Possibly Long Title Author s Full name Affiliation Author s Full name Affiliation Possibly Long Title Possibly Long Title Author s Full name Affiliation Author s Full name Affiliation picture 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 17

18 simplify Cognitive Load Theory It is more difficult to process information if it is coming at you in the written and spoken form at the same time. (Sweller in Patty, 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 18

19 Cognitive Load Theory It is more difficult to process information if it is coming at you in the written and spoken form at the same time. Teachers should focus more on giving students the answers, instead of asking them to solve problems on their own. The human brain processes and retains more information if it is digested in either its verbal or written form, but not both at the same time. The findings show there are limits on the brain's capacity to process and retain information in short-term memory. John Sweller, from the university's faculty of education, developed the "cognitive load theory". "The use of the PowerPoint presentation has been a disaster," Professor Sweller said. "It should be ditched." "It is effective to speak to a diagram, because it presents information in a different form. But it is not effective to speak the same words that are written, because it is putting too much load on the mind and decreases your ability to understand what is being presented." "Looking at an already solved problem reduces the working memory load and allows you to learn. It means the next time you come across a problem like that, you have a better chance at solving it," Professor Sweller said. The working memory was only effective in juggling two or three tasks at the same time, retaining them for a few seconds. When too many mental tasks were taken on some things were forgotten. (Patty, 2007) cognitive load slides The human brain processes and retains more information if it is digested in either its verbal or written form, but not both at the same time. speech (inspired in article by Patty, 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 19

20 cognitive load slides The human brain processes and retains more information if it is digested in either its verbal or written form, but not both at the same time. (inspired in article by Patty, 2007) 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 20

21 It is effective to speak to a diagram (Sweller in Patty, 2007) signal noise 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 21

22 @ 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 22

23 @ 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 23

24 @ 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 24

25 @ 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 25

26 questions 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 26

27 content design delivery rehearse! rehearse! 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 27

28 prepare your gig bag the day before come in early test the equipment bring your own water (just in case) eventually, technology will fail relax! When time comes look at the audience and not at the 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 28

29 take your hands of your pockets Whatever happens leave time for Q&A. Never, ever go beyond your time 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 29

30 presentation checklist (1/2) What is the key thing the audience should remember? Is there enough background material for the intended audience? Is any material unnecessary? Could some of the material be left for people to read about later'? Is the talk self-contained? Does the talk have a motivating preamble? Do you explain why the research is interesting or important? Have complex issues been explained in gentle stages? Are the results explained? What were the limitations of the research? Is there a clear conclusion? (Zobel, 2004: KL ) 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 30

31 presentation checklist (2/2) Are there enough examples? Are the numbers necessary? Are more diagrams needed? Are the slides simple? Do they have unnecessary ornamentation or distracting use of colour? Is there any unnecessary animation? Are the font sizes reasonable? If you are asked a question you can't answer, how will you respond? Have you rehearsed the talk? Have you prepared something to say about each slide? Have you rehearsed your manner? Will your enthusiasm show? Have you memorized the talk? Do you know how to use the equipment? (Zobel, 2004: KL ) 61 questions 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 31

32 visually communicating your evidence William Playfair ( ) 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 32

33 William Playfair 65 Florence Nightingale 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 33

34 Charles Joseph Minard 67 Charles Joseph Minard 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 34

35 Charles Joseph Minard 69 Charles Joseph Minard 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 35

36 Simple Data Booth et al., 2008: Complex Data Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 36

37 Bar Charts and Line Graphs bar charts emphasize contrasts among discrete items (bar chart: emphasizes contrast between discrete values) line graph suggest continuous change over time (line graph: suggests continuous change over time) Booth et al., 2008: Bar Chart - Clustered Column População Brasileira em 2010 (em milhões de habitantes) 80.0 Urbana Rural Sudeste Nordeste Sul Centro-Oeste Norte IBGE 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 37

38 Bar Chart - Clustered Column População Brasileira em 2010 (em milhões de habitantes) 90.0 Urbana Rural Total Sudeste Nordeste Sul Norte Centro-Oeste IBGE 75 Bar Chart - Stacked Column População Brasileira em 2010 (em milhões de habitantes) 90.0 Urbana Rural Sudeste Nordeste Sul Norte Centro-Oeste IBGE 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 38

39 But... POPULAÇÃO BRASILEIRA EM 2010 (EM MILHÕES DE HABITANTES) Norte, 11.7 Centro-Oeste, 12.5 Sul, 23.3 Sudeste, 74.7 Nordeste, 38.8 IBGE 77 Bar Chart 90 População Brasileira (em milhões de habitantes) Sudeste Nordeste Sul Norte Centro-Oeste IBGE 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 39

40 Line Chart 90 População Brasileira (em milhões de habitantes) Norte Nordeste Sudeste Sul Centro-Oeste IBGE 79 Line Chart 90 População Brasileira (em milhões de habitantes) 80 Sudeste Nordeste Sul 27.4 Norte 15.9 Centro-Oeste IBGE 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 40

41 Tables, Charts, and Graphs Labeling the Graphic Frame each graphic to help readers understand it Label every graphic in a way that describes its data Heads of households Changes in one- and two- parent heads of households, Do not give background information or characterize what the data imply Weaker effects of counseling on depressed children before professionalization of staff, Effect of counseling on depressed children, Be sure labels distinguish graphics presenting similar data. Risk factors for high blood pressure Risk factors for high blood pressure Risk factors for high blood pressure among men in Cairo, Illinois Risk factors for high blood pressure among men in St. Louis, Missouri Booth et al., 2008: Tables, Charts, and Graphs Annotating the Graphic Insert into the table or figure information that helps readers see how the data support your point. Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 41

42 Tables, Charts, and Graphs Introducing the Graphic Introduce the table or figure with a sentence that explains how to interpret it. Then highlight what it is in the table or figure that you want readers to focus on, particularly any number or relationship mentioned in that introductory sentence. Booth et al., 2008: Tables, Charts, and Graphs Keep it Simple 1. Include only relevant data. 2. Keep the visual impact simple. 3. Use clear labels. Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 42

43 Tables, Charts, and Graphs Keep it Simple 1. Include only relevant data. If you include data only for the record, label it accordingly and put it in an appendix. 2. Keep the visual impact simple. 3. Use clear labels. Booth et al., 2008: Tables, Charts, and Graphs Keep it Simple 1. Include only relevant data. 2. Keep the visual impact simple. Box a graphic only if you group two or more figures. Do not color or shade the background. for tables Never use both horizontal and vertical dark lines to divide columns and rows. Use light gray lines only if the table is complex or you want to direct your reader s eyes in one direction to compare data. For tables with many rows, lightly shade every fifth row. 3. Use clear labels. Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 43

44 Tables, Charts, and Graphs Keep it Simple 1. Include only relevant data. 2. Keep the visual impact simple. for charts and graphs Use background grid lines only if the graphic is complex or readers need to see precise numbers. Make them light gray. Color or shade lines or bars only to show a contrast. Use color only if the text will be printed in color and not photocopied later. (Black- and- white photocopies make many colors look alike.) Never use iconic bars (for example, images of cars to represent automobile production) or add a third dimension merely for effect. Both look amateurish and can distort how readers judge values. Plot data on three dimensions only when your readers are familiar with such graphs and you cannot display the data in any other way. 3. Use clear labels. Booth et al., 2008: Tables, Charts, and Graphs Keep it Simple 1. Include only relevant data. 2. Keep the visual impact simple. 3. Use clear labels. Label all rows and columns in tables and both axes in charts and graphs. Use tick marks and labels to indicate intervals on the vertical axis of a graph. If possible, label lines, bar segments, and the like on the image rather than in a legend set to the side. Use a legend only if labels would make the image too complex to read. When specific numbers matter, add them to bars or segments in charts or to dots on lines in graphs. Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 44

45 Tables Tables with lots of data can seem dense, so organize them to help readers. Order the rows and columns by a principle that lets readers quickly find what you want them to see. Do not automatically choose alphabetic order. Round numbers to a relevant value. If differences of less than 1,000 don t matter, then 2,123,499 is irrelevantly precise. Sum totals at the bottom of a column or at the end of a row, not at the top or left. Booth et al., 2008: Bar Charts Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 45

46 Stacked Bars When you want readers to compare whole values for different bars rather than their divided segments Arrange segments in a logical order. If possible, put the largest segment at the bottom in the darkest shade. Label segments with specific numbers and to assist comparisons, connect corresponding segments with gray lines to compare whole values for different bars Booth et al., 2008: Line Graphs Choose the variable that makes the line go in the direction, up or down, that supports your point. If the good news is a reduction (down) in high school dropouts, you can more effectively represent the same data as a rising line indicating increase in retention (up). If you want to emphasize bad news, find a way to represent your data as a falling line. Plot more than six lines on one graph only if you cannot make your point in any other way. If you have fewer than ten or so data points, indicate them with dots. If only a few are relevant, insert numbers to show their exact value. Do not depend on different shades of gray to distinguish lines. Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 46

47 Communicate Ethically Do not manipulate a scale to magnify or reduce a contrast. Do not use a figure whose image distorts values. Do not make a table or figure unnecessarily complex or misleadingly simple. If the table or figure supports a point, state it. Booth et al., 2008: Communicate Ethically Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 47

48 Communicate Ethically Booth et al., 2008: avoiding visual misrepresentation Do not manipulate a scale to magnify or reduce a contrast. Do not use a figure whose image distorts values. Do not make a table or figure unnecessarily complex or misleadingly simple. If the table or figure supports a point, state it. Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 48

49 Line Chart 90 População Brasileira (em milhões de habitantes) 80 Sudeste Nordeste Sul 27.4 Norte 15.9 Centro-Oeste IBGE 97 Line Chart - distorted to emphasize growth População Brasileira (em milhões de habitantes) Sudeste Nordeste Sul 27.4 Norte 15.9 Centro-Oeste IBGE 2013 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 49

50 Line Chart - distorted to de-emphasize growth População Brasileira (em milhões de habitantes) Sudeste 80.4 Nordeste 53.1 Sul 27.4 Norte 15.9 Centro-Oeste IBGE 99 Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 50

51 Booth et al., 2008: Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 51

52 Booth et al., 2008: Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 52

53 Booth et al., 2008: Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 53

54 Booth et al., 2008: Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 54

55 Booth et al., 2008: Booth et al., 2008: Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 55

56 questions communicating visually references Duarte, N. (2008) slide:ology. O Reilly. Duarte, N. (2010) resonate. John Wiley & Sons. Heath, D. & Heath, C. (2007) Made to Stick. Random House. Patty, A. (2007) Research points the finger at PowerPoint. In The Sidney Morning Herald, April 4, Available online at Tufte, E. (2008) Powerpoint is Evil. Wired Magazine, Sep Available online at Zobel, J. (2004) Writing for Computer Science. Kindle Edition. slides and examples Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 56

57 Simone DJ Barbosa, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio 57

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