DNS amplification attacks

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1 amplification attacks Matsuzaki Yoshinobu 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 1

2 amplification attacks Attacks using IP spoofed dns query generating a traffic overload bandwidth attack similar to smurf attacks Components are: IP spoofing amp 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 2

3 IP spoofing + amp IP spoofing IP spoofed dns query to use reflections amp UDP (no 3way handshake) good amplification ratio =~ 60 distributed by full/stub-resolver (dns cache) 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 3

4 reflection Sender IP spoofed packet src: victim dst: reflector reflector reply packet src: refle dst: ctor victim victim 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 4

5 amplification 1. multiple replies Sender 2. bigger reply Sender 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 5

6 amplification ANY?xxx.example.com Sender xxx.example.com IN TXT XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 6

7 amplification attack Attacker IP spoofed queries replies victim 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 7

8 attack relations root-servers Command&Control stub-resolvers full-resolvers IP spoofed queries tld-servers example-servers botnet victim 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 8

9 view of bot #1 Internet performance degradation traffic overload bot #1 queries size: =~60bytes src IP: victim(ip spoofed) dst IP: various( amp) protocol: udp src port: various dst port: 53 QR: standard query QNAME: (specific one) 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 9

10 view of bot #2 a bot behind NAT box reply src IP: various( amp) dst IP: NAT Router Internet query after NAT NAT table saturation ICMP unreach generation NAT src IP: NAT Router dst IP: various( amp) query before NAT bot #2 src IP: victim(ip spoofed) dst IP: various( amp) 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 10

11 view of stub-resolver queries Internet full-resolvers victim bot#2(nat) size: =~60bytes src IP: victim bot#2(nat) dst IP: stub-resolver QNAME: (specific one) performance degradation traffic overload if the stub-resolver works as a no-cache mode, all of the queries are relayed to the full-resolvers. stub-resolver replies size: =~4000bytes (ip fragmented) src IP: stub-resolver dst IP: victim bot#2(nat) QNAME: (specific one) 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 11

12 view of full-resolver queries Internet root-servers tld-servers example-servers victim bot#2(nat) stub-resolvers size: =~60bytes src IP: victim bot#2 stub-resolver dst IP: full-resolver QNAME: (specific one) performance degradation traffic overload if the TTL of the RR is short, # of queries to the *-servers are increased. full-resolver replies size: ~4000bytes (ip fragmented) src IP: full-resolver dst IP: victim bot#2(nat) stub-resolver QNAME: (specific one) 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 12

13 view of victim Internet traffic overload replies size: =~4000bytes (ip fragmented) src IP: full-resolvers stub-resolvers dst IP: victim victim 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 13

14 solutions Attacker IP spoofed dns queries resolvers drop IP spoofed packets = Source Address Validation dns replies discard recursive queries from external = Disable Open Recursive victim 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 14

15 Disable Open Recursive There are many open relay resolvers. ISP cache servers customers dns servers DSL routers (dns proxy as stub-resolver) 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 15

16 Source Address Validation BCP38/RFC2827 All providers of Internet connectivity are urged to implement filtering described in this document to prohibit attackers from using forged source addresses /04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 16

17 IIJ/AS2497 s case IIJ to Introduce Source Address Validation to all its Connectivity Services IIJ is adopting urpf and ACLs. 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 17

18 IIJ s policy peer ISP upstream ISP IIJ/AS2497 customer ISP single homed static customer multi homed static customer urpf strict mode urpf loose mode 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 18

19 CISCO urpf configuration urpf strict mode interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip verify unicast source reachable-via rx urpf loose mode interface GigabitEthernet0/0 ip verify unicast source reachable-via any 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 19

20 Juniper urpf configuration urpf strict mode interface { ge-0/0/0 { unit 0 { family inet { rpf-check; } } } } urpf loose mode interface { ge-0/0/0 { unit 0 { family inet { rpf-check { mode loose; } } } } } 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 20

21 reference AL DoS attacks using the The Continuing DoS Threat Posed by Recursion SAC008 Distributed DDoS Attacks 31mar06.pdf 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 21

22 2006/04/25 Copyright (C) 2006 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. 22

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